The Mount Vernon Papers - The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia (2023)

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"The traveller of the present day knows nothing but by tradition of the passage of the ancient Devil's Bridge over the Reuss. The modern structure is solid, fenced in by lofty parapets, and approached by a convenient terraced pathway ..."--The Mount Vernon Papers (1860) by Edward Everett

"The traveller of the present day knows nothing but by tradition of the passage of the ancient Devil's Bridge over the Reuss. The modern structure is solid, fenced in by lofty parapets, and approached by a convenient terraced pathway on each side. It is nearer the plunging cataract of the Reuss than the old bridge, but this last is (or was, for I know not if it is still standing) so narrow, its pathway so exposed, and its whole appearance so insecure, that it really seemed unsafe to cross; particularly if you had to force your way on horseback, through a flock of wild sheep, driven forward by clamorous shepherds and their dogs. Our guide informed us that when the army of Suwarrow was pursuing the French in this gorge in 1799, finding the bridge blown up, the Russians made a temporary bridge, over which they crossed, by tying small timbers together with the silken sashes of the officers. The Hand-book says it was not the Devil's Bridge that was thus blown up, but a smaller arch over one of the lateral torrents, which is more probable. Alison, however, who rather affects the graphic, represents the Devil's Bridge as being blown up, and says that the Russians in their march, "found an impassable gulf two hundred feet deep, surmounted by precipices above a thousand feet high," and swept by a murderous fire from the enemy's artillery. There is no more frightful chapter in the history of modern warfare than the Campaigns of 1798 and 1799 in Switzerland."--The Mount Vernon Papers (1860) by Edward Everett

{{Template}}The Mount Vernon Papers (1860) is a book by Edward Everett.


(Video) The Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association: 162 Years of Collecting George Washington

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THEMOUNT VERNON PAPERS.BYEDWARD EVERETT.STANFORD LIBRARYNEW YORK:D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,443 & 445 BROADWAY.LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN.M.DCCC.LX.815.3E93.m647375ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860,BY D. APPLETON & CO.,In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the SouthernDistrict of New York.PREFACE.The following correspondence sufficiently explainsthe origin of the " Mount Vernon Papers, " and willserve as an appropriate introduction to the presentvolume.LEDGER OFFICE, NEW YORK, September 2, 1858.DEAR SIR:-I have a proposition of a somewhat peculiar natureto make to you: For the purchase of the Mount Vernon propertyyou have done more than any other man, or, I might say, than allother men. To your eloquent appeal in its behalf is pre-eminentlydue the credit of the progress already made in that noble work,and the favor with which the subject is universally received byour people from one extremity of the land to the other. The heartof the public has naturally warmed towards you, on account ofyour well- timed and well-directed efforts to rescue the tomb of theFather of our country from neglect and dilapidation.Knowing that you have been no less distinguished in literaturethan in official life, it has occurred to me that it might be as agreeable to you to aid the patriotic and benevolent enterprise whichyou have undertaken, by contributions to the columns of a weeklypaper of unprecedented circulation, as by a public address. I haveaccordingly to propose that, if you will furnish to the NEW YORKLEDGER one original article a week, for one year, I will, immediatelyiv PREFACE.on receiving your assent to this proposition, place at your disposal.for the benent of the Mount Vernon Association, my check for thesum of Ten Thousand Dollars.I am aware, siz, that you are not in the habit of contributing tothe columns of any periodical, and that you are fortunately sosituated, financially, that no pecuniary reward offered to you foryour own personal benefit, would induce you to deviate from yourusual course; but your disinterested devotion to, and the deepinterest you have taken in, the noble work to which I have referred,leads me to hope that, for the sake of aiding it, you may accept myproposition.Very respectfully,ROBERT BONNER,Proprietor of the New York Ledger.HON. EDWARD EVERETT.BOSTON, 6 November, 1553.DEAR SIR-Your letter of the 2d of September was placed inmy hands on the 14th of that month. In consideration of yourcheck for ten thousand dollars to be placed at my disposal for thebenefit of the Mount Vernon Association, on the receipt of myletter accepting the offer, you propose to me to furnish an originalarticle weekly for the NEW YORK LEDGER " for one year.This liberal offer has received my thoughtful consideration. Ihave been and am strongly tempted, on the one hand, to make thisnoble addition to the Mount Vernon Fund. On the other hand,among other grounds of hesitation, I have been afraid that I couldnot do justice to your liberality, without giving up more time tothe preparation of the articles, than is consistent with otherengagements and duties.You are right in supposing that no pecuniary benefit accruingto myself would induce me to undertake the task; although the" financial situation " to which you allude is far less brilliant may have been led to think by exaggerated newspaper reports.I feel, however, that it is my duty not to forego this opportunityof adding so large a sum, at once, to the Mount Vernon fund, andI accept the offer. I will begin to furnish the articles, as soon asthe immediate demands upon my time to fulfil some previousengagements, shall cease, —in the course of this month at furthest,-and I will continue them as far as possible weekly, making upat the end of the year for any omission in the regular supply.They will, I hope, be received by you and the Public, with theindulgence usually extended to gratuitous labors in a meritoriouscause.I shall venture to call the articles thus furnished by me " TheMount Vernon Papers, " scarcely daring to assume that honoredname, which however may perhaps be permitted, as appropriatelyindicating the object for which they are prepared, and so excusingtheir imperfections.I remain, Dear Sir, respectfully yours,EDWARD EVERETT.ROBERT BONNER, ESQ.These papers are reprinted in the present form,with no other change than a few verbal corrections.D. APPLETON & Co.NEW YORK, April, 1860.

CONTENTS.NUMBER ONE.Reason for assuming the name of " Mount Vernon Papers"-Intended character ofthe subjects treated-Objects of the Ladies' Mount Vernon Association- Present state of Mount Vernon described in the introduction to Mr. Everett's address asdelivered at New York--This description not made by way of reproach to the present proprietor-Necessity created by the crowd of visitors and the vandalism of some of them of selling the property-The purchase could only be made byprivate speculators-By Congress or the Legislature of Virginia-Or a patriotic association duly authorized to hold and manage the property, and the last mode in some respects the best-A feat of Ledgerdemain proposed in aid of the pur- chase. 1NUMBER TWO.CHRISTMAS.Christmas day simultaneously celebrated in the Catholic and Protestant churchNot recognized by the Puritans, and why-- Had degenerated into a disorderly Festival-Lord of Misrule-Extravagant revels in the sixteenth century-Mince pie and plum porridge-Baron of beef-Superstitions in the West of England rel- ative to cattle-Anecdotes of the reformation of the calendar-Lord Chesterfieldand Lord Macclesfield-Milton's beautiful ode to the nativity-Sir Walter Scott- Mr. Irving's charming description of the manner in which Christmas is celebratedin England at the present day. • 11NUMBER THREE.THE HOUSE OF FRANKLIN.Demolition of the house of Franklin in Boston-Why necessary-Crooked and nar- row Streets of Boston and their origin-Great inconvenience from this cause andnecessity of widening the Streets- Union Street widened and the house at thecorner of Union and Hanover Streets, in which Franklin lived, necessarilyremoved-Description of the house and of its changes-Reasons against removingit to another place—All the original portions of it preserved.21viii CONTENTS.NUMBER FOUR.A SAFE ANSWER.Reuben Mitchell's education-Becomes a partner in business with his master-Mar- ries his daughter- Succeeds to the inheritance and business of his Father- in-law- Invests the profits of his business in real estate-Gradually purchases a large number of farms, many of which are unproductive-The number of his farms known only to himself-Curiosity of friends and the community on that subject-It becomes a topic of public remark-Measures adopted to solve the mystery- And the result. 82NUMBER FIVE.THE COMET.Visit to the Observatory at Cambridge on the 6th of October-Description of the evening-Position of the Comet and its appearance through the Comet- seeker—Drawings by Mr. George P. Bond and Mr. Fette-Appearance of the Comet through the great refractor-Professor Lovering's experiments with the Polari- scope-The Cluster in the Constellation Hercules-Remarks of Professor Nichol-The Penny Cyclopædia-History ofDonati's Comet- Its period-Its rapid devel- opment-Progress of Astronomy in the United States-Remark of Gibbon- Comets no longer subjects of alarm-Beautiful reflections of Addison-Apostrophe to the Comet. 42NUMBER SIX.AN INCURSION INTO THE EMPIRE STATE.PART LExtra clothing prepared for the journey and the result-Sandwiches as compared with a hasty dinner at an inn-Sixty cents saved and proposed investment for it-Six hours comfortably spent at Albany-Sleeping cars and the excellence of their arrangements - Unexpected obstacle to the enjoyment of their full benefit -Arrival at Canandaigua-The great land purchase of Gorham and Phelps.NUMBER SEVEN.AN INCURSION INTO THE EMPIRE STATE.PART II.53Unpromising weather at Canandaigua-History of the settlement-Oliver PhelpsAnecdote of Judge Gorham-Visit to Rochester-Reserved seats- Astonishing progress of the settlement-Return to Auburn-Change in the weather-FromAuburn to Syracuse and detention there -Sleeping cars from Syracuse to Albany -Wakeful fellow- passengers-Collision at Albany-Kind- hearted ConductorsReturn home. 62CONTENTS. ixNUMBER EIGHT.THE PARABLE AGAINST PERSECUTION.First published by Lord Kames in 1774 as having been communicated to him by Dr. Franklin- Soon discovered in Jeremy Taylor's Liberty of Prophesying-Nextfound in the dedication to the Senate of Hamburg of the Latin translation by George Genz of a Rabbinical work-Afterwards traced to the " Flower- Garden"of the celebrated Persian poet Saudi -Some account of Saadi-Possibly still to be found in some Jewish writer-Defence of Dr. Franklin against the charge of pla giarism Quoted by Sydney Smith before the Mayor and Corporation of Bristol in 1829-The parable given entire from Dr. Franklin's works. 72NUMBER NINE.WASHINGTON'S DIARY. -ROBERTSON'S MINIATURES OF GENERAL AND MRS. WASHIINGTON.Aportion of General Washington's Diary the property of Mr. J. Carson Brevoort- Recently printed for private circulation-Illness of Washington in the summerof 1759-Tour in the East partly to recruit his health-A considerable portion of the Diary relates to this tour-Washington consults his friends as to the expedien- cy of the tour-Their opinion-Anecdote of Henry IV. of France, and his ministersVilleroi, Sully, and Jeannin-Robertson's miniature of Gen. Washington forms the vignette to this edition of the Diary-Account of Robertson-And his likenesses of General and Mrs. Washington -Colonel Trumbull's opinion-Photographic copies-Pine's portrait of Washington in Mr. Brevoort's possession-Gen. Washington's letter about it-An original letter of the Duke of Wellington in reply to a requestto sit for his portrait to Mr. Inman.NUMBER TEN.WASHINGTON'S DIARY.PART IL81Commencement of his tour tothe Eastern States in 1789-First day's journey to Rye- Description of the road-The three different visits of Washington to this part of the country- Second day's journey to Fairfield and description ofthe road-Thirdday's journey to New Haven through Stratford and Milford-Description of New Haven-Sunday passed at New Haven-Fourth day's journey to Hartford through Wallingford and Middletown and incidents by the way-Fifth day's jour- ney to Springfield and description of that place-Sixth day's journey to Spencer- Express received at Brookfield from Governor Hancock-Seventh day's journey to Worcester and arrangements for entering Boston-Eighth day's journey to Weston-Arrival at Boston on the ninth travelling day from New York. 89NUMBER ELEVEN.LOUIS NAPOLEON. -THREE PHASES IN HIS LIFE.The Downfall of Napoleon the First-His escape from Elba in 1815 -His second falland retirement of his family at Rome-Louis Napoleon a boy at his father's tableX CONTENTS.-after a lapse of twenty- one years on trial for his life at Paris-His appearance and demeanor- His imprisonment at Ham-The revolution of February, 1848, and downfall of Louis Philippe-Re-appearance of Louis Napoleon as deputy, Prince,President, and Emperor-General character of his administration --Unscrupulous violence of the party press under Louis Philippe-His government overturned by leaders who aspired only to supplant his ministers- The Press of the United States.98NUMBER TWELVE.WASHINGTON'S DIARY.Washington's entrance into Boston involved, to some extent, a question ofState rights -Major Russell's account inexact-General Washington's own account-Gov.Hancock abandons his ground and calls first on the President-Termination oftheaffair-Oratorio-Dinner at Fanueil Hall-The President requested to sit forhis portrait-Postponement of the music at the Oratorio-Duck Manufactory described-Card Manufactory-Visit to the French vessels of War-Departure from Boston and continuation of the journey-Letter to Mr. Taft at Ux- bridge. 106NUMBER THIRTEEN.ABBOTSFORD VISITED AND REVISITED.PART I.Invitation to Abbotsford-Arrival at Melrose-Ruins of Melrose hastily visited- Walk to Abbotsford-And reception there--Church at Selkirk-Walk to the Mushroom Park-Dogs in company, who accidentally start a hare-The house and grounds -Ornaments of the rooms-Reading of the Heart of Mid Lothian- Visitto Melrose-Manner of passing the time at Abbotsford -Charles Scott-Departure for Selkirk, but the London Mail Coach being full, return to Abbotsford- Sir Walter's fondness for animals, dogs and cats -Piper at dinner. 115NUMBER FOURTEEN.THE FOURTH OF MARCH, 1789.Commencement of the present United States Government in New York seventy years ago this day- Sketch of the History of the promulgation and ratification of the Constitution-Delay in organizing the new Congress-Arrival of Washingtonat New York and his inauguration-Question as to the titles to be given to the President and Vice President-Amusing anecdote- Causes of the prevailing apathy-The general languor of the country a circumstance favorable to a peaceful revolution-No such revolution possible in highly prosperous times-Much owingto the disinterested patriotism of the revolutionary and constitutional leaders and especially Washington-Closing reflection.124CONTENTS. xiNUMBER FIFTEEN.ABBOTSFORD VISITED AND REVISITED.PART II.The family of Sir Walter Scott in 1918-His mode of life and study-Playful namesgiven his daughters-A visitor recognized by the print of his horse's shoe beforehe was seen-Gratitude more affecting than ingratitude -German studies- Jesting anecdotes at table-A walk of a mile on your own land-Natural features of Ab- botsford-Departure-Personal appearance of Sir Walter-Conversation-Opinions as to the authorship of the Waverley novels-Pecuniary embarrassments- Sad changes in the family-Visit to Abbotsford in 1844-Border Scenery- Otterburn,Jedborough-Remains of Dryburgh Abbey-Tomb of Sir Walter Scott-Melrose Abbey-Changes at Abbotsford-The Poems and Novels of Sir Walter Scott. 135NUMBER SIXTEEN.THE COURT OF FRANCE IN 1818.Impressions of the French revolution derived from Burke-Presentation at court in France in 1818-Court dress and diplomatic uniform-Mr. Gallatin and the ambas sadors' reception-Appearance of Louis XVIII. - Duchess d'Angoulême- Duke d'Angoulême-The Count d'Artois, afterwards Charles X. -The Duke de Berri and the Duchess-Fortitude of the Duchess when her husband was assassinated,and her heroic conduct in 1832- Concealed at Nantes behind the back of a fireplace for fifteen hours-The King and Count d'Artois as described by Burke- The fortunes of the Duchess de Berri. 145NUMBER SEVENTEEN.LORD ERSKINE'S TESTIMONY TO WASHINGTON.Lord Erskine said by Lord Campbell to have saved the liberties of his country-His testimony to Washington-Sketch of his life-The Earl of Buchan- Narrow circumstances of the family-Enters the navy-Original anecdote of his surveying the coast of Florida- Passes from the navy to the army-Commences the study of the law-Brilliant début in the Greenwich Hospital case-His own account of the manner in which he came to be retained in that case-Extract from thepamphlet sent by him to General Washington- His tribute to Washington on the blank leaf.155NUMBER EIGHTEEN.THE FINANCIAL DISTRESS OF THE YEAR 1857.PART LAn inquiry into the causes of the distress of the year 1857 proposed-Difficulty of the investigation-The facts of the case stated-And the extent of the distressbriefly described-The general paralysis of business and credit-What couldxii CONTENTS.have produced it, in the absence of all the usual causes of public distress?—Its probable cause to be found in DEBT-An estimate of the personal debt of thepeople of the United States-Its annual interest ninety millions of dollars-The business debt is vastly greater-The Corporate debt-The Bank debt and the elements of which it is composed-Banks create no additional capital- By sudden contraction of credit in times of pressure produce or increase the panic. 163NUMBER NINETEEN.THE FINANCIAL DISTRESS OF THE YEAR 1857.PART II.The view taken in the preceding paper best explains the periodical recurrence of afinancial crisis -Origin of the term Panic-Its connection with seasons of pressure and distress-The only remedy is to keep out of debt-The abuses of credit the chief cause of great commercial revulsions-Long credits deprecated by distinguished financial authorities-The agency of banks in the dangerous extension ofcredit-Doubtful utility of a paper currency-Individual prudence must furnish the main protection-The soundness of these views confirmed by the manner in which the country is returning to a state of prosperity. 173NUMBER TWENTY.TRAVELLING IN FORMER TIMES.First visit to New York by packet from Newport in 1810-Exodus from Dorchesterto Connecticut River in 1635, in fourteen days-Madam Knight's journey to New York in 1704-Extracts-Franklin's voyage to New York in 1723-Abandons vegetable diet by the way-Franklin's reasons in 1754 for recommending Phila- delphia as the seat of a provincial Union-Anecdote of General Adair andGeneral Root-Rapid journey of Cardinal Wolsey from Richmond to Bruges and back-Washington's first journey to the Eastern States in 1756-Travelling bystage coach fifty years ago-" Waking up the wrong passenger"-Indifferent accommodations both for passengers and baggage-Anecdote of a German travel- ler-This mode of travelling sometimes very pleasant. 183NUMBER TWENTY- ONE.TRAVEL IN EUROPE.No Railroads or Steamers in Europe in 1818-Fulton's first passage to AlbanyStage-coaches, posting, and vetturino in Europe-Travelling on foot and on horseback-The ancient Roman roads almost wholly lost-Visit to the Continent in 1818- Guide books-Hon. T. II. Perkins and tribute to him by John Quincy Adams-Stone Henge-Wilton House -Old Sarum-Salisbury Cathedral- Passage from Southampton to Havre-Freedom from care at sea- Transitionfrom England to France and points of contrast -French custom - house-Anecdote of a dyspeptic Bostonian. 193CONTENTS. xiiiNUMBER TWENTY-TWO.HAVRE AND ROUEN.The importance of Havre owing to its position at the mouth of the Seine and the American trade-St. Pierre-Conflict of races in Normandy-Lillebonne- The council-hall of William the Conqueror swept away by a cotton spinner- Detention at Rouen-Ugo Foscolo-Thomas Moore-Beranger-Society at Parisin 1817-1818-Importance of Rouen-The Cathedral-Heart of Richard Cœur de Lion-Church of Saint Ouen-William the Conqueror could not write his name-Deserted at his death-Place de la Pucelle, where Joan of Arc wasburned-Reflections on her fate -Her statue by the Princess Marie, daughter of Louis Philippe-Voltaire, Schiller-Corneille-Regrets that he had not chosen the Maid of Orleans for a heroine-Overturn of the diligence. 203NUMBER TWENTY- THREE.WILL THERE BE A WAR IN EUROPEThe vast importance of this question-Comparative strength of the parties in amilitary point of view-The leaders described, the Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph, the King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II , the Emperor of the FrenchThe German Confederation in its relations to the contest-Hungary and the possibility of a new revolution-The general spirit of disaffection in Italy and thestrength which it lends to Sardinia as the champion of Italian nationality-Quali- fied in practice by the hostile feelings of the Italian States toward each other. 213NUMBER TWENTY- FOUR.ANOTHER VOLUME OF WASHINGTON'S DIARY.Another portion of Washington's Diary in the possession of J. K. Marshall, Esq.- Description of the manuscript and its contents-Circumspection of Washington in receiving foreigners-General appropriation bill for 1790-Tour on Long Island-Presents to foreign ministers on taking leave-Chasms in the Diary-The President starts on a Southern tour-In great danger in crossing from the Easternshore of Maryland to Annapolis-Reception there-Continues his journey to Georgetown-Conference with the proprietors of the lands on which the city of Washington was to be erected-They agree to a cession of lands for public pur- poses-District of Columbia; Alexandria retroceded to Virginia-Description of the city of Washington.221NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE.WASHINGTON'S SOUTHERN TOUR.Washington's Southern tour in 1791 less known than his Eastern tour in 1789- Departure from Mount Vernon 7th of April-Accident in crossing the ferry at Colchester-Fredericksburgh-Richmond-Locks in the James River Canal- Statexiv CONTENTS.of public opinion in Virginia on the assumption of the State debts and the Exciselaw-Petersburgh and the President's account of it-Innocent artifice to escape anescort-Halifax, N. Carolina -No stabling at Allen's-Arrival at Newbern and description of that place-Its present condition and appearance-Arrival at Wilmington and account of that place-The mode of taking the first census described by Washington-Present condition of Wilmington-Recent visit of the writer to North Carolina-Its general prosperity-Raleigh-Chapel Hill. • 230NUMBER TWENTY-SIX.WASHINGTON'S SOUTHERN TOUR CONCLUDed.Departure from Wilmington-The Swash crossed-Arrival at Georgetown, S. C.— Capt. Alston's plantation-Description of Georgetown-Arrival at Charleston and reception and festivities there-Description of Charleston-No mention of cotton amongthe exports-Journey resumed on the 9th of May-Mrs. Gen. Green- Arrival at Savannah-Military operations in 1779-Savannah described-Road through Waynesborough to Augusta-Reception at Augusta-Description of that place- Return to the North by the way of Columbia, Camden, Charlotte , Salisbury, and Salem . . 240NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN.ADAMS' EXPRESS AND THE EXPRESS SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES.Scene at Embarcation at New York for Charleston-Quantity of packages put onboard by Adams' Express-The Expressage not to be confounded with commercial transportation -Miscellaneous nature of articles transported by Express-Connec- tion of the Express with the periodical press-Want of all facilities for the conveyance of small parcels in former times -Sketch of the Origin and progress of the Express System -Wm. F. Harnden- Alvin Adams-His associates--And succes- sors Present state of Adams' Express and extent of its operations-Importanceof the Express system compared with commercial exchanges-Comparison of the Express with the Post- office -Origin and functions of the Post- office - Growing importance of the Express. 248NUMBER TWENTY-EIGHT.AT PARIS, IN 1818.The fête of St. Louis-His name in the United States-The festivities of the daycontrasted with those usual in this country-A Mat de Cocagne described -Prepa- rations for departure-Gen. Lyman-Relations with Coray, the celebrated modern Greek scholar and patriot-Brief account of his life and services-Transmits to this country the Address to the People of the United States of the Messenian Senate at Calamata-Its effects here-Contributions for the relief of the Greeksdistributed by Dr. Howe-Death and autobiography of Coray. 258CONTENTS. XVNUMBER TWENTY-NINE.THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD OF 1859- PRESCOTT, BOND, HALLAM, VON HUMBOLDT.The value of their example to young men-Traits of Mr. Prescott's character, which are within the reach of imitation by others-William Cranch Bond the Astrono- mer-Remarkable variety and union of qualities, scientific and practical- Hisamiable temper and disposition-His enthusiasm for Astronomy-Liberal appreciation of others-Visit of Jenny Lind to the Cambridge Observatory-Succeededin the Observatory at Cambridge by his son George P. Bond-Scientific reputation of Mr. Bond, Jnr. 268NUMBER THIRTY.THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD OF 1859-PRESCOTT, BOND, HALLAM, VON HUMBOLDT.Simultaneous death of Hallam and Prescott- Hallam the first standard writer ofhistory in England after Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson-Compared with those writers-Brief account of the History of Europe in the middle ages-Of the Constitutional history of England-Of the introduction to the Literature of Europe for the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries-Personal History-Lossof his two sons-Henry counsels his father not to accept the title of Baronet- Receives the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from Harvard College-Letter of acknowledgment.276NUMBER THIRTY-ONE.THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD OF 1859-PRESCOTT, BOND, HALLAM, VON HUMBOLDT.The year 1769 famous for the birth of great men-The memory of Humboldt asso- ciated with America-His unsuccessful plans before coming to this continent- lis great reputation founded on his American works- His place at the head of the men of science of the day-Great age to which his literary labors were protracted- Accustomed to sleep but four hours in the twenty-four-His social disposition- Acquaintance of the writer with Mr. von Humboldt in 1818-His liberal appreci- ation of others-Sits to Mr. Wight of Boston for his portrait-Remarks on the assertion that he was an Atheist. •284NUMBER THIRTY-TWO.ITALIAN NATIONALITY.Reasons of State and Public opinion mingled in the present struggle-Growth of liberal views in Italy-How far the feelings of the masses will affect the result ofthe contest-The different views of the different parties-Elements of nationalitypossessed by the Italians-A compact geographical position-A fusion of the original races-One language-A common faith-In all these respects their claimto an independent nationality equal to that of any of the great powers of Europe-To what is the want of it owing?-By no means to the degeneracy of the population. 293xvi CONTENTS.NUMBER THIRTY-THREE.ITALIAN NATIONALITY.It has failed to exist for want of a comprehensive patriotic sentiment-Difficulties in the way of the formation of such a sentiment arising from the multiplication oflocal governments-Benefits and evils ofthis multiplication- Probable consequen- ces of the present struggle-Will not result in a republican confederacy- Norprobably in the immediate establishment of an Italian monarchy-But may pre- pare the way for such an event in future-Lessons to be drawn from Italianhistory-All other circumstances favorable to an Independent nationality unavailing without a comprehensive patriotism.802NUMBER THIRTY- FOUR.THE LIGHT- HOUSE.The greatest dangers of the sea are in nearing the land-To obviate some of these light-houses have been erected- The Colossus of Rhodes-The Pharos of Alexan- dria-Great improvements in modern times -Fresnel-Feelings in contemplating a light- house-The Fitzmaurice light-Number of light-houses in England,France, and the United States -Dangers sometimes of their multiplication-Anec- dote of a narrow escape-Minot's Ledge described-Destruction of the iron screw-pile light- house in April, 1851 -The violence of the gale described-A new light-house of solid masonry in progress of erection under Capt. Alexander- Progress of the work-An eclipsing light a beautiful object-Via Crucis, via Lucis, 310NUMBER THIRTY-FIVE.PRINCE METTERNICH.Should he be classed with the Illustrious dead of 1859 -His success civil not military-Not cruel nor bloodthirsty-Ilis government mild for an absolute despo- tism-Is Lombardy an exception? -Anecdote of Silvio Pellico and the other conductors of the Conciliatore-Metternich's first service at the Congress of Rastadt-The four coalitions - His conduct as the Austrian minister in FranceAnecdote from Capefigue of doubtful authenticity-Was he the projector of the marriage of Napoleon I. with Marie Louise?-Rules Austria in peace for thirty- three years Sinks at last in 1848-His exile, return, and the close of his career as a private man.818NUMBER THIRTY-SIX.SEVEN CRITICAL OCCASIONS AND INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF WASHINGTON.Instances of an overruling Providence in the lives of distinguished men, and signallyin the life of Washington-His brother Lawrence an officer in the expedition under Admiral Vernon against Carthagena-Plan for placing George in the BritishCONTENTS. xviiNavy, and a midshipman's warrant procured-His mother opposes the plan, and it is abandoned-Accompanies his brother to Barbadoes at the age of nineteen and takes the small-pox-Terrific nature of that disease before the discovery of Vaccination-Appears in the American Army in 1775 and afterwards- Great dangers to which Washington was exposed on his mission to Venango-Hazards of an ex- cursion at that time in the districts occupied by the Indians-Their crueltiesNarrow escape of Washington on the return-Concluding reflection. 827NUMBER THIRTY- SEVEN.SEVEN CRITICAL OCCASIONS AND INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF WASHINGTON.Braddock's expedition in 1755 Washington a volunteer aid-Falls ill on the way and sent back to the reserve-Joins the army the day before the engagement- Beautiful scene of war on the morning of the battle-Surprise and total defeat ofGeneral Braddock's army-Gallant conduct of Colonel Washington throughout the engagement-Great danger to which he was exposed-Interview with an In- dian Chieftain on the Kanawha in 1770- Prediction in 1755 of his future careerReflection by Mr. Sparks-Washington's visit to New York in 1756, where he is the guest of Beverley Robinson-Makes the acquaintance of Mary Philipse-She marries Captain Orme and adheres with her family to the royal cause.NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT.835SEVERAL CRITICAL OCCASIONS AND INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF WASHINGTON.Washington desires in early life a commission in the Royal Army-Exclusion of Col- onists from promotion in the Royal establishments-His taste for military life- His distinguished services in the seven years' war attract no notice " at home "-At its close, having no hope of advancement, he retires from military life-After an interval of seventeen years, re-appears commander-in- chief of the armies of United America-At the battle of Princeton, Washington, in his own opinion, ranthe greatest risk of his life, being between the fire ofboth parties- Colonel Trum- bull's picture -Reputation acquired by Washington abroad by the surprise of the Hessians and the battle at Princeton-Testimony of the historian Botta.843NUMBER THIRTY-NINE.FONTAINEBLEAU, BURGUNDY, AUTUN, TALLEYRAND.Leave Paris en route for Italy-Passports -Couriers- Fontainebleau and its histori- cal recollections-Appearance of a wine-growing region-The Côte d'or-Autun,its antiquity and architectural remains-Epigram about the two Bishops of Au- tun-Character of Talleyrand- His emigration to America, and intention to be- come a citizen of the United States- Anecdote of Benedict Arnold-Talleyrand's course in this country-His friendship for General Hamilton-Curious anecdote ofAaron Burr, related by Talleyrand-Miniature of General Hamilton-Talley- rand's character as a statesman-The Duke of Magenta born at Autun-Another anecdote of Benedict Arnold.352xviii CONTENTS.NUMBER FORTY.LYONS.Hotel de l'Europe at Lyons-The hill of Fourvières-Description of the Panorama seen from its top-Distant view of Mont Blanc-Pilgrimages to the shrine of our Lady of Fourvières-Resort of beggars and almsgiving on the part of the Pil- grims-Anecdote of a professed Scottish beggar-The bronze tablets containing the speech of the Emperor Claudius-Martyrdom of Saint Irenæus and Blandina-The Persecutions of the early Christians as recorded in ecclesiastical history com- pared with the cruelties practised at Lyons in the French revolution. - Whole- sale massacre in the Brotteaux-Escape and career of Jacquard, the inventor of the celebrated loom that bears his name-saying of Napoleon I. about him-Hisepitaph.. 861NUMBER FORTY- ONE.FROM LYONS TO GENEVA.Silk fabrics of Lyons-First glimpse of mountain scenery-Nantua-Bellegarde-In- genious smuggling-Pert du Rhone-Cæsar's description of the defile-Ancient Switzerland compared to Michigan and Wisconsin-First appearance of the Helvetii or ancient Swiss in history-Emigration of the entire people into France- Overtaken and defeated with great loss by Cæsar, and the survivors compelled to return to Switzerland-A muster-roll in Greek characters discovered in theircamp which gives their numbers-Cæsar's great career begins with the conquestofthe Helvetii-beautiful prospects on the way from Fort l'Ecluse to Geneva. 370NUMBER FORTY- TWO.EXCURSION FROM GENEVA TO CHAMOUNI, MONT BLANC.The various attractions in Geneva- The influence of Calvin-The road to Chamouniup the valley of the Arve-Remarkable scene beyond Bonneville- Nant d'Ar- pennaz-First view of Mont Blanc-Goitres, whether considered a beauty by thepeasantry-Lac de Chede-Servoz-The Upper Arve-Entrance into the valley of Chamouni-The glaciers -Description of a glacier-Their motion-Investigation of the cause by Professor Agassiz -The valley of Chamouni first made known to the travelling world by Pococke and Windham in 1741-Alpine scenery less fre- quently described by the poets than might have been expected. 379NUMBER FORTY- THREE.THE MONTANVERT, THE SEA OF ICE, AND THE GREEN GARDEN.Excursion to the Jardin Vert-Ascent to the Montanvert-Prospect from it-Solita- ry cabin-Beautiful midnight scene-Crossing the Mer de Glace, crevassesDangerous pass along the face of the mountain-- Reach the Jardin-Sublimity of the scene-Return to the Montanvert-Descent to the lower end of the Mer deCONTENTS . xixGlace and the source of the Arveiron-Geological significance of the recent in.quiries into the formation and movement of the Glaciers-Importance of these bodies in the economy of nature.NUMBER FORTY-FOUR.GENEVA, FERNEY, LAUSANNE.889Rousseau's house-His manuscripts-Partial insanity the best apology for his con- duct-Voltaire's Chateau at Ferney-Description of his room and list of portraitsin it-Other memorials-Contrast of Ferney as it was during Voltaire's life- timeand its present appearance -His life and works an entire failure-Coppet and Madame de Staël -Gouverneur Morris-Lausanne- Gibbon's house-its appearance in 1818-Summer-house in the garden, where he was accustomed to studyLast lines of the Decline and Fall written there-Hume's striking remark in1767, on the stability and duration of the English language, in consequence of itsprevalence in America. 897NUMBER FORTY-FIVE.FROM LAUSANNE TO FREYBURG.General Laharpe, the instructor of the Emperor Alexander-Origin of the Holy Al- liance-Schools at Lausanne and the neighborhood -Scenery- Road to VevayVineyards-Church of St. Martin at Vevay-General Ludlow's monument-Fate of the regicides -Scenery at Vevay-Clarens-Chillon- Its dungeons- Burke's judgment of Rousseau's writings -Moudon-Payerne-Bertha's saddle-Freyburg -Local description-The ancient Linden-Strange bas-relief at the cathedral- Point ofjunction ofthe French and German languages-Suspension bridge.NUMBER FORTY- SIX.407BERNE.From Freyburg to Berne-Change of costume-Appearance of the city-Lofty parapet wall and extraordinary leap from it-Alpine scenery-The Bear the heraldic emblem of Berne, and living bears kept at the public expense-The University-Manufactures of Berne, the Messrs. Schenck-Visit to the establishments of M. Von Fellenberg at Hofwyl- Anecdote of the director Reubel- High School -Industry School-The celebrated assistant teacher Wehrli-Agricultural School-M. Von Fellenberg's establishments, formerly an object of great attention in Europe.416NUMBER FORTY-SEVEN.THE NINETEENTH OF APRIL, 1775.Materials for the Romance of our history scattered through the country-Events ofthe 19th April, 1775-Alarm given from Boston to the neighboring towns- Es- cape of Adams and Hancock from Lexington to Woburn-A salmon left behindXX CONTENTS.and sent for-Second retreat to the woods-Capture of a prisoner by SylvanusWood on the 19th of April-After thirty years Wood applies for and obtains apension-Visits Washington and is introduced to General Jackson-ProposedNational monument at Lexington commemorative of the 19th of April.425NUMBER FORTY- EIGHT.FROM BERNE TO SACHSELN.The Aar and its valley--Thun, its environs and lake-Unterseen-The Lauterbrun- nen and Staubbach-A glimpse of the Swiss peasantry-Curious misprint in Goldsmith's Traveller-The Lake of Brienz-The Giesbach-The musical schoolmaster and his family-The pass of the Brünig-Entrance into Unterwalden- Lungern and its lake-Partially drained-Sachseln-St. Nicholas von der Flüe- Legends concerning him. 435NUMBER FORTY-NINE.STANZ, LUCERNE , TELL .Sarnen, proposed drainage of the lake-The Landenberg-Schiller's Wilhelm Tell and birthday-Commotion in Unterwalden in 1818-Type of Swiss houses- Ar- nold von Winkelried -Resistance to the French in 1798-Atrocities described by Alison-The attack on Stanzstade commanded by General Foy-His character- Lake of the Four Cantons -Lucerne -General Pfyffer's model of SwitzerlandThorwaldsen's lion-Küssnacht one of Gessler's strongholds-Is the history ofTell authentic?-The story of the Apple said to be found in the Danish sagas- Does this prove Tell a myth -The hollow way. 444NUMBER FIFTY.GOLDAU, ALOYS REDING, GRUTLI, THE TELLENSPRUNG.The lake of Zug-The destruction of Goldau-Mr. Buckminster's description of itAccount of it by Dr. Zay of Arth, an eye-witness-Schwytz -Its early history- Events of 1798-Character and conduct of Aloys Reding-Brunnen-Passage toAltorf-Grutli-The three founders of Swiss Independence-The Tellensprung-- Enthusiasm of Sir James Mackintosh-The Legends ofthe Apple- shooting. 453NUMBER FIFTY- ONE.ALTORF, THE VALLEY OF THE REUSS, THE VALAIS.The Canton of Uri-The traditions of Tell -Valley of the Reuss-Wildness of the scene-The Devil's bridge -The army of Suwarrow in 1799-Andermatt-Headwaters of the Ticino-Short Alpine summer-Passage of the Furca-Glacier of the Rhone-The Valais-the Brieg-The Simplon road-Farewell to Switzer- land.462CONTENTS. xxiNUMBER FIFTY-TWO.DANIEL BOON.The " West " suggestive of important subjects of thought-Progress of settlement in South and North America-Conditions of life on the gradually receding frontier-Sergeant Plympton's fate in 1677 --Daniel Boon the great Pioneer- His life by Mr. W. H. Bogart-Account of his family, parentage, and birth-Removal to North Carolina and settlement on the Yadkin-Marries Rebecca Bryan-Missionof the Anglo-Saxon race in America- Boon with five companions starts in quest of Kentucky in 1769 -First sight of Captured by the Indians-Escape-Meets his brother Squire-Squire Boon's return to the settlement for supplies-They both go back to North Carolina, and Daniel determines on a permanent removal to Kentucky.471NUMBER FIFTY-THREE,AND THE LAST OF THE SERIES .THE NEW YORK LEDGER.Description of the Ledger establishment-Common printing-The power press-The Electrotype process-Press work-Distribution of the paper-Eighty thousand by mail-Ross & Tousey's news agency-" Ledger day " described-Immense amount of Printing annually done in the " Ledger " office-Convention for international copyright-Mode in which the establishment has been built up and general character and objects--The "Unknown Public " -Conclusion of the Mount Vernon Papers. 480

THEMOUNT VERNON PAPERS.NUMBER ONE .Reason for assuming the name of " Mount Vernon Papers"-Intended character of the subjects treated-Objects of the Ladies' Mount Vernon Association- Present state of Mount Vernon described in the introduction to Mr. Everett's address asdelivered at New York--This description not made by way of reproach to the present proprietor-Necessity created by the crowd of visitors and the vandalismof some of them of selling the property-The purchase could only be made by private speculators-By Congress or the Legislature of Virginia-Or a patriotic association duly authorized to hold and manage the property, and the last mode in some respects the best-A feat of Ledgerdemain proposed in aid of the pur- chase.I HAVE already stated in my letter of the 6th of Novemberto the Editor and Proprietor of the " LEDGER," that I haveventured to call these articles the " Mount Vernon Papers,"as a name appropriately indicating the object for which theyare prepared, and in that way suggesting an excuse for theirimperfections. As they will generally be written under thepressure of other engagements and duties, the consideratereader will not expect to find in them that elaboration andfinish, which he has a right to demand in compositions preparedat the leisure of their authors. I can only endeavor to dothe best in my power, under the well known circumstances ofthe case, and candid persons will judge them accordingly.But though called the " Mount Vernon Papers," it is not12 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.intended that these articles should be exclusively or evenchiefly taken up in discussing the subject of the purchase ofMount Vernon, or the topics connected or associated with it.They will indeed furnish an appropriate channel, for whateverinformation of an interesting character I may be able to offerthe public on that subject. It was one of the chief inducements for undertaking their preparation, that they would affordme an opportunity for the attempt to interest a very largecircle of readers, in an enterprise which I have so much atheart. I shall accordingly submit to them, from time to time,an account of the progress and prospects of the work, as faras they fall under my observation. Besides this, the countryabounds with recollections and traditions of Washington connected with his civil and military career; with localities rendered interesting by his battles, his visits, or his sojourn; andwith individuals still living who saw him, and of whom a fewwere personally known to him. There are many originalportraits of him in existence, of which a few remain to bedescribed; numerous autographic letters as yet unpublished;and personal relics of every description . Many of these traditions and objects of interest are constantly brought to mynotice, in visiting different parts of the country, for the purposeof repeating my address on the character of Washington, and,if I do not mistake, will furnish interesting materials for a fewof these papers. It is intended, however, that they shall, uponthe whole, be of a miscellaneous character, and exhibit as muchvariety in the subjects treated, as can be expected from theproductions of one pen.Ageneral statement of the object, in aid of which they areto be prepared, would seem to be a proper commencement ofthe series, and this I shall venture to give in a few paragraphs,which formed the introduction to my address as delivered ( forthe one hundred and first time) on the 12th of November, 1858,in New York, at the request of the managers of the Ladies'Mount Vernon Association.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 3"It is with unaffected diffidence that I present myself for a thirdtime before a New York audience, to repeat the address which you expectfrom me this evening. I do it at the urgent request of those whose wishis a command, and who are devoting themselves with such admirablezeal and energy to one of the most praiseworthy enterprises that canappeal to the patriotic heart. The women of the country, and nowheremore earnestly than in the City and State of New York, have undertakenthe noble work, neglected by Congress, not performed by Virginia, ofrescuing the dwelling- place and the last resting-place of Washingtonfrom those chances and vicissitudes, and in this case I must add thosedesecrations, to which, as private property, they are necessarily exposed,and of placing them under the protection and guardianship of a permanent institution co-extensive with the Republic." For such, I am happy to say, and not less comprehensive, is thecharacter of the Ladies' Mount Vernon Association of the Union. Itwas called into existence by the persevering and self-sacrificing effortsof a devoted daughter of South Carolina. It has , as was most fitting,received a charter of incorporation from the ancient Commonwealth,which boasts the incommunicable honor of having given birth to theFather of his Country. It is organized in branches established or to beestablished in every member of the Confederacy; and it has enlisted theenergetic co- operation of some of the most excellent aud patriotic women of your own and every other State in the Union. Much has alreadybeen done, but much remains to be accomplished. A formal agreementfor the purchase of Mount Vernon was entered into last spring with itsproprietor, by the government of the Association, and a considerablesum ofmoney-eighteen thousand dollars-was paid down to ratify thebargain. The means are on hand to meet the payment of the next instalment; but an ample fund is of course wanting, to consummate thepurchase; to restore the mansion and the grounds from their presentstate of melancholy neglect and decay, as far as possible, to their original condition, and to make adequate provision for their permanent conservation and care. Such, in a general statement, are the objects to beaccomplished and the present state of the enterprise." No one, I am sure, who has visited the venerable spot; who haslooked upon the weather-beaten building and its uninviting approaches;upon the falling columns and corroded pavement of the portico; theruinous offices; the unfloored summer-house; the conservatory, of whicha portion remains as it was left by the fire of 1832; the-spot where once a garden smiled;And still where many a garden flower grows wild; '4 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the grounds relapsing into the roughness of nature; and above all, theraw incompleteness, the irreverent exposure, and the premature and untidy decay that reign about the tomb, but must bid God-speed to theefforts of these noble women and their worthy sisters, in every part ofthe land, who have determined that this public scandal, this burningshame, shall cease. No man of sensibility, who has contemplated thedismal spectacle of Mount Vernon in its present condition, but mustwish success, and must feel it his duty to give his own co-operation tothe effort that is now making, to redeem and enclose the hallowed andbeautiful spot, (for a lovelier eminence does not, in all the land, lookdown upon a nobler river; ) to bring it back, as far as may be, to itsoriginal order and comeliness; to clothe its neglected slopes with thefamiliar but never-wearying charm of grass and trees; to re- open the overgrown paths, once pressed by feet which consecrated the soil onwhich they trod; to renew the departed beauty of the garden and theconservatory which still contains plants that received the fostering care of Washington; to revive upon the denuded hill-sides theprostrate honors of the forest, and to watch over the preservation ofsome veterans of the soil, planted by the strong hand which graspedand guided the helm of State in the fiercest storms of policy or war; toreplace the mansion in that condition of neatness and simple beauty,in which it so admirably reflected the well-compacted and harmoniouslyadjusted character of its great Inmate; there to form a collection of all thepersonal relics and memorials of him, which can be recovered fromevery part of the country; and above all, beneath the shadow of majestic trees, within the sound of flowing waters, and under the shelter ofmonumental walls, to enshrine the sacred ashes of the First of Men, in amausoleum worthy of its deposit."To provide the means of effecting these objects, the women ofAmerica have determined to make their direct appeal to the heart of thecountry. They do not believe that it is the wish of the people that astate of things so unworthy and discreditable should continue to exist.It is in humble co- operation with them in the effort to put an end to it,that I appear before you this evening; not surely to argue the meritorious character of the undertaking, for that would be an insult alike toyour understandings and your patriotic feelings, but to aid you in callingup the revered image of Washington, and to give some new distinctnessto your recollections of those illustrious traits of character and those inestimable services which have given him the first place in the hearts ofhis countrymen, and have made the spot where he lived and where hisashes repose, dear and sacred to the end of time."THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.The foregoing allusions to the present condition of MountVernon are not made in the spirit of reproach to the presentproprietor. It can rarely be proper to make the conduct ofprivate citizens, and the manner in which they manage theiraffairs, the subject of public comment. So long as they keepwithin the bounds of inorality and the law, belong to the samesect and party with ourselves, vote for the same candidates,use the same dictionary, read the same newspaper, and takeoff their hats to the ground when we pass, (for if they fail inany of these things, there is nothing too bad to say or printof them, ) they ought not to be interfered with. I am notaware of any thing which ought to deprive the proprietor ofMount Vernon of the benefit of this principle, certainly not asfar as I am concerned, indebted as I am to him and his amiable family for a most friendly and hospitable reception.It could never, I think, have been a productive property,nor one capable of being kept in high condition, without aconsiderable annual outlay. It descended to the present proprietor, if I am not misinformed, for I do not derive theimpression from him, -in a neglected state. Supposing ittrue that he has shown himself not duly sensible to the interesting character of the spot, it does not, I think, lie with hisfellow-citizens to reproach him. It will be time enough to doso, when, either by the acts of their public representatives, orany more informal demonstration, they shall themselves havemanifested a sincere and effective interest in the care and preservation of Mount Vernon . While it remains a fact thatnothing has been done by the leaders of public opinion in orout of Congress, or by any general popular movement, for itsprotection, it is unfair to reproach Mr. Washington for a supposed neglect of it. Considered merely as a patrimonial farm,he surely has a right to take care of it or neglect it at hispleasure. Considered in its great national and patriotic associations, it will be time enough for the Public to rebuke him.when the Public has done its own duty.6 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.But leaving reproaches aside, which seldom do much goodto masses of men or to individuals, and are in general liberallydealt out by those who have little else to deal in, all personsmust admit, that the state of things at present existing at MountVernon ought to cease. Nominally private property, and belonging to a private individual, the Public in effect lays claimto it, takes possession of it, occupies it, or at least overrunsit. Visitors of every kind and in vast numbers, tourists andpilgrims, of our own and foreign lands, led by every motivefrom idle curiosity to patriotic feeling, resort to Mount Vernonin the pleasant season of the year, and more or less at allseasons. They wander over the grounds and through thehouse, the greater part of them, no doubt, conducting themselves with the decorum which belongs to the place, and thecivility which belongs to all places. But in addition to thecivil and well-bred, there are enough of an opposite description to inflict serious injury on the grounds and the house,and to cause the greatest annoyance to its inmates. Theirretirement is invaded in the most unseemly and distressingmanner; articles easily removed must be closely watched, toprevent their being carried off; whatever can be broken or cutis liable to be mutilated and defaced within doors, and theshrubbery in the walks and grounds is appropriated withoutscruple. Three or four of the pales have been wrenched fromthe balustrade of the front staircase, and carried away. Anattempt was made last year to break the glass case whichcontains the key of the Bastile, given by Lafayette to Washington, and to purloin this remarkable relic. Most of the smallprojecting portions of the wrought marble mantel-piece presented to General Washington by Samuel Vaughan, Esq. , ofLondon, and forming the ornament of the fire-place in thedining-room, have been ruthlessly broken off; and in one case,at least, young magnolias planted in the grounds have beencut down by tourists, who were, as may be supposed, particular as to the quality of their walking-sticks. Were the for-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.tune of the proprietor such as would enable him to restore aplace like Mount Vernon from the effects of half a century ofneglect, and to bring it into a state of ornamental culture, itis plain that it could not be kept in that condition without theadditional expense (if there were no other difficulty ) of anumber of watchmen and guards.It is quite natural that the People should wish to visitMount Vernon, but if they insist on doing it in numbers thatput to flight all ideas of private property, to say nothing ofthe seclusion which makes the charm of rural life, they oughtto be willing to acquire a right to do so. They ought to possess themselves legally of the property, and not insist uponusing it illegally. They not only ought not to reproach Mr.Washington with letting it go to decay, while they are themselves tearing it to pieces, but they ought not to permit himto be burdened with a nominal possession, unaccompanied byany genuine enjoyment of his property, while they are exercising upon it themselves some of the most absolute acts ofownershipI know of but three ways in which the end can be attained .An individual or company might purchase Mount Vernon, inorder to throw it open as a place of public resort and recreation, and thus make it the subject of pecuniary speculation.Offers to this effect, tempting in their amount, have been madeto the present proprietor, and are regarded by his friends as ajustification for demanding a price for the estate, so muchbeyond its value for any ordinary private purpose. They urgethat a gentleman of moderate means, actually coerced by thePublic in the way described, into selling his property, hasmade sacrifice enough to patriotic feeling, in refusing the lucrative offers of private individuals, who might put the estate toan unworthy use; and that a farther pecuniary sacrifice oughtnot, in justice to his family, to be expected of him, in the pricefor which he is willing to cede it to a patriotic association.However this may be, all must approve the motives and feel-8 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.ings which have induced Mr. Washington (while virtuallycompelled to part with the estate) to refuse to sell it for thepurposes alluded to.Excluding then the alienation of Mount Vernon for thepurposes of speculation, there is no way in which the Publiccan turn its present tumultuary, violent, and illegal occupationof it (the character of which is not essentially altered by theconsent of the owner, a consent only in name, and reallyextorted by the duress of circumstances) into a legal andhonest possession, but by the fair purchase of the property.This could be, or could have been, effected either by Congress or the State of Virginia. There are strong reasons infavor of either course, and practical difficulties in the way ofboth, which this is not the place to discuss. Proposals haveoccasionally been made both in Congress and the legislature.of Virginia for this purpose, but without success .Such a purchase therefore being out of the question, theonly remaining mode by which the Public can honestly become possessed of it, is that which has actually been resortedto, and is now in progress of execution, and that is, the purchase of the estate by a voluntary association coextensivewith the Union; -endowed with requisite powers to hold andmanage the property by a charter of incorporation from theState of Virginia, (and every one, I think, must admit that thelegislature of the native State of Washington, and the State inwhich the property is situated , is the authority from which acharter could most appropriately be derived; ) composed ofmembers and soliciting contributions from every part of thecountry. It is true that this mode of raising the funds to consummate the purchase is extremely laborious; -that, in fact,is the only great difficulty attending it. The country is willing, desirous to effect the object. The five hundred thousand dollars, required to fulfil all the designs of the associationabove alluded to, could be raised in a day, by the cheerful cooperation of the people of the United States, each one givingTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 9his proportionate mite; but to arrange the machinery, bywhich so large an amount can be collected throughout a country so vast as ours, is a matter of difficulty and labor.It is really, however, as it seems to me, the best way toaccomplish the object. It produces a more direct participation of the People in the result, than if it were accomplishedby a legislative appropriation; and the zeal and energy withwhich the ladies of the association, alike those forming partof its central government, and those who, as local managers,have united with them, authorize a confident expectation of complete success, and that at no distant day. It is indeed very important that what is done should be done promptly, for Mr.Washington has engaged, in case the purchase money is paidin February next, to remit the interest due upon it for thecurrent year.I venture, in conclusion, to make a proposal, suggested bythe munificence of the proprietor ofthe LEDGER, in paying thegenerous sum of Ten thousand dollars to the Mount VernonFund, for the preparation of these papers; -would that itwere in my power to make them more worthy of his liberality!More than Three Hundred Thousand copies of this journalare circulated among the masses of the People, throughoutthe length and the breadth of the land. A large proportionof the copies are ordered by clubs, and are read in families,and I am told that it is not an extravagant calculation , thatthey are read by One Million of the People of the UnitedStates, each one of whom venerates the character of Washington, and would gladly co-operate in rescuing his dwelling andhis tomb from neglect and decay. If this is a sound calculation, the contribution of half a dollar each by the readers ofthe LEDGER would at once accomplish the object!I have hitherto taken no part in collecting funds for thepurchase of Mount Vernon, in any other way, than by therepetition of my address on the character of Washington. ButI shall be happy to aid the readers of the LEDGER to give10 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.effect to the above suggestion, by receiving any sum sent tome by mail or otherwise for that purpose, returning a receiptto the Donor, countersigned by the Treasurer of the AuxiliaryMount Vernon Fund. *The result of this suggestion will be stated in the Appendix to thepresent volume.NUMBER TWO.CHRISTMAS.Christmas day simultaneously celebrated in the Catholic and Protestant church- Not recognized by the Puritans, and why- Had degenerated into a disorderly Festival-Lord of Misrule-Extravagant revels in the sixteenth century-Mince pie and plum porridge-Baron of beef-Superstitions in the West of England relative to cattle -Anecdotes of the reformation of the calendar- Lord Chesterfieldand Lord Macclesfield -Milton's beautiful ode to the nativity-Sir Walter ScottMr. Irving's charming description of the manner in which Christmas is celebrated in England at the present day.WE have reached the season of the year when, —with alittle variation as to the precise day, growing out of thedifference between the old and new style, -Christians ofalmost every name commemorate the birthday of their common Master. On Christmas day, beginning at Jerusalem inthe church of the sepulchre of our Lord, the Christmas anthemhas travelled with the star that stood above his cradle, fromregion to region, from communion to communion, and fromtongue to tongue, till it has compassed the land and the sea,and returned to melt away upon the sides of Mount Zion.By the feeble remnants of the ancient Syrian and Armenianchurches, creeping to their furtive matins amidst the unbelieving hosts of Islam, in the mountains of Kurdistan andErzeroum; within the venerable cloisters, which have bravedthe storms of barbarism and war for fifteen centuries on thereverend peaks of Mount Sinai; in the gorgeous cathedralsof Moscow and Vienna, of Madrid and Paris, and still imperial Home; at the simpler altars of the Protestant church12 THE MOUNT VERNON western Europe and America; in the remote missions ofour own continent, of the Pacific islands, and of the furthestEast, on Saturday last, for the Catholic and Protestantchurches, the song of the angels which hailed the birth ofour Lord was repeated by the myriads of his followers allround the globe.The twenty-fifth of December is celebrated with an approach to unanimity, by the Christian world, as the anniversary ofthe birthday of our Saviour. Our Puritan fathers arealmost the only great body of Christian believers who didnot observe it as a holiday, or set it apart for special religiousservices. Not finding the day of our Saviour's birth specifiedin the sacred text, they considered this festival as resting uponno firmer foundation that the other feasts and fasts and saints'days, which they regarded in the aggregate as a human inven.tion. It is not the province of these papers to discuss theological questions, but it is highly probable that if Christmas andEaster had been the only days of this kind set apart for observance, their traditionary character would have been respected even by our scrupulous Puritan ancestors. As itwas, their objection was perhaps rather to the mode in whichChristmas was kept in their time, and still more to the manner in which it was kept at an earlier period, than to the observance of the day in itself. Milton's inimitable Christmashymn shows us that there was at least one of those who paidlittle respect to the traditions of the Romish or the Anglicanchurch, who felt in all its significance that"This is the month, and this the happy morn."Among the reasons which led the Puritans to oppose theobservance of Christmas was no doubt the fact, that it hadalmost lost the character of a religious festival, even of acheerful and joyous character, and had degenerated into a dayof grotesque and not seldom licentious revelry. The periodfrom Christmas to Twelfth Night resembled the RomanTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 13Saturnalia so closely, before the Reformation, and to some extent after it, that it has been usually supposed to have beencelebrated in imitation of that season. For these twelve dayssociety was turned topsy-turvy; servant and master changedplaces, and all gave themselves up to antic games, coarserevelling, and licensed dissipation. An old Puritan writer onthis subject (Prynne) says:-"Our Bacchannial Christmasses and New Years Tides with thoseSaturnalia and feasts of Janus, we shall find such near affinity betweenthem, both in regard of time (they being both in the end of Decemberand on the first of January, ) and in their manner of solemnizing, (bothof them being spent in revelling, epicurism, wantonness, idleness,dancing, drinking, stage plays, masques and carnal pomp and jollity, )that we must needs conclude the one to be the very ape or issue of theother. Hence Polydore Virgil affirms, in express terms, that ourChristmas Lords of Misrule (which custom, saith he, is chiefly observedin England, ) together with dancing, masques, mummeries, stage- plays,and such other Christmas disorder now in use with Christians, werederived from these Roman Saturnalia and other Bacchanalian festivals,which (concludes he) should cause all pious Christians eternally toabominate them. "It cannot be denied that many of the sports not only ofChristmas but of other church festivals were of a character atonce so coarse and absurd, as to justify in no small degree thehostility of the Puritans. Among the pageants of Christmaswas the " Lord of Misrule," a mock dignitary invested, whilethe holidays lasted, with a sort of dictatorial power. The nature of his office may be inferred from his name. His authority was recognized in all the great houses, beginning with theroyal residence. "In the feast of Christmas, (says the chronicler Stowe, ) there was in the king's house, or wherever helodged, a Lord of Misrule or Master of Merry Disports, andthe like had ye in the house of every nobleman of honor orgood worship, were he spiritual or temporal. "It is related of the great Sir Thomas More that " he wasby his father's procurement, received into the house of the14 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.right reverend, wise, and learned prelate, Cardinal Morton,where ( though he was young of years, ) yet would he at Christmas tide suddenly sometimes step in among the players, andnever studying for the matter, make a part of his own therepresently among them, which made the lookers on more sportthan all the players beside. In whose wit and towardness theCardinal much delighting, would often say of him unto thenobles that divers times dined with him, ' This child herewaiting at the table, whoever shall live to see it, will prove amarvelous man.' "A quaint author, writing in 1585, gives a minute andscarcely credible account of the extravagance to which thesestrange Christmas revellings were sometimes carried. Although the account is rather long, we think the reader willnot be displeased with the extract of a considerable portionof it:-"First all the wild heads of the parish, conventing together, choosethem a grand captain of mischief, whom they ennoble with the title ofLord of Misrule, and him they crown with great solemnity and adoptfor their king. This king appointed chooseth forth twenty, forty, threescore, or a hundred lusty fellows like himself, to wait upon his lordlymajesty and to guard his noble person. Then every one of these hismen he investeth with his liveries of green, yellow, or some otherlightwanton color, and as though that were not gaudy enough, they bedeckthemselves with scarfs, ribbons and laces, hanged all over with goldrings, precious stones, and other jewels. This done they tie about eitherleg twenty or forty bells, with rich handkerchiefs in their hands, andsometimes laid across over their shoulders or necks, borrowed for themost part of their pretty Mopsies and loving Bessies. Thus things set inorder, they have their hobby horses, dragons, and other antics, togetherwith their pipers and thundering drummers, to strike up the devil's dancewithal; then march these heathen company toward the church and churchyard, their pipers piping, drummers thundering, their stumps dancing,their bells jingling, handkerchiefs swinging about their heads likemadmen, their hobby horses and other monsters skirmishing amongstthe throng; and in this sort they go to a church, ( though the minister beat prayer or preaching, ) dancing or swinging their handkerchiefs overtheir heads, in the church, like devils incarnate, with such a confusedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 15noise that no man can hear his own voice. Then the foolish peoplethey look, they stare, they laugh, they fear, and mount upon forms andpews, to see these goodly pageants, solemnized in this sort. Then after thisabout the church they go, again and again, and so forth into the churchyard, &c.The hobby horse was cut out of stiff pasteboard, representing a pony with his housings, and attached to the reveller insuch a way as to conceal as much as possible his biped character, and to form of the whole a very tolerable representationof horse and rider. This whimsical imitation may still beseen among the sports of Carnival at Rome and Naples.After all allowance is made for exaggeration in the preceding description, it furnishes a pretty good apology for thedislike which the Puritans entertained for Christmas. Whether we shall feel equal sympathy with them in reference to oneof the few incidents of a Christmas festival which have descended to the present day, is not so certain . Mince-pie andplum-porridge were an established part of the traditionarycheer, and probably did their share in rendering the celebration of the day popular. This was enough to disaffect theearnest reformers towards these tempting delicacies. Butler, in describing the objects of his ridicule, in Hudibras, saysthey"Quarrel with minced pies, and disparageTheir best and dearest friend, plum -porridge."It was in allusion probably to this passage in Hudibras,that Dr. Johnson in his life of Butler remarks, " that we havenever been witnesses of the animosities excited by the use ofmince-pies and plum-porridge; nor seen with what abhorrencethose, who would eat them at all other times of the year,would shrink from them in December. An old Puritan, whowas alive in my childhood, being, at one of the feasts of thechurch, invited by a neighbor to partake his cheer, told him,that if he would treat him at an ale-house with beer brewed16 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.for all times and seasons, he should accept his kindness, butwould have none of his superstitious meats and drinks."It is not easy, at this time of day, to write gravely aboutmince-pies; but regarding them as the Puritans did as a portion of the dainties devoted (as they viewed matters) to thecause of idolatry, they could not indulge in them withoutviolating the spirit of the earliest law of the primitive church,which commanded abstinence from " meats offered to idols. "At any rate, the ridicule is not all on one side. There was nomore absurdity in rejecting than in adhering to this gastronomic article of faith . An ingenious writer in the " World,"judicially commenting with mock gravity on the degeneracyof the age, observes,"How greatly ought we to regret the neglect of minced pies, which,besides the ideas of merry-making inseparable from them, were alwaysconsidered as the test of schismatics! How zealously were theyswallowed by the Orthodox, to the utter confusion of all fanaticalrecusants! If any country gentleman should be so unfortunate in thisage ( 1755) as to lie under a suspicion of heresy, where will he findso easy a method of acquitting himself, as by the ordeal of Plumporridge?"Various other choice viands were appropriated to this season, some traces of which still remain in the old countries.A “baron of beef" is still served up at Christmas and othergreat festivities; this being the name of the two sir- loinsroasted and brought to table undivided, a baron being oftwice the dignity of a knight. A boar's head gaily dressedwas a standing luxury at Christmas. As far back as 1170,according to the ancient chronicles, King Henry the Second,on occasion of the coronation of his son, during his own lifetime, served him at the table as a waiter, bringing up theboar's head, with trumpets before it, according to the manner."Never was a monarch so served before," exclaimed the Kingto his Son. The latter instead of a dutiful response to hisfather's compliment, said in a low voice to the Archbishop ofTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 17York, who stood near him, that " it was no great condescension in the Son of an earl to wait on the Son of a King."Dugdale in his account of the middle temple, in describing theceremonies of Christmas day says: " Service in the churchended, the gentlemen presently repair into the hall to breakfast with brawn, mustard, and malmsey." At dinner “ atthe first course, is served in a fair and large boar's head upona silver platter, with minstrelsy." Among the earliest bookspublished in England, was a collection of carols prepared tobe sung as an accompaniment to the grand entrée of the boar'shead; and Warton in his history of English poetry says thatone of these carols, though with many innovations, was in histime retained at Queen's College, Oxford.In some of the ancient Christmas superstitions there was apathetic meaning which we can pardon if we cannot sympathize with it. A notion prevailed down to the close of thelast century in the western parts of Devonshire, that at twelveo'clock at night on Christmas eve, the oxen in their stalls arealways found on their knees as in an attitude of devotion;and (which is still more singular) since the adoption of thenew style, they still continue to do this only on the eve of oldChristmas day. " An honest countryman, living on the edgeof St. Stephen's down near Launceston, Cornwwall, informedme" (I quote the words of Mr. Brand in " his Popular Antiquities," the learned work from which most of the materialsof this desultory article are derived, ) " that he once, with someothers, made a trial of the truth of the above, and watchingseveral oxen in their stalls at the above time, at twelve o'clockat night, they observed the two oldest oxen only fall upontheir knees, and as he expressed it in the idiom of the country, make a cruel moan like Christian creatures .' 'This change from the old style to the new took place inEngland, as is well known, about the middle of the last century. The act of parliament, by which the alteration waseffected, was carried through the house of Lords, principally18 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.under the influence of the celebrated Lord Chesterfield, andthe Earl of Macclesfield, the son of the unfortunate LordChancellor of that name. Lord Macclesfield was eminentas a man of Science, President of the Royal Society, andthoroughly acquainted with the grounds, on which the reformation of the calendar had become necessary. He was however an indifferent speaker. Lord Chesterfield, on the otherhand, had but an amateur acquaintance with the scientific bearings of the subject, but was an eloquent and persuasive orator.He was accordingly able to present the subject to the houseof Lords in a very favorable light. Lord Macclesfield, on thecontrary, (as we learn from Lord Chesterfield himself, ) " whohad the greatest share in forming the bill, and was one of thegreatest mathematicians and astronomers in Europe, spokeafterwards with infinite knowledge and all the clearness thatso intricate a matter could admit of; but as his words, hisperiods, and his utterance were not near so good as mine[Lord Chesterfield's] the preference was most unanimously,though most unjustly, given to me."The reformation of the calendar was for the time an extremely unpopular measure. Its scientific grounds were notunderstood by the masses, and the fact that it emanated fromthe Pope was no recommendation to the Protestant world.The son of Lord Macclesfield standing as a candidate for parliament, in a contested election for Oxfordshire, some timeafterward, the mob insultingly called out to him, " Give usback, you rascal, those eleven days which your father stolefrom us."This pleasing specimen of electioneering candor and fairness to political opponents shows that we do not possess amonopoly of those articles, as the tone of our newspapers inthe course of a warm canvass, might otherwise lead us to suppose.But to return to Christmas.Milton's devout imagination does not confine to animatedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 19nature an instinctive sense of the blessed influence of theNativity:--Peaceful was the night,Wherein the Prince of lightHis reign of peace upon the earth began;The winds with wonder whistSmoothly the waters kist,Whispering new joys to the wild ocean;Who now hath quite forgot to rave,While birds of calm sit brooding on the charmed wave."Although the ancient superstitions ( of which I have alludedto a very small part, ) connected with Christmas and the fantastic revels with which it was celebrated, are now almost forgotten, it is still observed in the " old country," as we learnfrom Sir Walter Scott and our own Geoffrey Crayon, with nolittle cordiality and fervor. The church is decorated withevergreens and the hall adorned with misletoe. It is a holyday for the children and a season of good-fellowship for youngand old. The scattered members of the family are re-assembled; the dependents of the house are gathered with patriarchal hospitality under the roof of its head, and while genialfestivity prevails within doors, bountiful supplies of clothingand food are sent to the neighboring poor. The beautifuldescription of Christmas in the introduction to the SixthCanto of Marmion, will immediately recur to the reader,though it contains the customary lament of the present dayover the good old times which are passed and gone:—"England was merry England, whenOld Christmas brought his sports again.'Twas Christmas broached the mightiest ale;'Twas Christmas told the merriest tale;A Christmas gambol oft could cheerThe poor man's heart through half the year. "In the later editions of Marmion, an extract is given from20 THE MOUNT VERNON of Ben Jonson's masques, which contains a kind of cummary view of the Christmas sports as practised in his day.But nothing has been better said or sung on the subject ofChristmas than the delightful sketch of Mr. Irving. The various associations that give interest to the festival are alludedto with delicacy and truth. The religious significance of theevent, the family-gatherings, the winter season with its indoorfireside enjoyments, its now obsolete sports remembered witha sigh at their exclusion from modern life, together with awarm picture of the kindliness and cheery festivity which arestill kept up at Christmas, are touched in language as melodious as a carol of olden times. Having described the simplemusic of the " Waits," still to be heard in some parts of England, he draws to a close with one of those matchless strainsof Shakespeare which pour life and poetry into the humblestrecesses of nature."How delightfully the imagination, when wrought upon by these moralinfluences, turns every thing to melody and beauty! The very crowingof the cock, heard sometimes in the profound repose of the country,telling the night-watches to his feathery dames,' was thought by thecommon people to announce the approach of this sacred festival: -""Some say that ever, ' gainst that season comesWherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated,This bird of dawning singeth all night long,And then they say no spirit dares stir abroad;The nights are wholesome-then no planets strike,No fairy takes, no witch hath power to charm,So hallowed and so gracious is that time."May this " hallowed and gracious time " diffuse its innocent cheer through every family circle, and scatter its bountieslargely among the children of want!NUMBER THREE.THE HOUSE OF FRANKLIN .Demolition of the house of Franklin in Boston-Why necessary-Crooked and nar- row Streets of Boston and their origin-Great inconvenience from this cause and necessity of widening the Streets-Union Street widened and the house at thecorner of Union and Hanover Streets, in which Franklin lived, necessarily removed-Description of the house and of its changes-Reasons against removing it to another place-All the original portions of it preserved.ON the morning of the 10th of November, 1858, HisHonor Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr., the present active andintelligent Mayor of Boston, called upon me in his gig, andproposed to me to go down and see the house of Franklin, atthe corner of Union and Hanover streets. He was led to dothis, from the fact that the house and its impending fate hadbeen the subject of repeated conferences between both thepresent and the last Mayor and myself. On our way HisHonor suggested to me, that he had called upon me at a veryearly hour, in order that we might arrive perhaps " in season,to witness the first stroke of the sledge-hammer in demolishing the house."Demolishing the house of Franklin! in the City ofBoston, the house of her most illustrious native Son; in themiddle of the nineteenth century, the house of the Philosopher, Statesman, and Patriot, who shone among the brightestlights of the eighteenth! What! shall the municipal govern- ment of the " American Athens " demolish the house of theirown Franklin, while an enraged foreign conqueror could spare22 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the house of the Boeotian Pindar, when every other edifice inThebes was levelled with the dust? -a circumstance which,by the way, must have materially impaired the value of theone building left standing, as a piece of real estate. Shallthe inhabitants of the " Literary Emporium," in time ofpeace, withhold from the dwelling of their own most distinguished fellow-citizen that protection, which Milton did notscruple to demand for his humble abode in time of civil war,from"6Captain, or Co-lo-nel, or knight at arms? "Tell it not in New York; publish it not in the streets ofPhiladelphia; unless you publish and tell at the same time,(as you will be sure to do, from the amiable instinct whichleads us to proclaim just what our neighbors do not want tohear, ) that they also have demolished the houses of Franklinand Washington.But is it absolutely necessary that the house of Franklin,at the corner of Union and Hanover streets in Boston, shouldbe demolished?To answer this question, we must go back to the origin ofthe ancient and venerable Metropolis of New England;somewhat as good Mr. Thomas Prince commences his NewEngland chronology with the creation of Adam; fortifyingthe date before the flood, which he assigns to that importantevent, by the authority of Funccius, Bucholzer, Frankenberger, and other writers equally well-known and popular.Boston was not originally laid out like Philadelphia insquares, nor like Washington on a system of rectangles traversed obliquely by avenues. None of the streets follow astraight line for any considerable distance, and their ordinateof curvature has escaped Professor Pierce, in his entertainingwork on " curves and functions." It is such, however, as tomake it one of the most important functions of the CityGovernment to straighten them. If the homely truth mustTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 23be told, it is said that the streets in the ancient City of Bostonwere originally laid out by the cows, going to pasture in whatis now Beacon street and Park street, and returning at nightfrom those distant regions. While the greater part of thepeninsula lay in a state of nature, and the population consisted of a few thousands, not to say a few hundreds, no inconvenience attended this primitive engineering; which was certainly more in conformity to the age of Adam, with whichour ancient Chronologer begins his work, than to that ofthe " Colossus of Roads, " who has prefixed a Mac to thefamily name.This system of engineering could hardly fail to producecrooked and narrow streets, of which the effects are seen andfelt to the present day, especially by that most dissatisfiedand querulous class of mankind, the tax-payers. Nor arethey the only class who suffer. In consequence of the crookedness of the streets, none but a native Bostonian, who haspassed regularly through the primary and grammar schools,can find his way about the town without a guide. A strangerwho comes for a few days, especially a Philadelphian, if heattempts to make his calls alone, generally brings up at theend of an hour or two on the steps of the Tremont from whichhe started , without having found one of the places for which heset out. A few years since, the choice of Mayor was decidedby this circumstance. One of the candidates, having onlylived five or six years in the City, could not, it was averred,find his way about the town, without the directory. Hisopponent was a native who could thread his way round thegreater part of the City without a guide, and so carried theday. He has never once lost his way, and has just beenre-elected.The narrowness of the streets is a more serious evil. Itwas of little consequence, while the population was small,commerce inconsiderable, vehicles of all kinds few, and trucksshort; but with a crowded population and an active com-24 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.merce, a truck twenty-five feet in length is something of acircumstance in a street fifteen or twenty feet wide. It is saidthe ferret will turn round in a hole no bigger than himself;but that a truck twenty-five feet long, heavily loaded, anddrawn by two or three horses tandem, could turn round in astreet of twenty feet wide would be incredible, if it were notconstantly seen in Boston. It is however felt to be a seriousinconvenience, and it having been found that the trucks, however dangerous to the citizens, cannot be curtailed , with anysafety to the municipal powers that attempt it, the alternativepolicy of widening the streets has as far as possible beenadopted.And here it may be proper, as we are writing for theinformation of many of those benighted persons, who liveat a distance from what is called by the " Autocrat," (whorules us from the breakfast table with such mild and absolutesway, ) " the hub of the Solar system," viz.: " Boston StateHouse," to give a more particular description of THE TRUCK,which, in its full development, is a Boston institution .Things bearing the name exist in other places, but theyresemble a Boston truck, as a tadpole resembles a full-grownBatrachian; as a pig-nut resembles a shell-bark; as the sloeresembles the green-gage; as the crab-apple resembles theNewtown pippin; as the button pear, which takes hold ofyour gums and teeth, like a dentist's forceps, resembles a gloumorceau; as the dog rose resembles the Queen of May; as thebitter almond resembles the Heath peach; in short, as a greatmany things resemble—that is , do not resemble-a greatmany other things, to which they bear a generic affinity, butno likeness.The Boston truck is constructed of two long parallelshafts, hewn from the best of oak, winter felled, well seasoned, and free from faults. These shafts are twenty-five feetlong, ten inches wide, and five inches thick; strengthenedunderneath with somewhat shorter pieces of the same width.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 25The upper ends of the shafts are cut curving and shapedround, to fit the sides of the wheel-horse. They are thenframed together by two transverse pieces; the well compacted structure is placed upon a low axle, supported bywheels, which are three feet in diameter; and thus the truckis complete. It has no carriage-body of any kind; if thereis a thing in the universe which a truckman disdains , it is thewhole range of enclosed or covered vehicles from a hand- cartup to a Conestoga wagon. The truck has no head-board, notail-board, no side-boards; but is open into free space onevery side; a small movable block only at the lower end,being held by iron pins nearer or further from the horses, asthe size of the load requires. A number of horses, in proportion to the load to be drawn, generally two or three, sometimes six or eight, are harnessed tandem to the truck; of mastodontic dimensions, high-fed, sleek, and docile. The truckman is in keeping with his truck and his horses; regularlysix feet two in his shoes; stout in proportion; temperate,intelligent, patient; to drive a loaded truck in safety throughBoston streets when business is brisk, requiring almost asmuch courage, self-possession, and alertness, as to take athree-decker through the Needles in a gale. The truckmen,consequently, several hundreds in number, form a veryimportant body-the reserved power of the community.All else may go wrong-the upper ten, the lower ten thousand may fail; but if the readers of " the Ledger " and thetruckmen stand firm, all comes out right at last. They quellriots, scatter mobs, compose a considerable part of the volunteer cavalry, work with a will at fires, make and unmakealdermen, and powerfully affect even the choice of Mayors.As to the load of a truck, it has no precise limits.Neither Legendre or Bowditch has given a formula for theamount of goods that can be conveyed on a truck. Themode of loading is a problem in the Equilibrium of forces;the operation of unloading a study in Dynamics. The truck,226 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.for the latter purpose, ranges along the street till the axle ison a line with the door of the warehouse; the leaders areunhitched from the end of one of the shafts, so as to leavehalf the street open, and a word of command is uttered bythe truckman, which the wheel horse understands as well as acommon Christian understands his mother tongue, and whichin English means, " Quick time, backward wheel, march! "instantly the truck, with its load, revolves as upon a pivot,through the arc of a quadrant; the tail of the truck is thusbrought round, and runs far back into the warehouse; thechocking block is removed, and then the load-hogsheads oftobacco, sugar, oil, or molasses-tierces of rice-pipes of wineand bales of cotton, go down the inclined plane of the truckwith a run, like a bore at the Sand Heads, or a spring tide inthe Bay of Fundy. At this precise stage of the operation, itis prudent for all persons not immediately engaged in it,leisurely customers, genteel loafers, and outsiders generally,who may happen to be in the warehouse, to stand a little onone side; some difficult cases in surgery may be preventedby their doing so. When, however, by any chance, a package containing bona fide fragile and valuable articles (not abox of old brass andirons labelled " Glass, this side up, withcare," but a Louis Quatorze clock or an alabaster copy ofCanova's Hebe) is confided to a faithful truckman, he carries itas gently as he would a sick child. In a few moments theload is discharged; the leaders again hitched on; anotherimpressive word of command uttered, which means, “ Quicktime, right or left wheel, (as the case may be, ) forward,march;" sometimes a cheery, but good-natured crack of thewhip is heard, which never touches the noble animals, (for atrue-hearted truckman would about as soon beat his wife ashis horse; ) and the empty truck bounds over the ringingpavement in search of another load , like a ricochet shot.The immediate object of the institution of trucks is ofcourse to convey merchandise; the final cause (teleologicallyTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 27speaking) is to compel the widening of the streets. Thissubject accordingly occupies much of the time and attentionof the municipal government of Boston. In all representative governments, whether of the City, the State, or theUnion, in order to avoid uncomfortable jealousies that onepart or region is preferred to another, it is requisite, whenyou undertake a public work in one place, to do the samething in twenty others at the same time. On this principle,it is necessary to carry on the work of widening and improving the thoroughfares (which, while it is in progress, ofcourse shuts them up altogether) in half a dozen differentplaces at once; reducing the city for the time very much tothe state of Paris in a season of barricades. Improvementsof this kind are generally as much for the benefit of theabuttors as of the public at large, and accordingly in NewYork and some other cities, the owners of the property benefited are charged with a part of the expense. In Boston thepublic treasury (to the disgust of the above-mentioned taxpayers) remunerates the owner handsomely for having hisproperty made more valuable.In the progress of improvements of this description, oneof the important streets leading directly from the centre ofthe city of Boston to a region containing the terminations offour railroads, and two bridges, took its turn to be widened.This has already been done in a considerable portion of thestreet, and the operation will soon extend to its entire length.It so happened that at the corner of this street and Hanoverstreet, there stood an ancient building, of a very ordinaryappearance, upon the spot to which the father of BenjaminFranklin removed from Milk street, shortly after Benjaminwas born, and there carried on the trade of a soap- boiler,reluctantly assisted for some time by the ambitious boy,already aspiring to higher things. "At ten years old," saysBenjamin Franklin, " I was taken [ from school ] to help myfather in his business, which was that of a tallow chandler28 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.and soap boiler; a business to which he was not bred, buthad assumed on his arrival in New England, because he foundthat his dyeing trade, being in little request, would not maintain his family. Accordingly I was employed in cuttingwicks for the candles, filling the moulds for cast candles,attending the shop, going of errands, &c. I disliked thetrade, and had a strong inclination to go to sea. "The house in which, as is commonly understood, this humble trade was carried on by Josiah Franklin, and in whichBenjamin discontentedly assisted him for two years, now stoodin the way of widening Union street. It presented a front onHanover street of about fifteen feet, and Union street was tobe widened to just that extent; in other words, it became necessary that the house in which Benjamin Franklin is supposedto have passed his childhood should come away.Watching the progress of this improvement (for suchunquestionably it was) from day to day, as I came into Bostonfrom the country, in the summer of 1857, I was not a littleconcerned at what seemed to be the impending fate of thehouse of Franklin. That it must give way was certain, butthe thought occurred to me, that it might be removed to theneighboring square, and there be restored by approximationat least to its original condition and appearance. On thissubject I had several confidential communications with the thenworthy Mayor of Boston, the Hon. A. II . Rice, lately chosena representative in Congress. The year, however, passed away,and " the Franklin House " stood its ground. I brought thesubject to the notice of our new Mayor the present year ( 1858) ,and to that of the intelligent and energetic chairman of theCommittee of public buildings, Mr. Alderman Whiteman,respectfully urging them to consider the possibility of removing and so saving the Franklin House, an object in whichthey fully sympathized with me.It was found, however, on examination, that this wasimpossible; and even if possible, of doubtful expediency.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 29In the first place, it is not certain, but the contrary is probable, that the house lately demolished is the one in whichFranklin passed his boyhood, though built upon the spotoccupied by the former dwelling, and, according to the economical practices of that day, as far as they were available,of materials taken from it. In the next place, the house justremoved had undergone several successive modernizations.It had been so often built upon, altered and renovated, as tohave lost all appearance of an ancient building both withoutand within. Its identity in fact was open to doubt, nearly asmuch as that of the ship Paralus in antiquity, which hadbeen so often and so thoroughly repaired, that not a stick ofthe ancient timber remained; with the difference, however,that the ancient form and appearance of the Paralus werescrupulously kept up; while the old Franklin house had beentransformed into a modern shop. It reminded me a littleof the question, which was a good deal agitated in the metaphysical circles of the younger classes at Harvard, in mycollege days, whether, after a pen-knife had had first a newblade, and then a new handle, it was the same knife, or adifferent one. When this question was complicated by theadditional hypothesis, that the original handle and blade hadbeen successively picked up and put together by the " fortunate finder," it may be easily conceived to present points,with which the sophomoric mind would find it somewhatdifficult to grapple.I will not undertake to say, that if what has in successiveperiods been taken from the Franklin house had been preserved and put together, it would have made a, but certainly there was nothing remaining of the ancientstructure, but a portion of the old wall, much built upon bymodern additions, and the main timbers and joists. The carpenter who had executed the last modernization, added histestimony to the same effect, in corroboration of what wasplainly enough seen in the state of the building. Anew story30 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.had, at that time, been added to a part of the building, theancient partitions removed, the original windows taken out,much of the walls cut away to admit other windows of largersize and in modern taste, and all the wood-work, exceptingtimbers and joists as aforesaid, made new. What more thanany thing else identified the building in its association withFranklin and his father, the ancient soap kettle and the fireplace in which it was incased, —were on this occasion removedfrom the cellar, which was probably in Franklin's time muchless of an underground place than it has since become, by thegradual elevation of the level of the streets. Nothing of theoriginal structure seemed left, but the bricks in the lowerportions of the walls, the timbers and joists of the lower andperhaps the second floor, a door leading down into the cellar,half a window, and the hearth-stone of the fireplace, in whatis now a completely subterranean cellar, but which was nodoubt originally a basement room.Had it been worth while to attempt the removal of abuilding of so questionable a character, it could not have beeneffected without further serious changes. The long side,parallel to that which faces Union street, was not of brick likethe three other sides , but of slight frame-work. To put thebuilding into a condition to be removed, this fourth side musthave been built up of brick, with an entire renewal of theinterior frame. This would have gone far to destroy whatlittle remained of the identity of the house. The removal,for the sake of preserving it, of a structure of doubtful origin,already so greatly changed, and which required, as a preparation to be removed, changes still more essential, seemed anillusory operation, and the project was abandoned.In this way the demolition of Franklin's house was inevitable. That it must disappear from the spot which it occupiedwas clear. The street must be widened. If the living Franklin, grown up to the height of his world-wide renown, hadstood upon the spot, he must have stepped aside or been runTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 31down by the Charlestown Omnibus; and poor Richard, -as thrifty as poor, -was not the man who would have alloweda sentimental feeling about a ruinous old house to prevent thewidening of a great thoroughfare. As little would he havecountenanced the deceptive operation of transferring the building we have described to another spot, and that after anotherrenovation under the pretence of removing, for the sake ofpreserving, a precious relic of antiquity.Every thing removable and coeval with Benjamin will bepreserved. The gilt globe which hung for a century and ahalf at the corner of the house, and was supposed to symbolizea round cake of soap, bearing the name of Josiah Franklin andthe date of 1698, has been preserved by Gen'l E. L. Stone,the late proprietor of the house, and will doubtless find itsway to some appropriate public institution. The handle andpiston of the old pump, the door, the window, and the hearthstone above referred to, are safe, with all that is valuable ofthe ancient frame. Little has been demolished that could besaved, and nothing that was worth saving.But though it was not possible nor desirable to preservethe house of Franklin, as it is generally regarded,—the housecertainly which stood on the spot where he passed his boyhood, -Boston has not been indifferent to the memorials contained within her precincts of the illustrious mechanic, philosopher, statesman, patriot, and philanthropist. But of thesewe must speak on some future occasion.NUMBER FOUR.A SAFE ANSWER.Reuben Mitchell's education -Becomes a partner in business with his master-Marries his daughter- Succeeds to the inheritance and business of his Father-in-lawInvests the profits of his business in real estate-Gradually purchases a large number of farms, many of which are unproductive-The number of his farmsknown only to himself-Curiosity of friends and the community on that subject-It becomes a topic of public remark-Measures adopted to solve the mystery- And the result.REUBEN MITCHELL belonged to an old Quaker family in thesouth-eastern part of Massachusetts, and had been brought upin the straitest peculiarities of the sect. His dress was in allrespects in the modest Quaker style, and his speech retainedthe once universal solemnity of the second person. His calmand quiet temper was in unison with the gentle austerities ofthe sect; and the last thought of Reuben Mitchell's heartwas to adopt the innovations in language, dress, and manner,which began to be attempted in his childhood, by some oftheyouthful members of the once persecuted but now respectedbrotherhood.Reuben was brought up as a merchant, under a prosperous relative, who first in the whale fishery and then in general business had amassed a considerable property. First asapprentice and then as clerk, he went through the severe routine of the old school . Early hours and the performance ofa great deal of manual and even menial labor, were thenexpected of all young men devoted to a business life, althoughbelonging to what are called respectable families. ReubenTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 33submitted to these hardships, if hardships they are, withcheerfulness. In fact, they were formerly considered as amatter of course, and no more to be complained of than the order of the seasons.With these feelings and habits Reuben Mitchell passedthrough his business novitiate, and was soon admitted a junior partner in the house by his late master, on the footing, ashe could bring no money capital into the concern, of doingnearly all the work and receiving scarce any of the profits ofthe establishment. This arrangement, however, was notunusual, nor deemed oppressive. The gains which it yieldedReuben were small, but they satisfied his modest wants, andsmall as they were, he saved something.In due time Reuben's business connection with his latemaster led to one of a gentler character.Hannah Folgerwas her father's only child; three or four years youngerthan Reuben; gay and sprightly after the type of Friends;dark hair; a smiling eye; a dimpled cheek; an air and manner, which, among the world's people, might have beenthought to possess a dash of coquetry, but in Hannah servingonly to create a pleasing contrast with the quiet garb andantiquated speech of the sect.It was almost a matter of course that a tender feelingshould spring up between Reuben and Hannah. We intendno disparagement by using the phrase, " matter of course."We have no doubt there is as much of the romance of Loveamong Friends, as among the world's people; but it was allbut impossible, that, with the continual opportunities whichpresented themselves for friendly intercourse, something tenderer than friendship should not spring up between them.They had grown up together; Reuben had boarded while anapprentice in her father's family; he was now her father'spartner, and possessed his entire confidence; and it is altogether probable that, in his quiet way, and as far as Friendsmay be supposed capable of entering into such calculations,2*34 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.he had for a long time intended that Reuben and Hannahshould one day enter into a closer partnership.In due time this event took place, and, as we have said,pretty much as a matter of course; and without involving forany of the parties a great change in the even tenor of theirlives. They had always lived beneath the same roof, andmoved in the same circle of friends. Their simple mode oflife admitted of but little variety; their quiet tempers desiredHer thoughts were given to the duties and cares of anincreasing household; his to the demands of a growing business. They sympathized and co-operated with each other, asfar as the relative sphere of the sexes admitted, lived in harmony and prosperity, and were remarked in the circle oftheir acquaintance, as an exemplary, respected, and happycouple.none.At length the father died, and Reuben and Hannah succeeded to the inheritance, a substantial, one might say large,property, and the chief control of an extensive business.This event, however, changed little or nothing in their modeof life; nothing in their household arrangements and habits.It enlarged their means of active usefulness and charity.Ruben was enabled to contribute more liberally to the publicobjects favored by the yearly meeting; and Hannah's privatecharities, never stinted, became more frequent and ample;but the change was modestly and unostentatiously made. Ina year, also, a sleek pair of horses and a four- wheeled carriage superseded the more quiet one-horse chaise, whch hadhitherto served their purposes.The most considerable change that took place in Reuben'shabits , was one which, as he conducted it, attracted but littlepublic attention at the outset, though it eventually became amatter of notoriety and remark. Though brought up to alife of active commerce, and succeeding at Mr. Folger's deathto the entire control of an extensive and profitable establishment, Reuben was wholly free from the ambition of enlarg-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 35ing his operations, or rendering his commercial house more.important and influential . He did not contract, but he didnot extend the sphere of his operations. He built no newships, and engaged in no large speculations. On the contrary, he invested his profits and the increasing surplus of hiscapital in real estate, and that not always of a very productive character. In a word, he was very much in the habit,when he had two or three thousand dollars to invest, of buying one of the numerous farms which are constantly on salein this part of the country.Reuben had retained the possession of a little estate ofsome sixty or seventy acres, where he was born and passedthe years of his boyhood. The old house, the old trees, theold well, the still older rocks, had a charm for him. Hisvery first accumulations were laid out in purchasing a smalladjoining property. As his means increased, he successivelymade the acquisition of two or three other small farms.Land at that time, and in that neighborhood, was inexpensive.Railroads were unknown, and ten miles from a large townthere were few farms that could not be bought for twentyfive dollars an acre, some for much less. In this way, at thecost of a few thousand dollars, Reuben had, in a very fewyears, become the owner of six or eight farms.It was a period of unusual vicissitude in the commercialworld. The Orders in Council and the French decrees sweptthe ocean of American commerce, and brought many a proudfortune to the ground. Reuben was prudent and was fortunate; he escaped without serious loss, but was confirmed inhis preference of solid investments, and his aversion toexpanding his commercial operations. His business continued to yield him ample returns, but he still invested thesurplus in real estate. As the grass was springing upbetween the paving stones of the trading cities, it was not tobe wondered at, that he should prefer good farms in the coun-36 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.try, to stores and warehouses in the large towns, and so Reuben annually bought more farms.In these purchases he had an eye of course principally tohis own interest; but he also acted not seldom from othermotives. He occasionally bought a farm to oblige a neighbor or friend. When the squire of his native village died,lieaving five children and considerable debts, Reuben didwhat no one else was willing, and few were able to do, andbought the farm for a fair price, though he was the only purchaser in the neighborhood. When Obadiah the miller died,and left a lonely widow whose only daughter and child wasmarried in the West, Reuben bought the little homestead toaccommodate her. There were few things he wanted lessthan a grist mill, but he took it to oblige the widow. Inshort, it got to be remarked, that, for one reason or another,Reuben Mitchell was constantly buying farms; and by thetime he was forty years old, he owned more farins than anyFriend in the Yearly Meeting.Now these farms were seldom productive. A rural tenantry is hardly known among us; the land is not sufficientlyfertile for great staple crops, which admit the payment of ahigh rent. Some of Reuben's farms were wholly unoccupied,a good many were let at the halves, but the landlord's halfwas generally very small; on some of the farms, especiallythose purchased from charitable and friendly motives, the former proprietor was allowed to live, not seldom on a nominalrent. This was the case with the clergyman's widow. Herhusband had left her in straitened circumstances; but Reuben,though not brought up greatly to respect a professionalclergy, considered all widows and orphans as belonging tothe one church universal of Christian brotherhood. So hebought the widow's farm for a handsome price, but insistedon her still occupying it at a moderate rent, which was neverasked for and never paid.Thus Reuben Mitchell became the proprietor of a greatTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 37many farms, a circumstance which, as most of them musthave been unprofitable, began to excite a good deal of attention among friends and neighbors, and finally led to no littlewonderment and remark. "Dost thee know why friendReuben purchased Jonah Littlefield's farm? " "What canbe friend Reuben's reason for investing so much property inreal estate, which brings him no return? " These were questions which were a good deal mooted; they were often raisedby Friends on ' change; they were started in private circles,at the Yearly Meeting. But Reuben was habitually silent asto his own affairs. He never invited conversation on thesetopics, and as he avoided the subject himself, no one undertook to interrogate him. In fact, it is one of the traditionsof Friends, to devote yourself principally to your own business. Some pretty fortunes have been made in New Bedfordand Nantucket in this way. The credit of Friends who mindtheir own business is generally A No. 1; whereas BenaiahBusibody, who was always attending to the business of others,never could get his long paper done at the Rock-bottomBank, without heavy collateral. When, in the panic, Benaiahhad to ask an extension, it was found, on examination of hisaffairs, that his liabilities amounted to fifty thousand dollars,and that his assets consisted of the furniture of his countingroom, which, however, was not paid for. Benaiah laid theprincipal blame to the Rock-bottom Bank, which he declaredwas in the hands of a parcel of old fogies, who confined themselves to using their capital, for the purpose of discountinggood business paper, whereas the real province of a bank, inBenaiah's opinion, was, to employ the deposits and circulation(no capital being necessary) in loans to the directors, toenable them to speculate in railroad bonds, fancy stocks, (socalled because no man of sense fancies them, ) and moonshinegenerally. It may be proper to state here, that the Editorand Proprietor of the New York Ledger keeps his account atthe Rock-bottom Bank.38 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.But human nature is human nature; though clothed indrab broadcloth or veiled in starched muslin. Notwithstanding the general habit to which I have alluded, which preventsFriends from prying too closely into their neighbors' concerns, some leading questions about the number of his farmswere occasionally put to Reuben by his brethren; and morethan once an adventurous sister, disguising a burning curiosity under an air of quiet sympathizing pleasantry, would hintto Hannah with a smile, that she did not believe even shecould tell the number of Reuben's farms. Hannah, if sheknew, never did tell .Meantime the number went on steadily increasing. Reuben kept up his business establishment, which became moreand more lucrative; but he firmly resisted all inducementsto extend it on borrowed capital, and as resolutely set hisface against speculations of every other kind. He wouldhave nothing to do with the Bubbleville Factory or theGrand Trunk Railroad, which was intended to run round theskirts of Blue Hill, and connect the Old Colony, Providence,and Worcester lines. In a word, he did nothing but buymore farms.This course of conduct at last became the subject of serious concernment, and Friends began to speak rather plainlyabout it. Most doubted the wisdom of these acquisitions;some thought it downright folly to purchase unprofitablefarms. Some of the world's people suspected sinister designs.Why should a man like Reuben Mitchell wish to monopolizeall the land in the country? It was certainly an unusualthing for a Quaker. It was foreign to the genius of our political institutions, and contrary to the first principles ofrepublican government. It was a first and a dangerous steptowards a landed aristocracy. The Columbian Semi-weeklyMosquito & Hemisphere came out with a stinging Leader, inwhich, under a feigned name, Reuben was evidently aimed at.At length, as Reuben all the while went on buying moreTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 39farms, this subject began to be pretty loudly talked about atQuarterly Meeting and Yearly Meeting; and a propositionwas seriously made in a private circle at which the publicbusiness was arranged, “ to deal with Reuben on the subject. "This was overruled by the older brethren, who admitted,however, that they felt some concern on the subject. One ofthem at length, who had for years been a business friend anda near neighbor of Reuben, suggested as a wise course, thatsome judicious friend should go to Reuben, and in a discreetand prudent manner, converse with him, and in fact interrogate him on the subject. This counsel found great favor withthe brethren, and the Friend who proposed it, -Nahum byname, —was unanimously requested to assume the office.Friend Nahum accordingly contrived as soon as possible,to fall in with Reuben. He felt, however, even in exchangingsalutations, that he had undertaken a somewhat difficult task.He dwelt rather longer on the topic of the weather, than iscustomary among Friends, and prolonged his remarks on theprospects of the whaling season and the price of oil to a tedious extent. At length, clearing his throat, he approached thedifficult topic: " Friends were conversing, -Friends had oftenwondered, several Friends from a distance had inquired ofhim, --how it was that friend Reuben spent so much moneyin buying farms; and the question was often raised howmany farms friend Reuben really owned;-and ' Thee isaware, friend Reuben,' continued Nahum, in the softest tone,' that I have no knowledge on the subject, and I have thoughtI would just inquire of thee, what I shall say to Friends, whoask me how many farms friend Reuben Mitchell reallyowns." "Reuben listened to these remarks with calmness. Thoughit was the first time he had been directly questioned on thesubject, he was aware that the number of his farms had beena matter of some curiosity, and had even been mooted at theformal gatherings of Friends. Considering it a business of40 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.his own, which concerned nobody else, he did not feel muchdisposed to gratify this curiosity . It was one of his maxims,that the best way to have your secret kept is not to tell it.Accordingly when Friend Nahum ceased, Reuben remainedsilent for a short time, reflecting on the proper reply. Hewas not at all embarrassed, but hesitated a little what to say.As men a little at a loss are apt to do, he looked up to theceiling for a moment; looked out of the window for a moment;twirled his fingers; moved his lips silently without anydefinite object; and counted the fingers of his left hand withthe forefinger of his right. These movements were almostunconsciously made; but Friend Nahum's imagination wasexcited; and he attached a great significance to Reuben'smanner and motions. He thought that, by way of preparing an accurate answer, Reuben was counting up the numberof his farms on his fingers.In this he was altogether mistaken. Reuben in a momentor two roused himself from his reverie and said, " The numberof the farms is indeed considerable; not so great perhaps assome Friends suppose; but larger than may be thought byothers . Friends thee says, are desirous of knowing the number, and thee has done wisely, Friend Nahum, not to attemptto give it at a venture. It is important Friends should notbe misinformed. If thee states the number too high, theegives an exaggerated idea of my means, and perhaps causesthe tax-gatherer to raise my assessment. If thee states toofew, Friends will not believe thee; and in either case theeerrest from the truth."These guarded remarks raised Nahum's curiosity to thehighest pitch. He rejoiced at the same time at what he considered the certain success of his efforts to solve the greatmystery. He eagerly assented to Reuben's reflections. Hewarmly and earnestly responded to his remark, that it wasvery important to avoid any mistake. He was fully confirmed in his idea that Reuben's momentary hesitation in replyingTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 41arose from a wish to reckon up the exact number; and toprevent any lapse of memory, he took out his memorandumbook and pencil, and wrote the words " Fourth month, thirdday, number of Friend Reuben's farms,” —and then pausedwith a look of intense expectation , to write down the figuresfrom Reuben's lips.Reuben still hesitated a moment; -Nahum, with a mostinsinuating smile, renewed the question, " What shall I tellFriends who inquire how many farms thee has? " And Reuben replied, " In order to make the number neither too largenor too small, it will be safest for thee, when Friends next inquire, to tell them thee does not know."NUMBER FIVE .THE COMET.Visit to the Observatory at Cambridge on the 6th of October-Description of the evening-Position of the Comet and its appearance through the Comet- seekerDrawings by Mr. George P. Bond and Mr. Fette-Appearance of the Comet through the great refractor-Professor Lovering's experiments with the Polariscope- The Cluster in the Constellation Hercules-Remarks of Professor Nichol -The Penny Cyclopædia-History of Donati's Comet-Its period-Its rapid devel- opment-Progress of Astronomy in the United States-Remark of Gibbon- Comets no longer subjects of alarm-Beautiful reflections of Addison-Apostrophe to the Comet.On the 6th of October last I visited the Observatory atCambridge, accompanied by the accomplished and efficient.Vice Regent of the Ladies' Mount Vernon Association for theState of New York, Mary Morris Hamilton (granddaughterof Alexander Hamilton), then on a visit in this neighborhood.I had asked permission the day before of the venerable Director of the Observatory, William C. Bond, to make this visit .Even with this precaution, it was not without hesitation that Iallowed myself, for a half hour, to divert to the gratification ofa curiosity, however natural and laudable, any of the preciousmoments which, when employed by the skilful observer inthe use of a powerful telescope, are so important to science.No one ought to visit a first-class Observatory, without remembering that, while he is gratifying his taste by contemplating the heavens through an instrument like the greatEquatorial at Cambridge, he is wasting the time of men of theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 43highest eminence, and misapplying (to all scientific intents)one of the most powerful refractors in the world. But thetemptation to behold this most extraordinary celestial phenomenon, the like of which has been seen but once before inmy day, and in all human probability will not be seen againin this generation, was so strong as to overcome all scruplesof delicacy.It was a serene October evening, admirably adapted forobservation. The sun set without a cloud, and the heavens,if less magnificent than when hung with the gorgeous draperywhich sometimes decks the evening sky, were of course farbetter prepared for the inspection of the wonderful visitant.Venus was the evening star. The air was still, and free fromthat tremulousness which so often disturbs observations nearthe horizon. The light of the moon, new that day, was toofaint to interfere with that of the portentous stranger, which,in his headlong course toward the sun, had left Arcturus fivedegrees behind, and was rushing to his perihelion, at the rateofa hundred and thirty millions of miles an hour.The appearance of the heavens as the sun went down, anda fainter twilight diffused itself over the sky, was most impressive; the gradual fading into obscurity of the terrestriallandscape, at last the vanishing of all the details of village,field, and lake, under the broad and shadowy wings of night,leaving nothing visible but the larger dark masses,-spreading tree, church, and distant line of hills. Then came theapparition, one by one, of the heavenly luminaries; the thinsharp edge of the new moon, -Hesperus dropping diamondsand pearls from his imperial brow, -the magnificent stars ofthe higher magnitudes in this region, whose uncouth Arabicnames Mizar, Alioth, Mirach, give so strange an aspect to thechart of the heavens, emerging from the gloom-and then, asthe night advanced, in glittering succession those of inferiorsize, down to the smallest that can be discerned by the nakedeye, till at length the whole concave was lighted up with its44 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sparkling glories. It was an evening to make one feel thesolemn significance of that glorious sonnet of Blanco White:Mysterious night! when our first parent knewThee from report divine, and heard thy name,Did he not tremble for this goodly frame,This glorious canopy of light and blue?Yet ' neath a curtain of translucent dew,Bathed in the rays of the great setting flame,Hesperus with the host of Heaven came,And lo! creation widened in man's view!Who could have thought such darkness lay concealedWithin thy beams, O Sun! or who could find,Whilst fly, and leaf and insect stood revealed,That to such countless orbs thou mad'st us blind.Why do we then shun death with anxious strife;If light can thus deceive, why may not life?The great telescope, when we went into the Observatory,was in the occupation of Mr. George P. Bond, the son andassistant of the Director, who has already acquired a brilliantreputation as an observer, and unites to it that of a skilfulgeometer. He was, at this time, with the aid of Mr. H. G.Fette, preparing the materials for those magnificent drawings,which have been engraved on steel with extreme beauty, toillustrate Mr. Bond's article on the comet, in the second andthird numbers of the " Mathematical Monthly." Wewillinglyemployed the time till we could look through the large instrument, in gazing at the comet with the naked eye, or througha glass of ordinary power. Seen in either way it was an object never to be forgotten. The nucleus was nearly equal toits neighbor Arcturus in brightness, and the curving tail shotupward through about fifty degrees, a length of forty-fivemillions of miles, or half the distance of the earth from thesun. In addition to the principal tail of the comet, on theevening of the 6th, a fainter pencil of rays streamed upward from the head, nearly on a line from the sun, to a heightof fifty degrees, passing directly between the exterior stars ofTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 45the "Northern Crown." This strange appendage was hardlyvisible to the naked eye, except of the practised observer.The appearance of the comet through the comet- seekerwas extremely beautiful, especially in consequence of thebrightness of the stars seen through the tail, and that too verynear the nucleus . In fact, to persons not accustomed to lookthrough powerful glasses, and consequently not making dueallowance for their effect, in diminishing the field of view, thecomet-seeker exhibits the object, as far as general effect goes,more impressively than the great refractor.At length the drawings for that evening were completed,and we were invited in our turns to the observing-chair, itself an admirable piece of mechanism, the contrivance of Mr.Bond, Senior. It would be impossible within the limits of apaper like this, were I otherwise qualified for the task, to doany justice to the appearances which presented themselvesthrough the great magnifier, in the surface of the comet andin the region surrounding it. They are not only minutely andgraphically described in the Memoir of Mr. George P. Bondabove referred to; but they are illustrated by two admirableengravings on steel, from drawings executed from sketchestaken by the aid of the great refractor, one by Mr. GeorgeP. Bond, and the other by Mr. Fette. Both are beautiful;but the former appears to me the most admirably executedwork of the kind I have ever seen; not only far beyond anyEuropean drawing or engraving of this comet, which has yetreached us, but superior to any foreign drawings and engravings of any celestial phenomena; those, for instance, in SirJohn Herschel's splendid work, " The Result of AstronomicalObservations at the Cape of Good Hope." The drawings andengravings in that fine volume, though executed at the expenseof a munificent patron (the Duke of Northumberland) , andby the most skilful English artists, are inferior to the drawings of Messrs. Bond and Fette, engraved by J. W. Watts atBoston for the Mathematical Monthly.46 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.But though it would be impossible, in this place, togive an adequate description of the apparent condition ofthe surface of the comet, as seen through the great telescope, some idea of it may be formed from the observation, that it was in a state of intense action and violent movement. An active evolution of the particles of matter, of whichthe comet is composed, was evidently in progress; not oneof steady radiation but of reciprocating effervescence; -asuperficial condition, which distinguishes the comet from allthe other celestial luminaries.Feeling too sensibly the value of the privilege we wereenjoying, to monopolize it for any length of time, we soongave up our seats at the glass to one or two other visitors;among them to Professor Lovering, who made some curiousobservations with Savart's Polariscope, which enabled him topronounce, with confidence, that the comet is a body shiningprincipally at least with reflected light.After all the persons present had had an opportunity oflooking at the comet through the great refractor, desirousthat my companion, who had never had an opportunity oflooking through a telescope of the greatest power (as, indeed,few persons have), should enjoy such an opportunity at thistime, I requested Mr. Bond to point the glass to the clusterin Hercules, wihch I have ever regarded, as, upon the whole,the most interesting of the stellar phenomena. With thenaked eye you see nothing; with a glass of moderate forceyou see a nebulous speck; under a very high power, you behold a group literally of thousands of stars. When you reflect, that each of these stars is a sun like our own, and as faras we can reason analogically, the centre of a solar system likethat to which we belong, the most vigorous imagination sinksunder the stupendous number and magnitude ofthe Universescomprehended in the cluster of Hercules. It is in referenceto this cluster, of which he gives a striking engraved illustra-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 47tion, that Dr. Nichol, in his " Architecture of the Heavens,"makes the following impressive remarks:"Confirming by emphatic analogies his conceptions of the characterof our Stellar System, Herschel discovered that beyond it, among thespaces to which its own stars do not reach, other gorgeous clusters areresting, separated from each other and from ours by gulfs, with whichthe distances between the different suns around us are no more comparable, then our small units on earth are with them. One of these stupendous systems [ the cluster in Hercules] is fully represented in platenumber I. as it might appear to the most powerful of our instruments.Even to a good telescope it is only like a speck; but what mind shallimagine the glories, the varieties of being that speck must contain!Such, our earliest glance of this new perspective: system on system ofmajesty unspeakable floating through that fathomless ocean: ours, withsplendors that seemed illimitable, only an unit amid unnumbered throngs,we can think of it in comparison with creation, but as we were wont tothink of one of its own stars."The " Penny Cyclopædia," of which the scientific articlesappear, for the most part, to be executed by very able hands,dismisses the Constellation Hercules with this remark: " ThisConstellation is situated between Draco, Boötes, Lyra, andOrphiuchus; but as there is no star in it larger than of thethird magnitude, there is nothing very remarkable about it."NOTHING VERY REMARKABLE ABOUT IT! only a mighty group,not of suns alone, but of the solar systems which depend upon them. Nothing but ten thousand Universes, invisible tothe naked eye, but revealed, in the depths of the heavens, bya powerful glass, within the limits of this Constellation!Nothing very remarkable!But to return to the comet. On the 2d of June, 1858,it was seen as a faint nebulosity by Professor Donati at Florence, in Italy, near the star Lambda, in the Constellation of theLion. Its distance from the sun was then about two hundredmillions of miles; -that from the earth still greater . Donatiat first doubted whether this comet was not the same as thatdiscovered in this country in May, by Mr. H. P. Tuttle ofTFIRST THEPERtime.! Tn Herculthe tTinked esYOUSPF &hold a groflect, that ethat to whunderNUMBER SIX .AN INCURSION INTO THE EMPIRE STATEPART I.lothingprepared for the journey and the result-Sandwiches as compared withy dinner at an inn-Sixty cents saved and proposed investment for it-Sixcomfortably spent at Albany-Sleeping cars and the excellence of theirments-Unexpected obstacle to the enjoyment of their fall benefit-ArriCanandaigua- The great land purchase of Gorham and Phelps.under engagement to repeat my Address on theof Washington, at two or three places, in the westof the State of New York, circumstances had prekeeping the appointment till the middle of Decemconfess that I looked forward to the expeditionciety. A journey of a thousand miles into theat this season of the year, to be made in six days,ich a discourse of two hours' length was to beto a person who has reached the age of ,-thout that, a pretty serious affair. On takingdicious friend upon the subject, he advised me,to take on me and with me, an extra supply ofand, if I had occasion, as I certainly should, tonight, to be sure to get a berth in one of theI promised to follow his advice on both points.pect to the first, I was already well provided withOply of the accustomed articles of clothing, exterrnal, of the warmest materials and closest tissues.48 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the Cambridge Observatory. Such, of course, was not thecase, but as soon as the disappearance of the moon admittedgood observations, it was detected nearly at the same time bythree Astronomers in the United States, each observer beingignorant of Donati's discovery. It was seen by Mr. H. P.Tuttle at Cambridge on the evening of the 28th of June, andan accurate determination of its place made the same night atthe Observatory in that place. On the 29th it was discoveredby H. M. Parkhurst, Esq. , at Perth Amboy, in New Jersey,and on the 1st of July by Miss Mitchell of Nantucket, -thelady who had the good fortune to gain the Comet Medal ofthe King of Denmark, for the first discovery of a telescopiccomet in 1847, and the only lady to whom that medal wasever given.Some difficulty was at first experienced in fixing upon theprobable path of the comet, but by the middle of August itsfuture course and the great increase of brightness which wouldtake place as it approached the sun had been ascertained withcertainty. It was still, however, invisible to the naked eye,and distinguishable from other telescopic comets only by theslowness of its motion and the vivid light of its nucleus.Traces of a tail were seen on the 20th of August, and on the29th it appeared to the naked eye as a hazy star. For a fewweeks it was seen both in the morning and evening sky, whichled some to the opinion that there were two comets.It wasat this time also supposed by some persons to be identicalwith the comet of 1264 and of 1556. It has since been ascertained that it is moving in an orbit (according to the meanof six calculations) of 2,156 years, consequently that if everseen before by man, it was in the year 298 before our era, —two years before the capture of Athens by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and just a quarter of a century after the death of Alex- ander the Great.On the 6th of September the curvature of the train wasnoticed for the first time, which afterward acquired such ex-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 49pansion, and constituted one of the most remarkable featuresof the comet. The streamers detached from the principaltrain first appeared on the 25th September, and increased innumber and length; and a succession of most extraordinary,and some of them never before observed phenomena in thenucleus, in its immediate surroundings, and in the train, furnished matter of observation the most intensely interestingand curious, till the comet had passed its perihelion. It wasbrightest on the 5th of October, the day before I saw it.-Mr.George Bond, in drawing to a close the admirable Memoir towhich I have already alluded, and from which such portions.of this paper as were not matters of personal observation havebeen taken, says:"The Comet of Donati, although surpassed by many others in size,has not often been equalled in the intensity of the light of the nucleus.—It would be difficult to instance any one of its predecessors, which hascombined so many attractive features."There is no branch of science in which the United Stateshave made more rapid and substantial progress than inAstronomy. Our observatories, observers, and geometers,now take rank with those of Europe. Gibbon, after his magnificent enumeration of the seven appearances of the comet of1680, given in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,adds, " at the eighth period, in the year two thousand twohundred and fifty-five, the calculations of Bernouilli, Newton,and Halley, may perhaps be verified by the astronomers ofsome future capital in the Siberian or American wilderness."It is a somewhat singular circumstance, that, at a date nearlyfour hundred years in advance of that assumed by Gibbon,the two largest refracting telescopes in the world are found,the one in Russia, and the other in America; and in eithercountry a degree of astronomical skill equal to the highestoperations ofthe science.350THE MOUNT VERNONPAPERS.I had a good deal more, when I commenced this paper,which I wished to say on the subject of the Observatory atCambridge, and the labors and discoveries of its director andhis assistants. I could not, however, do justice to the topic inthe space which remains to me in this number, and I must reserve it for a future opportunity.Wehave reason to be grateful that, in the progress ofscience, the superstitious alarms, once excited by the appearance of comets, have wholly ceased to be felt by well- informed persons. On one occasion when a comet was approachingits perihelion, it was said that the directors of the Bank ofEngland requested the municipal authority to station fireengines in Threadneedle street. It is now supposed by astronomers that the earth might pass through the tail of acomet, and that fact not be perceived by its inhabitants. Thecomet is the body which would suffer by the collision . Thatof Lexell so called was wholly deflected from its orbit in 1767,by coming within the attraction of Jupiter, which does not appear to have been in the least affected by the approach of thecomet. But even if a collision were likely to prove disastrousto our planet, we have no more reason to apprehend that precise derangement in the order of the universe, as establishedbyCreative wisdom and goodness, than we have to apprehendany other imaginable catastrophe.The following thoughts by Addison, in the Guardian, onthe comet of 1680, are so just and so beautifully expressed,"that I am persuaded they will be acceptable to the reader:"I seldom see any thing that raises wonder in me, which does notglve my thoughts a turn that makes my heart the better for it. AsI was lying in my bed, and ruminating on what I had seen, I could notforbear reflecting on the insignificancy of human art, when set in comparison with the designs of Providence. In the pursuit of this thoughtI considered a comet, or in the language of the vulgar, a blazing star,as a sky-rocket discharged by a hand that is almighty. Many of myreaders saw that in the year 1680, and if they are not mathematicians,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 51will be amazed to hear that it travelled in a much greater degree ofswiftness than a cannon ball, and drew after it a tail of fire that was fourscore millions of miles in length. What an amazing thought is it toconsider this stupendous body traversing the immensity of the creationwith such a rapidity, and at the same time wheeling about in that linewhich the Almighty has prescribed for it? That it should move in suchan inconceivable fury and combustion, and at the same time withsuch an exact regularity? How spacious must the universe be thatgives such bodies as these their full play, without suffering the least disorder or confusion by it? What a glorious show are those Beingsentertained with, that can look into this great theatre of nature, andsee myriads of such tremendous objects wandering through those immeasurable depths of Ether, and running their appointed courses? Oureyes may hereafter be strong enough to command this magnificent prospect, and our understandings able to find out the several uses of thesegreat parts of the universe. In the mean time they are very properobjects for our imaginations to contemplate, that we may form moreexalted notions of infinite wisdom and power, and learn to think humblyof ourselves, and of all the little works of human invention. "Return, then, mysterious traveller, to the depths of theheavens, never again to be seen by the eyes of men nowliving! Thou hast run thy race with glory; millions of eyeshave gazed upon thee with wonder; but they shall never lookupon thee again. Since thy last appearance in these lowerskies, empires, languages, and races of men have passed away;-the Macedonian, the Alexandrian, the Augustan, the Parthian, the Byzantine, the Saracenic, the Ottoman dynasties.sunk or sinking into the gulf of ages. Since thy last appearance, old continents have relapsed into ignorance, and newworlds have come out from behind the veil of waters. TheMagian fires are quenched on the hill- tops of Asia; the Chaldean seer is blind; the Egyptian hierogrammatist has lost hiscunning; the oracles are dumb. Wisdom now dwells infurthest Thule, or in newly- discovered worlds beyond the sea.Haply when, wheeling up again from the celestial abysses,thou art once more seen by the dwellers on earth, the lan-52 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.guages we speak shall also be forgotten, and science shallhave fled to the uttermost corners of the earth. But eventhere His Hand, that now marks out thy wondrous circuit,shall still guide thy course; and then as now Hesper willsmile at thy approach, and Arcturus with his sons rejoice atthy coming.NUMBER SIX .AN INCURSION INTO THE EMPIRE STATE.PART I.Extra clothing prepared for the journey and the result- Sandwiches as compared with a hasty dinner at an inn-Sixty cents saved and proposed investment for it-Sixhours comfortably spent at Albany-Sleeping cars and the excellence of their arrangements-Unexpected obstacle to the enjoyment of their full benefit-Arrival at Canandaigua-The great land purchase of Gorham and Phelps.BEING under engagement to repeat my Address on theCharacter of Washington, at two or three places, in the western part of the State of New York, circumstances had prevented my keeping the appointment till the middle of December. I must confess that I looked forward to the expeditionwith some anxiety. A journey of a thousand miles into thelake region, at this season of the year, to be made in six days,on three of which a discourse of two hours' length was to bepronounced, is, to a person who has reached the age of ,-but no matter about that,—a pretty serious affair. On takingcounsel with a judicious friend upon the subject, he advised me,above all things, to take on me and with me, an extra supply ofwarm clothing, and, if I had occasion, as I certainly should, totravel in the night, to be sure to get a berth in one of thesleeping-cars. I promised to follow his advice on both points.With respect to the first, I was already well provided withan ample supply of the accustomed articles of clothing, external and internal, of the warmest materials and closest tissues.54 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.But following my friend's advice, and looking forward to theexposure of the journey, I laid in an extra supply, betteradapted to a voyage of Arctic exploration, than to a trip intothe State of New York. It consisted of a supplementary pairof overalls, made of pilot cloth, and well lined with thick cotton, a dreadnought cloak also lined and wadded, a sea-ottertippet, the gift of a kind friend, which Dr. Hayes might haveenvied, a pair of very warm gauntlets, lined with vicuña, anda voluminous Bay State shawl. These preparations for thewintry journey had not been made without fitting domesticadvisement.At length the appointed day arrived, and clad in all thesehabiliments, which had the effect of duplicating my " apparentdiameter" to the naked eye, I took my seat in the car forAlbany. A few moments only elapsed, before I perceivedthat the atmosphere was far from being of that boreal severity, which I had taken for granted, when, in the chill of theearly morning, I had hurried on my ample stock of garments,ordinary and extraordinary. On the contrary it was, for themiddle of December, a moderate day out-doors; the weather,mingled snow and rain, settling down into the latter. Withinthe car, to take off the chill , we had a stove, kept for thegreater part of the time near a red heat. I soon felt more asif I was already in the tropics, than upon a journey in thedirection of Canada. Before long I was obliged to commencethe operation of laying aside one article after another; firstthe India- rubber overshoes which were parboiling my feet,then the warm vicuña gloves, then the splendid sea-otter tippet, then the ample folds of the Bay State shawl, then thelined and wadded cloak, very much as the grave-digger inHamlet divests himself of the traditionary score of jackets.I would gladly have got rid of the pilot-cloth overalls, but asI had only half a seat in a crowded car for a dressing-room, Idid not attempt that critical operation. When I had thrownoff the last article of extra clothing, which could convenientlyTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 55be laid aside, I was a little disconcerted at the indifferent success of my experiment in dressing for the season.In other respects, I made the journey to Albany mostcomfortably, especially after the youth, who sells what hecalls " meggyzines," had passed through the car with the"New York Ledger, " without which the traveller might aswell stay at home; and with which, he that stays at home hasabout as fair a chance to improve his mind, as those thattravel. This comfortable condition was further owing, in nosmall degree, to a liberal supply of sandwiches, prepared byneat and bountiful hands before I left home, and carefully bestowed in my travelling-bag. I am surprised to see how fewtravellers avail themselves of this resource, on a journey, for,if there is nominally a place for dining, you are nearly sureto arrive at an unusual and inconvenient time, whereas youtake your sandwiches at your accustomed hour, or just as youwant them. For instance, if, in passing East or West, youleave your seat in the car to dine at Springfield , in Massachusetts, you find indeed a very good dinner prepared at theMassasoit, for which you are allowed twenty minutes. Theoperations of placing your shawl and bag carefully in yourseat by way of retainer, of finding your way into the house, ofwashing and brushing, occupy the first five minutes of yourtime. The fear of being left behind makes you hurry fromthe table five minutes before the time is up. In the remaining ten minutes you bolt your dinner, pay your seventy-fivecents, and returning to the car, find that your shawl andtravelling- bag have been piled into another seat by a lady andgentleman (?) who have in your absence helped themselves toyours. The sandwiches on the contrary, as I have said, canbe taken when you please, and eaten leisurely, which yourdoctor will tell you is the best sauce to your dinner. Besidesthis, they will not cost you, at the outside, over fifteen cents, sothat you have made a comfortable meal and saved sixty cents.Having helped you to save this handsome sum, I ought to56THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.tell you how to invest it to advantage. Ten cents of it youwill want to pay the boy who takes your valise to the hotelin Albany. With the remaining half dollar, I should adviseyou to pay the first three months of your subscription toThere are several such publish- some valuable weekly paper. ed in different cities of the Union, and delicacy forbids a moreparticular indication of that, to which I think your preferencewill no doubt be given. If you tell me, as you probably will,that you are already a subscriber to the " NewYork Ledger,"the next most desirable investment for your half a dollar,which occurs to me, is, to contribute it to the fund for thepurchase of Mount Vernon. Or better than either, give it tothat half-clad, wretched-looking creature in the corner of thecar, holding, wrapped up in her threadbare shawl, a famished,blue-lipped child, that does not look as if it had had acomfortable meal for a week; and it would not be amissif you handed them, at the same time, the remainder ofthe sandwiches. They have already been devouring themwith their hollow, vacant, hungry eyes. -There, my friend,does not that unearthly smile repay you; have you not laidout your fifty-cent piece a hundredfold better than if you hadpaid it for a half-masticated meal, and a dyspeptic afternoon?But we shall never get to our journey's end if we loiter soby the way. Let us then strain up the Becket Hills as fastas we can, dash down to Pittsfield, and so on to States Lineand the Hudson, till we get to Albany, somewhat weary anda little bit dreary, just before dark. This travelling alonein the winter, of a rainy day, is not the most genial thing inthe world. At the Delavan, however, we shall get a nicecomfortable tea, a room, a fire, a chance to write a letterhome, to let them know we are safe thus far, possibly a nap,and all for a dollar and three quarters; at half past eleveno'clock at night, not a little refreshed, in pursuance of ourfriend's advice above mentioned, we take the sleeping- car forSyracuse.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 57This sleeping-car is a great step forward in the march ofcivilization. It enables you to travel and go to bed at thesame time. You lie down quietly to repose in your berth,and all the time you dash along at the rate of twenty-fivemiles an hour. Going from Albany to Syracuse I paid forthis novel luxury one dollar, in addition to the fare; returning from Syracuse to Albany four days later I paid fifty cents.I suppose the first time, that I forgot to tell the conductorthat I was going only half the way to Buffalo, and that he forgot to ask me how far I was going. Any how, I paid mydollar and no questions asked. The next time, however, Ishall tell him how far I am going.berths, one of which I took,The stuffed seats on whichThe berths, at least the lowerare made up with no little stretch yourself at full-length, are not too hard, and youhave two good rubber pillows, and two very substantialshawls by way of bed-clothing; altogether as comfortable anight's arrangement as can be expected by a man who isshooting all the while through the Valley of the Mohawk, atthe rate of twenty or thirty miles an hour. I really fancied Ihad reached the perfection of midnight travelling; if perfection can be predicated of that, which at best is but a mitigated discomfort:"6not so sound, nor half so deeply sweet,As he whose brow, with homely biggin bound,Snores out the watch of night. "But the philosophical Latin poet tells us that something bitterbubbles up from the very fountain of pleasure. I had scarcelycomposed myself—not to sleep-but to the delightful dreamydoze which precedes it, in which, escaped from thought, youhave just consciousness enough left to know that you are conscious of nothing-was just sinking into a state in which I amsure I could not have said the first line of the multiplicationtable, nor returned thanks for a complimentary toast at a pub3*58 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.lic dinner, when the door of the car opened, and two gentlemen bounded cheerily in , took their seats at the stove (myberth was next to the stove) , and engaged in loud, animated,earnest conversation! The first hearty burst of question andreply went off like a pistol, and summoned me back from themisty precincts of dream- land; thought resumed her importunate sway; and a perplexed impression succeeded, that eitheron their part or on mine, the right man was not in the rightplace. For a moment I was lost in doubt whether somebodyor other was not unseasonably loquacious, or I myself unseasonably drowsy. In fact I was not quite sure of my personal identity. I felt somewhat as Hodge did, when he awokeand found himself in his wagon, from which some rogue hadstolen his cattle while he slept. "If I am not Hodge, " quothhe, " I have found a capital wagon; if I am Hodge, I havelost a first-rate yoke of oxen."Pretty soon, however, I found out that I was Hodge; thatthe sleep on which I had calculated so confidently was in afair way to be stolen; moreover, that I had a long journeybefore me; that I was to speak at Canandaigua in the evening, and was likely to be a good deal the worse for wear.Accordingly, after waiting awhile for the river to run dry, Iraised myself, with the most wo-begone look I could assume(and it required no effort to assume it) , looked over the endof my berth, and told my conversible neighbors that I wasvery weary, and wanted sadly to go to sleep, but that I couldnot possibly do so if they continued to talk with each other.The gentleman nearest me answered with the utmost politeness, that they were not aware there was a person in the nextberth who wished to sleep, and that they would cease to disturb me. For what other object than going to sleep the worthy gentleman supposed I should be packed away at midnight,in the lower berth of a sleeping-car, between Albany and Syracuse, in the middle of the nineteenth century, he did not intimate, nor have I been able to conceive. Satisfied, however,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 59with his courteous and encouraging assurance, I sank back;the gentleman drew up the screen that separated us six incheshigher, and, apparently under the impression that sound likewater would not rise above its source, resumed with his companion their conversation as before!This was a state of things to put one's philosophy, even ifhe had been wide awake, to the proof. The conductor presently passed along, and I made my appeal to him. I expostulated, I argued, I sought to move. I really think on thisoccasion I was eloquent. I pleaded for the imprescriptibleright of every human being to a night's sleep, once in thetwenty-four hours. I put it on the ground of contract; I hadpaid my dollar for a berth in a sleeping- car. Had I knownthat I had paid double price I could have put that point moreforcibly. I threw myself on his sense of duty as a conductor;on his feelings as a man. I had travelled since 8 o'clock,A. M., and expected to travel till half-past ten the next day,before I reached my destination. I was tired; in a word, Iwas sleepy; and I stood, or rather, at the moment I lay, uponmy right to go to sleep. I had half a mind to tell him that,as he had caused the words " sleeping-car " to be printed onthe outside, and had taken my money for a berth, I couldbring assumpsit against him, if he did not adopt all reasonablemeasures to let me go to sleep.The conductor was evidently not only convinced butmoved. He admitted the soundness of my argument; it wasplain that he felt the force of my appeal; but, when I beggedhim to interpose, and oblige the talkative gentlemen to ceasetheir conversation, his countenance fell , and leaning towardsme he said, in a low voice, by way of excuse for not interfering,that " he knew they ought not to talk, but one was a high officerof the New York Central Railroad (and he named the office,but I shall not) , and the other was a great president of a railroad out West." He uttered the words with solemnity, adding, for my consolation, that " the officer of the New York60 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Central would get out at Schenectady." This was all thesatisfaction I got by my first appeal; of a second and a thirdhe took no notice as he passed by. He probably supposed Iwas beside myself, to think of stopping the conversation of ahigh functionary of the Central with the " great president "of some other road. But the longest hour has an end; wereached Schenectady; the officer of the New York Central gotout; and the " great president," like other great presidents,leaving his seat, retreated to obscurity in the rear of the car.As he passed me toward his berth, I murmured to myself,requiescat in pace, meaning only (I am of a very forgivingmake) " may he get a good nap." With this benediction Idismissed the great president (who, like the great Macbeth,had " murdered sleep ") to that rest of which he had deprivedme. For the rest of the way silence resumed her solitaryreign, and I slept till we reached Syracuse.Here an awkward space of two hours, and a very coriaceous beef- steak (partaken with the brakemen who were togo out at seven) intervened before we started for Canandaigua. On the way to Auburn, the car in which I was brokedown; but without causing any disaster, or more than a fewmoments' delay. I arrived in safety at my destination inCanandaigua, and found myself at home under the hospitableroof of my friend Mr. Granger.Withthis region, especially with Canandaigua, I have somedomestic associations, by means of a connection with the family of Hon. Nathaniel Gorham of Charlestown, Massachusetts,who was associated with Oliver Phelps in the vast land purchase, which bears their joint names. Judge Gorham was aman of eminence; he presided one year in the Congress ofthe old confederation; and in the convention for forming theConstitution of the United States, he was called to the Chairby Gen. Washington every day for three months. In connection with Mr. Phelps, shortly after the revolutionary war, hepurchased of the State of Massachusetts (which claimed, inTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 61virtue of a compromise with New York, a pre-emptive rightin the property of the soil) a tract of six millions of acres inthe Genesee Country, as it was called, for a few cents theacre; a magnificent speculation on paper; but, like manyother magnificent paper speculations, ending in vexation anddisappointment; and yielding, I believe, nothing but verymoderate results to the bold and sagacious adventurers. Butthe country at that time was unsettled-the Indian title notextinguished—the property in the soil in one State, the jurisdiction over the territory in another-the Federal Constitutionnot framed, and no efficient common tribunal existing to settlecontroversies. Under these circumstances Messrs. Gorhamand Phelps were obliged, eventually, to abandon the greaterpart of their princely purchase.But, though I have hardly got to the beginning of my " Incursion,” I have reached the end of my paper, and I must tellthe rest of the story another time.NUMBER SEVEN.AN INCURSION INTO THE EMPIRE STATE.ᏢᎪᎡᎢ II.Unpromising weather at Canandaigua-History of the settlement -Oliver Phelps- Anecdote of Judge Gorham- Visit to Rochester-Reserved seats-Astonishing progress of the settlement- Return to Auburn-Change in the weather-FromAuburn to Syracuse and detention there -Sleeping cars from Syracuse to Albany -Wakeful fellow- passengers-Collision at Albany-Kind- hearted Conductors- Return home.Ir was snowing and raining when I arrived at Canandaigua;and when one has travelled, by day and by night, four hundred and twenty-one miles, to speak in the evening, a heavyrain, especially in the country, where dry side-walks andvehicles do not much abound, is rather discouraging. Andso we watched the signs of the times with some anxiety, andlamented over the weather; reconciling ourselves, however,to it at last, on two grounds principally, which I mention because they contain a practical philosophy, which may beturned to account in graver cases; -one was, that our lamentations and anxieties would do no good; -the other that,though the rain was not particularly desirable for us, it wasgreatly wanted by the " rest of mankind," as the springs wereAnd so we submitted to the rain. It did not appeargreatly to tell upon the audience, and the next morning Mr.Granger handed me, as the proceeds of the evening, a generouscontribution to the Mount Vernon fund. I suspect the sumwas somewhat increased by individual liberality.I w.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 63There is no more beautiful village, as far as my observation has extended, than Canandaigua; few places of greater interest in the history of the settlement of the country. It washere, that the settlement of the western part of New Yorkcommenced, (after the purchase of Messrs. Gorham andPhelps, ) in the year 1788. In the summer of that year, Mr.Oliver Phelps, a person of truly heroic character, who is entitled to a place among Lord Bacon's Conditores Imperiorum,(founders of empires, ) left Massachusetts, for the purpose ofexploring and surveying the vast region which he and JudgeGorham had purchased, -now embracing, I believe, twelvecounties, —in the western part of New York. They penetrated, what was then a savage wilderness, as far west as Canandaigua, one hundred and thirty miles west of the GermanFlats, then considered the utmost limits of civilization . Rev.Mr. Kirkland, (father of President Kirkland, of Harvard College, ) who had long lived among the Indians as a Missionary,accompanied Mr. Phelps and his party, as a Commissioneron the part of Massachusetts. An Indian Council was heldon a beautiful eminence overlooking Canandaigua Lake; RedJacket denounced the proposed treaty; but Farmer's Brotherpacified the excited chiefs, and an agreement was finally madefor the extinction of the Indian title to more than two millionsof acres of land. After the treaty, the land was surveyedunder the direction of Mr. Phelps, on the system of townshipsand ranges, which has since been extended to the public domain of the United States, and forms one of the most important and admirable arrangements in the practical administration ofthe Government of the United States."In 1789 ( I quote the Rochester Directory of 1827 , as cited inBarber's valuable Historical Collections of New York) Oliver Phelpsopened a land office in Canandaigua. This was the first land office inAmerica for the sale of her forest-lands to settlers; and the system whichhe adopted for the survey of his lands by townships and ranges becamethe model for the manner of surveying all the new lands in the United64 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.States. Oliver Phelps may be considered the Cecrops of the GeneseeCountry. Its inhabitants owe a mausoleum to his memory, in gratitudefor his having pioneered for them the wilderness of this Canaan of theWest."Some idea of the hardships attending the first settlementof new countries in general, and this in particular, may beformed from the description given of this now beautiful andhighly cultivated village, abounding with all the improvementsof a prosperous rural district, in Mr. Spafford's Gazetteer,also cited in Barber's Collections."The settlement of this town (Canandaigua) commenced in 1790,and in 1797 I found it but feeble, contending with numerous embarrassments and difficulties. The Spring of that year was uncommonly wetand cold. Besides a good deal of sickness, -mud knee deep, mosquitosand gnats so thick that you could hardly breathe without swallowingthem; rattlesnakes, and the ten thousand discouragements everywhereincident to new settlements-surrounded by these, -in June of thatyear, I saw with wonder that these people, all Yankees from Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont, were perfectly undismayed, ' lookingforward in hope, sure and steadfast. ' They talked to me of what thecountry would be, by and by, as if it were history, and I received it asall fable."Oliver Phelps died on the 21st February, 1809, in the sixtieth year of his age; and future generations will do justiceto his memory. So rapid has been the growth of this, incommon with many other parts of the country, that thepresent generation loses, in its familiarity with it, an adequateappreciation of the stupendous process, by which barbarousterritories, almost boundless, have within sixty years beenbrought into the domain of civilization. To illustrate the rapidity of this progress, I often repeat an anecdote, which hasdescended by tradition in the Gorham family.On one occasion, when Judge Gorham was musing, in astate of mental depression, on the almost total failure of thismagnificent speculation, he was visited by a friend and towns-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 65man, who had returned from a journey to Canandaigua, thenjust laid out. This friend tried to cheer the Judge with abright vision of the future growth of Western New York.Kindling with his theme, he pointed to a son of Judge Gorham, who was in the room, and added, " You and I shall notlive to see the day, but that lad , if he reaches threescore yearsand ten, will see a daily stage-coach running as far west asCanandaigua. " That lad was the late Mr. Benjamin Gorham,who died a few years ago,-who represented Boston for several years in Congress with great ability, and who lived towitness, not merely a daily stage- coach, entering Canandaigua,but two great lines of rail- road, and a gigantic canal, traversing the State from east to west, with subsidiary communications in every direction, and without end.The next day, ( 15th December,) at half-past ten, I leftCanandaigua, regretting only the necessary shortness of myvisit, as I have to do constantly. At Rochester we had thesame menace of bad weather, which, however, gave way before evening. I met at the station President Anderson, General Smith, and Mr. Moore, and was conducted by them tothe hospitable dwelling of Silas O. Smith, Esq. , and to theenjoyment of all the comforts of a cordial reception and afriendly home.At Rochester we had inadvertently incurred the risk of apretty serious miscarriage. In order to increase the receiptsof the evening, and also to accommodate some elderly persons,invalids, and ladies, who might desire a comfortable seat inthe hall, without going at an hour beforehand, or who wereunable to struggle for it at a crowded door, the idea of reserving a portion of the seats at a higher price, occurred to thosehaving charge of the arrangements. It was not an entirelynovel plan; but, though a well-meant, it proved to be anunfortunate suggestion. Seats are daily reserved in many,nay, in most places of public resort, in this country and inEurope, without giving alarm to the most sensitive votary of66 THE MOUNT VERNON equality. But it gave offence to some of our Roffensian friends, -and it became necessary, in deference to theexcited public feeling, to abandon the discrimination, and toplace all the tickets at the lower price. This restored harmony, at the expense, I suppose, of a hundred or two of dollars to the Mount Vernon fund; and a noble audience filledthe hall, which is one ofthe best in the country. For myself,I am no aristocrat. I do not own a quadruped larger than acat, and she an indifferent mouser; nor any kind of a vehicle,with the exception, possibly, of a wheelbarrow. But I amwilling my neighbor should dash by me on his spirited horse,while I am trudging a-foot; or roll in his luxurious carriage,while I take a seat in the omnibus. On the same principle,if my neighbor prefers to pay a dollar for a reserved seat ata place of public resort, (especially for the benefit of theMount Vernon fund, ) it does not disquiet me in the purchaseof a fifty-cent ticket. If my neighbor is an aged person, aninvalid, or a lady, and is disposed to pay a double price for alittle comfort of this kind, I have personally no objection, —although I had nothing to do with the proposed arrangementat Rochester, as I never have with any business arrangementsconnected with the repetition of my address.The next day-though the air was somewhat shrewd-Igreatly enjoyed a drive to the beautiful Cemetery and the fallsof the Genesee. The river was in grand order, the falls magnificent, spanned with a rainbow, which, in cosequence of ahigh wind, that blew the water into spray, was of more thanordinary brilliancy. I had seen Rochester but once before,and that in 1821; and when, I believe, Carthage contendedwith her for the mastery. Carthage is now pretty much inthe condition of its African namesake, and Rochester is a cityprobably of some fifty thousand inhabitants. It is one of themost astonishing examples of the growth of the new settlements in this country. The part which, in 1812, was surveyedfor the purpose of settlement by Nathaniel Rochester, CharlesTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 67H. Carroll, and William Fitzhugh, emigrants from Maryland,I believe, and called " Rochester " after the senior proprietor,had, under the name of the " Mill lot, " been bestowed byGorham and Phelps on a semi-savage, called Indian Allen, asan inducement for building mills, to grind corn and sawboards for the few settlers at that time in this region . *Messrs. Rochester, Carroll, and Fitzhugh paid $ 1,750 for thishundred acre lot, on which a considerable part of the cityof Rochester is built. Some of the land on the other sideof the river was sold by Gorham and Phelps in 1790 foreighteen pence the acre. It is statements like these, whichbeguile men into land speculations, in which I shall give youthe benefit of my own experience, on a small scale, anothertime.Having passed a most agreeable day in the amiable familycircle of my hospitable hosts, and with the advantage of making the acquaintance of many of the citizens, I left Rochesterat 6 P.M., in company with my friend, the Rev. Dr. Cressyof Auburn, who had taken charge of the arrangements for therepetition of my address at that delightful village, which wereached at about half-past ten P.M.I never would willingly travel in the dark, which deprivesyou of all the gratification and benefit of seeing a countrywith your own eyes, and thus getting an idea of it which noguide books can furnish. But in this intense condensationof existence to which we submit, crowding into one weekthe work of three-the leisurely survey of the countrythrough which you pass in travelling, is one of the firstthings to be sacrificed . One would have thought that thevastly increased facilities of travelling, which enable one, onall the great routes, to do in eight or nine hours the work ofthree days in old times, would have led us to take things alittle more leisurely and comfortably. Instead of this we

  • Barber's Historical Collections, p. 266.

68 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.clamor for more unseasonable trains, and wish to pass theseeight or nine hours under the dark, damp wings of night.A great change in the weather took place during the nightof the 16th; and in the morning Dr. Cressy's churchyardwhich lay beneath my windows, and the fine street whichruns through Auburn, were covered with snow. The weatherwas not tempting abroad, though I was very desirous of seeingthe penitentiary, which occupies so prominent a place in thehistory of prison discipline, the " Auburn system " beingoriginally the technical designation of the plan of social laborin the workshop, and solitary confinement at meals and atnight. Prevented from going abroad, I passed the hours athome, till it was time to receive the visits of friends—in whatoccupation think you, gentle reader? Can there be two conjectures as to what a well-meaning man, under engagementto furnish a weekly article to the " New York Ledger," woulddo with a couple of leisure hours, which he was compelled,by stress of weather, to pass within doors?66The appointed hour arrives, and a full and favoring audience welcomes us to Auburn; a village, I doubt not, thoughseen by me only under its wintry shroud, far more sweetthan that from which it derives its lovely name. Compelledto return to Boston by Saturday night, in order to keep myappointments for the following week, I was obliged to denymyselfthe gratification of a visit to its important public Institutions. And so after one more genial and refreshing hourwith my hospitable host, I went, with him, and my obligingfriends Mr. Morgan and Mr. Ludlow, (the latter so wellknown to many of the readers of the Ledger as the " HasheeshEater,") to the Railway station, and the train soon arrivingfrom Rochester took us to Syracuse. The night was cold,and one feels a little catch-coldish after speaking two hours;and so the extra clothing of which we spoke rather disparagingly last week, grew mightily into favor again.We reached Syracuse about twenty minutes after eleven,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 69and were to leave it for Albany by the Western train forBuffalo, due at five minutes before four; an arrangement ofhours, too long to sit up and too short to go to bed, andadmirably adapted to cultivate the equanimity of itinerantorators, tired of speaking and anxious to get home. Timedoes not " gallop withal " under such circumstances; in fact,I am strongly inclined to think that fretting is the very bestinstrument for clipping his wings. At length the Westerntrain arrived with the most gratifying punctuality, and Iagain took refuge in the sleeping car. No " great president "or high official of the New York Central disturbed my slumbers, which lasted till the break of day. I could have wished,in fact I may say that I fondly expected, that they might lasta little longer. I know few places or times when one is lesstempted to wake up, than a cold December morning in asleeping car, after two hours oratory at Auburn and fourhours impatient waiting at Syracuse. It so happened, however,that the berths next to me, and on opposite sides of the car,were occupied by travellers from Chicago, who had probablyhad two nights comfortable sleep since they left home, atany rate had slept all the way from Buffalo. They wereconsequently prepared to wake with the dawn. They notonly woke themselves, but fell into an argument, that produced precisely the same effect upon everybody else in thecar. They happened to take opposite views of several important political questions. One appeared to be a naturalizedforeigner, and the other was very strongly Native American.They had both gone through the late electioneering campaignin Chicago, which, as far as I could infer from their statements, was "animated " to say the least. Their accounts ofit certainly were. They argued, vociferated, and shouted.It was an interchange of sentiment that might be called boisterous; taunt and retort; fling and sarcasm. Virgi tells usthat the muses like alternations. I think that if the museshad been broken of their rest as much as I had, they would70 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.change their minds a little in a case of this kind. But thoughthe alternation was decidedly an altercation, it was upon thewhole good-natured. Had they got to blows, one mightalmost have thought that we had, during our slumbers, beentransported to Washington and woke up on the floor of Congress. Happily it was in a sleeping car; the dispute wasinterspersed with peals of laughter while it lasted, and endedin great good humor and a general waking up.Nothing adverse happened till we entered the station yardat Albany. Here within a few rods of our goal, our car, whichwas in the rear, came into collision with an Engine left standing in the wrong place. The iron coupling which attached usto the preceding car snapped like pack-thread, and we werethrown from the track. But we had reached our destination;the damage to the car was trifling, to passengers null. Anengineer, as we passed out, judiciously remarked, that " weshould not have got off so well had the collision taken place,while we were moving at the rate of thirty miles an hour. "Probably not; but whether the carelessness which caused itmight not have existed, deserves consideration.We were comfortably housed at the Delavan at a quarterpast ten. The trains from the West are so arranged, thatthey reach Albany about an hour after the train for Bostonhas started. If you happen to have business in Albany whichoccupies four or five hours, this is a convenient arrangement.If you are very anxious to get back to Boston by daylight,it would be a convenient thing to have the two trains connectwith each other. But it is impossible that every train shouldconnect with every other; although impatient travellers areapt to think it might.The afternoon and evening were intensely cold. The pilotclothes and dreadnoughts came admirably in play. The kindhearted conductor said it was the coldest night of the season.I call him " kind-hearted," because he allowed a poor youngmother with a shivering infant in her arms, and not a farthingTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 71in her pocket, to keep her seat. " How could I put her outin a night like this? " You couldn't, good conductor, becauseyou have a kind heart;-but I have fallen in with conductors,who I fear would have been less merciful. -Though not in asleeping car, I enjoyed a glorious sleep almost all the wayhome. In fact so overwhelmed was I with drowsiness, thatI think I could have slept through the argument of my Chicago friends, or the dialogue of the high officer and the greatPresident. The new conductor,-also kind-hearted, -happened to recognize me though asleep, and did not wake me upfor my check from West Brookfield to Boston, —for whichgood office he will long live in the grateful remembrance ofa sleepy traveller.NUMBER EIGHT.THE PARABLE AGAINST PERSECUTION.First published by Lord Kames in 1774 as having been communicated to him by Dr. Franklin-Soon discovered in Jeremy Taylor's Liberty of Prophesying-Next found in the dedication to the Senate of Hamburg of the Latin translation by George Genz of a Rabbinical work- Afterwards traced to the " Flower-Garden"of the celebrated Persian poet Saudi - Some account of Saadi-Possibly still to be found in some Jewish writer-Defence of Dr. Franklin against the charge of pla- giarism -Quoted by Sydney Smith before the Mayor and Corporation of Bristol in 1829-The parable given entire from Dr. Franklin's works.No composition of the kind is so famous, perhaps, as the"Parable on Persecution. " This is owing, partly, to its intrinsic beauty both of substance and form. The moral lessonwhich it inculcates is of the purest and loftiest kind; and theform in which this moral is clothed is singularly attractive.Its celebrity, however, is mainly to be ascribed to the circumstances attending its publication, -or rather re-publication ina revised form,-under the name of Dr. Franklin.In 1774 Lord Kames, in the second volume of his"Sketches of the History of Man, " introduced the substanceof this parable, with these words: " The following parableagainst persecution was communicated to me by Dr. Franklinof Philadelphia, a man who makes a great figure in the learnedworld, and who would still make a greater figure for benevolence and candor, were virtue as much regarded in this declining age as knowledge." Such is Lord Kames' remark, in thefirst edition of his book, as I find it quoted by Mr. Sparks inthe second volume of the works of Franklin . In the thirdTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 73edition of Lord Kames' " Sketches, " which lies before me,and purports to be " considerably improved, " the words initalics are omitted, probably for political reasons.The parable was given as follows in his Lordship's Sketches,though not, as will presently appear, with entire accuracy, ascommunicated to him by Dr. Franklin:Abraham sat in the And behold a man "And it came to pass after these things, thatdoor of his tent, about the going down of the sun.bent with age coming from the way of the wilderness leaning on a staff.And Abraham arose, and met him, and said unto him, ' Turn in, I praythee, and wash thy feet, and tarry all night; and thou shalt arise earlyin the morning, and go on thy way.' And the man said, ' Nay; for Iwill abide under this tree.' But Abraham pressed him greatly; so heturned, and they went into the tent: and Abraham baked unleavenedbread, and they did eat. And when Abraham saw that the man blessednot God, he said unto him, ' Wherefore dost thou not worship the mosthigh God, creator of heaven and earth? ' And the man answered andsaid, ' I do not worship thy God, neither do I call upon his name; for Ihave made myself a God, which abideth always in my house, and provideth me with all things. ' And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man,and he arose and fell upon him, and drove him forth with blows intothe wilderness. And God called unto Abraham, saying, ' Abraham,where is the stranger? ' And Abraham answered and said, ' Lord, hewould not worship thee, neither would he call upon thy name; therefore have I driven him out from before my face into the wilderness.' AndGod said, ' Have I borne with him these hundred ninety and eight years,andnourished him , and clothed him, notwithstanding his rebellion againstme; and couldst not thou, who art thyself a sinner, bear with him onenight?'"From Lord Kames' work this parable was taken by thelate Hon. Benjamin Vaughan of Hallowell, but then of London, in his edition of Dr. Franklin's writings. Mr. Vaughan,as is well known, was the intimate friend of Dr. Franklin,and published in London, in 1779, the first English edition ofFranklin's miscellaneous essays. From the time of its appearance in this volume, the Parable began to attract notice,was often repeated, and greatly admired as a most happyillustration ofan all-important moral truth.474 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Though not communicated to Lord Kames by Dr. Franklin as his own composition, it was naturally enough inferredfrom the manner in which it was brought forward, that suchwas the case. A good deal of surprise was accordingly manifested, when it was discovered, not long after, that a parableof substantially the same import was found in Jeremy Taylor's " Liberty of Prophesying; " (published in 1657, ) in thefollowing words:"I end with a story which I find in the Jews' Books. When Abraham sat at his tent-door, according to his custom, waiting to entertainstrangers, he espied an old man stooping and leaning on his staffe, wearywith age and travelle, coming toward him, who was an hundred years ofage; he received him kindly, washed his feet, provided supper, causedhim to sit down; but observing that the old man eat and prayed not,nor begged for a blessing on his meat, asked him why he did not worship the God of heaven? The old man told him that he worshipped thefire only, and acknowledged no other God; at which answer Abrahamgrew so zealously angry, that he thrust the old man out of his tent, andexposed him to all the evils of the night and an unguarded condition.When the old man was gone, God called to him, and asked him wherethe stranger was; he replied , ' I thrust him away because he did notworship thee;' God answered him, ' I have suffered him these hundredyears, although he dishonored me, and couldst not thou endure him onenight, when he gave thee no trouble? ' Upon this, saith the story, Abraham fetcht him back again, and gave him hospitable entertainment andwise instruction. Go thou and do likewise, and thy charity will be rewarded by the God of Abraham."Bishop Taylor, having quoted " the Jews' Books " as thesource of the Parable, search began to be made for it in everydirection among Jewish writers, but without success. Atlength it was discovered. -In the Latin dedication to theSenate of Hamburg, of a Rabbinical work, entitled the " Rodof Judah;" the translator, George Genz, gives the story substantially as found in Jeremy Taylor's " Liberty of Prophesying." The work of Genz was published at Amsterdam, in1651. The Latin passage is quoted at length by Mr. Sparksand by Bishop Heber, in a note to his life of Jeremy Taylor,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 75but it approaches so near the version contained in " the Liberty of Prophesying," that it is hardly worth while to extractit in this place. There are, however, some differences. Forinstance, in the Latin preface of Genz the answer is, “ I am afire-worshipper, and ignorant of manners of this kind; for ourancestors have taught me no such pious observance; ' perceiving with horror from his speech, that he had to do with aprofane fire-worshipper, and a person alien to the worship ofhis God, Abraham drove him from his table and his abode, asone whose intercourse was contagious, and as a foe to hisreligion. "But though there were considerable differences of thiskind in the versions, it was thought highly probable, not tosay certain, from the substantial similarity of the parable inthe preface of Genz to " the Rod of Judah," that Jeremy Taylor derived it from that source; and as it was the preface bya Jew to a Rabbinical work, it was not inaccurately, thoughrather vaguely, credited by him to "the Jews' Books." Theinquiry of course immediately arose as to the authority onwhich it was given by Genz. He himself cites simply " nobi- lissimus autor Sadus,29" 66 a most noble author Sadus." Whowas Sadus?Conjecture was not long at fault on this point. It wassoon discovered in India, that this remarkable composition,which seemed like a shadow to fly as it was approached, wassubstantially contained, not in any " Jews' Books," (as JeremyTaylor supposed, for the reasons just stated, ) but in the Bostan or " Flower Garden " of the celebrated Persian poetSaadi, unquestionably the individual referred to by Genzunder the Latinized name of Sadus. An English translationof the Parable from this ancient Persian poem was publishedin the Asiatic Miscellany at Calcutta in 1789, and is quotedfrom that work in the note of Bishop Heber to the life ofJeremy Taylor, above alluded to. It is somewhat more dif76 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.fuse, and more strongly tinged with Oriental coloring than inthe translation of Genz, but not materially different.Thus the authorship of this celebrated Parable, originallybrought into notice by the great American patriot and philosopher, is traced, through an English prelate, and a GermanJew, to the famous Persian poet of the twelfth century.Saadi is supposed to have been born at Shiraz about the yearof our Lord 1194, in the reign of Richard Coeur de Lion.He studied at Bagdad, under the most celebrated teachers ofthe time; but soon embraced a religious life , and made, it issaid, fourteen pilgrimages to Mecca, and always on foot. Heis reported to have attained the age of a hundred and twoyears. Some accounts say a hundred and twenty; and that,after reaching the age of twelve, he devoted thirty years tostudy, thirty to travel, and thirty to retirement and religiouscontemplations. His literary tastes and religious occupationsdid not, in middle life, prevent him from discharging the dutyof all good Mussulmans, to fight against the infidels. Heserved both in India and in Asia Minor; and in the lattercountry was made prisoner by the Crusaders. He was employed by them with other prisoners in throwing up thetrenches before Tripoli in Syria. Here he was ransomed forten pieces of gold by a rich inhabitant of Aleppo; who alsogave him his daughter in marriage, which, however, is notrepresented by him as the most auspicious event of his life.Having acquired a great name as a poet, traveller, and devotee, he built a house in the neighborhood of Shiraz, towardsthe close of his career; where, retaining of his wealth onlywhat was necessary for his support, he gave up the rest to thepoor. He was buried in the garden of his dwelling, and histomb is still visited as that of one of the brightest geniusesthat adorn the literature of his country.The Parable on Persecution, then, is found in the Bostan" Flower Garden," one of the most celebrated poems ofli; and in his Gulistan, or " Rose Garden," there is anTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 77allusion to an incident in his life, which may by possibilitythrow a ray of light on the remoter history of the Parable.Saadi states in the Gulistan, that while he was a prisoner tothe Crusaders, he was set to work, " with some Jews," on thetrenches before Tripoli. This was a period of high cultureamong the Jews of Western Asia; and there is no reason todoubt, that, among the prisoners of that race that fell into thehands of the Christians, some of them may have been, likeSaadi himself, men of refinement and learning. Saadi givesthe Parable as something that " he had heard once; " andnothing seems to me more probable than that a learned Jew,being a fellow- prisoner with a learned Persian, should haverelated to him this striking parable, of which the personageswere the great Jewish patriarch, and a devotee of the old Persian fire-worship.On this supposition, it would still remain probable, thatthe Parable yet lies concealed in some of the ancient " Jews'Books," and may have even been found there by JeremyTaylor. There is no apparent reason why, if he took it fromGenz, he did not name him. A learned Jewish scholar, mentioned by Bishop Heber, was strongly persuaded, that he hadsomewhere seen it, in a commentary on Genesis xviii. 1 , -which has, however, never been found. Whatever be itssource, there are few uninspired teachings, Jewish or Christian,equally impressive. It is an undoubted chapter of that greatprimitive gospel, which the Creator has written on the heartsand minds of men, but which, like the page of revelation, istoo apt to be forgotten under the influence of partisan andsectarian passion.But to return to Franklin's connection with the Parable.As soon as it was discovered that it was found substantiallyin Jeremy Taylor, Dr. Franklin, then living in England, wasaccused of plagiarism in the Repository, a journal in whichthe discovery was announced. From this charge a friendlywriter, probably Mr. Vaughan, evidently well acquainted with78 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Dr. Franklin's tastes and habits, defended him, on the groundthat he had never claimed it as his own; that it was publishedwithout his knowledge by Lord Kames; that Dr. Franklinhad been struck and pleased with it, as he heard it or foundit, and, having expanded and improved it, had it printed forprivate distribution."This great man," says this writer, " who at the same time that hewas desirous of disseminating an amiable sentiment, was an extremelover of pleasantry, often endeavored to put off the Parable in questionupon his acquaintance, as a portion of Scripture , and probably thoughtthis one ofthe most successful modes of circulating its moral. This object would certainly have been defeated, had he prefixed to theprinted copies of the Parable, which he was fond of dispersing, an intimation of its author. He therefore gave no name whatever to it, much less bis own. And often as I have heard of his amusing himself on thisoccasion, I never could learn that he ascribed to himself the merit ofthe invention. "In a letter to Mr. Vaughan, Dr. Franklin tells him thathe had a copy of it bound up in a Bible, and often read itfrom the volume to his visitors, sometimes to the perplexityof those who heard it, and had no remembrance of havingnoticed it in their own reading of the Scriptures. This treatment of the sacred volume cannot be entirely approved,though nothing irreverent was intended in it, by Dr. Franklin.The last time, as far as we are aware, that the Parable hasattracted public notice in England, was when it was quotedby Sydney Smith, in a sermon preached before the Mayorand Corporation of Bristol, on the 5th of November, 1828."I told the Corporation," says he, in a letter to a friend, atthe end of my sermon, that beautiful Rabbinical story quotedby Jeremy Taylor, as Abraham was sitting at the door ofhis tent,' &c. , which, by-the-by, would make a charming anduseful placard against the bigoted. "เ66I cannot better close this curious history than by subjoining the Parable entire, as communicated by Dr. Franklin toIr. Vaughan; and the reader will no doubt concur with Mr.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 79Sparks in the remark, that " whoever will compare it as heregiven, with the sources whence it was derived, will see thatits chief point and beauty consists in the dress and additionswhich it received from Dr. Franklin's hand. "PARABLE AGAINST PERSECUTION.1. And it came to pass after these things, that Abrahamsat in the door of his tent, about the going down of the sun.2. And behold, a man bowed with age, came from theway of the wilderness, leaning on a staff.3. And Abraham arose and met him, and said unto him ," Turn in, I pray thee, and wash thy feet, and tarry all night,and thou shalt arise early on the morrow, and go on thyway."4. But the man said, " Nay, for I will abide under thistree."5. And Abraham pressed him greatly; so he turned andthey went into the tent, and Abraham baked unleavenedbread, and they did eat.6. And when Abraham saw that the man blessed notGod, he said unto him, " Wherefore dost thou not worshipthe most high God, Creator of heaven and earth? "7. And the man answered and said, " I do not worshipthe God thou speakest of, neither do I call upon his name;for I have made to myself a God, which abideth always inmine house, and provideth me with all things."8. And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man, andhe arose and fell upon him, and drove him forth with blows into the wilderness.9. And at midnight God called unto Abraham, saying,"Abraham, where is the stranger? "10. And Abraham answered and said, " Lord, he wouldnot worship thee, neither would he call upon thy name;therefore have I driven him out from before my face into thewilderness. "80 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.11. And God said, " Have I borne with him these hundred ninety and eight years, and nourished him, and clothedhim, notwithstanding his rebellion against me; and couldstnot thou, that art thyself a sinner, bear with him one night? ”12. And Abraham said, " Let not the anger of the Lordwax hot against his servant; lo , I have sinned; lo, I havesinned; forgive me, I pray thee."13. And Abraham arose, and went forth into the wilderness, and sought diligently for the man, and found him andreturned with him to the tent; and when he had entreatedhim kindly, he sent him away on the morrow with gifts.14. And God spake again unto Abraham, saying, " Forthis, thy sin, shall thy seed be afflicted four hundred years ina strange land;15. " But for thy repentance will I deliver them; andthey shall come forth with power, and with gladness of heart,and with much substance."NUMBERNINE.WASHINGTON'S DIARY. -ROBERTSON'S MINIATURES OF GENERAL AND MRS. WASHINGTON.Aportion of General Washington's Diary the property of Mr. J. Carson Brevoort- Recently printed for private circulation-Illness of Washington in the summer of 1789-Tour in the East partly to recruit his health-A considerable portion of the Diary relates to this tour-Washington consults his friends as to the expedien- cy of the tour-Their opinion-Anecdote of Henry IV. of France, and his ministers Villeroi , Sully, and Jeannin-Robertson's miniature of Gen. Washington forms the vignette to this edition of the Diary-Account of Robertson-And his likenesses of General and Mrs. Washington-Colonel Trumbull's opinion-Photographic copies -Pine's portrait of Washington in Mr. Brevoort's possession-Gen. Washington's letter about it-An original letter of the Duke of Wellington in reply to a requestto sit for his portrait to Mr. Inman.Ir was known to the friends of the late Henry Brevoort,Esq., of New York, during his lifetime, that, among manyother treasures of history, literature, and art, he was in possession of a portion of the original Diary of Washington. Itwas shown by him to persons not likely to make an improperuse of it, but obvious considerations dictated the delay of itspublication while many of those named in it were still living.The reasons for withholding it from the public eye have ofcourse been steadily losing their force with the lapse of time.Mr. J. Carson Brevoort, the present possessor of the preciousrelic, has been able to allow its perusal with less reserve, andhas occasionally permitted it to be transcribed for personsengaged in historical researches. Four years ago, while theguest of Mr. Bancroft at Newport, I enjoyed the privilege of4*82 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.reading a copy of it, which he had had the opportunity ofadding to his invaluable collection of original documents pertaining to American history, and he was kind enough to allowit to be copied for me, with a minute accuracy, extending tothe nicest details of orthography and punctuation. Within afew months, Mr. Carson Brevoort has permitted an edition.of one hundred copies of it to be printed for private circulation. As soon as this fact was announced, I felt at liberty tofurnish to the editor of the " Portsmouth (N. II . ) Journal "at his request, the portion of the Diary narrating GeneralWashington's visit to Portsmouth, which I had read by wayof introduction to my Address on its repetition at that place.This I presume was the first occasion on which any considerable portion of this Diary was committed to the Press.No reason for limiting the number of copies of this most interesting document seems now to exist, and I venture torecommend to the accomplished owner of the manuscript, toallow an edition of it to be published for general circulation.The present publication, as may be inferred by the initials.appended to the introductory remarks, B. J. L., has beenmade under the supervision of a gentleman, to whose laborsand researches, in illustrating the localities and personalitiesof the Revolution, the student of our history is deeply indebted. He has in this edition of the Diary given a fewvaluable explanatory and illustrative remarks.This part of Washington's Diary is one of a considerableseries, of which some portions are in the Department of Stateat the seat ofgovernment, and other portions are believed tobe in private hands. " It is in a small oblong volume," notbound in stiff covers, but sewed in old-fashioned marble paper,"about four inches in width and six in length, containingsixty-six leaves," written throughout in the well known firmand legible hand of Washington, with very few erasures, andan occasional blank left to be filled up on subsequent inquiry.It was evidently of a size intended to be carried in the coatTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 83pocket, both for convenience at the time, and in order toavoid exposing larger portions of the Diary to risk of loss atonce.The new government, as is well known, went into operation nominally on the 4th of March, 1789, just seventy years.ago the present year, -but not in reality for some weeks later.Such distrust pervaded the country of the reality of the neworder ofthings, that the members of the first Congress assembled too slowly to form a quorum of the two houses beforethe sixth of April. The oaths of office were administered toPresident Washington by Chancellor Livingston, in the openbalcony of what was called Federal Hall, in Wall streetNew York, on the 30th of that month. In the course of thesummer, the President was taken down by the most severeillness he had ever known, and his life for some days wasthought to be in danger. He was confined to his bed for sixweeks, attended by Dr. Bard, a physician of the highest reputation both professional and personal, who was thought,under Providence, by his judicious and devoted attentions, tohave saved the precious life confided to his care. GeneralWashington never entirely recovered from the effects of thisattack.To recruit his health after this severe illness, as well asfor general purposes of observation, the President determinedon a tour of observation in the Autumn of the year, and aconsiderable part of this portion of the Diary is devoted tothe events of this journey, which commenced on Thursday the15th of October, and terminated on Saturday the 13th of November. Before finally making up his mind to the proposedtour, General Washington, according to his custom, took theadvice of some of those in whose judgment he confided on theexpediency of the step. The following interesting extractsfrom the Diary will show the pains which he took in obtaining and recording the views of those whom he consulted:"Monday 5th. [of October 1789. ] Had conversation with Col. Ham-84 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.ilton on the propriety of making a tour through the Eastern States duringthe recess of Congress, to acquire a knowledge of the face of the Country;the growth and agriculture thereof-and the temper and disposition ofthe inhabitants towards the new government, who thought it a very desirable plan and advised it accordingly. ""Tuesday 6th. Conversed with Gen. Knox, Secretary at war, on theabove tour, who also recommended it accordingly. ""Wednesday 7th. Upon consulting Mr. Jay on the propriety of myintended tour in the Eastern States, he highly approved of it, but observed a similar visit w'd be expected by those of the Southern. ”" Thursday 8th. Mr. Madison took his leave to-day. He saw no impropriety in my trip to the Eastward. ”The different replies of the distinguished persons consultedby Washington, on this occasion, are somewhat characteristic,and remind one of the manner in which Henry IV. ofFrance illustrated, in the presence of a foreign Minister, thedifferent dispositions of his three ministers Sully, Villeroi, andJeannin. Col. Hamilton, ever prompt and decided, " thoughtit a very desirable plan and advised it accordingly. " WithGen. Knox " he converses on the above tour, " and the veteranartillerist, satisfied that his chief inclines to the measure,simply " recommends it accordingly." Jay, the most cautiousand prudent of men, " highly approved of the intended tour; "but saw that in justice and policy, a similar visit would be expected in the other portion of the Union. Mr. Madison,slightly non-committal, neither advised nor dissuaded; but,"he sawno impropriety in the trip to the Eastward. " HenryIV. pointed to the ceiling of the reception- room and cried.with affected alarm, " See that timber, it is about to fall.”Villeroi, with instant compliance, replied, " Sire, it must bereplaced immediately." Sully, secure in his royal master'swell-earned confidence, exclaims with the bluntness authorized by it, " Who could have given you this groundless alarm,Sire; it will last longer than you or I? " President Jeannin,with judicial caution, says, " I do not perceive, Sire, thatthere is anything the matter with it, but it ought to be examined by a builder."THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 85The very first page of the Diary shows the heavy draftsmade upon the time of General Washington for the purposeof sitting for his portrait."Saturday, the 3rd [ of October, 1789, ] sat for Mr. Rammage neartwo hours to-day, who was drawing a miniature picture of me for Mrs.Washington. ""Walked in the afternoon and sat about two o'clock for Madame deBrehan, to complete a miniature profile of me which she had begunfrom memory, and which she had made exceedingly like the original. "This lady was the sister of the Count de Moustier, theFrench Minister to the United States, and with her son, accompanied her brother to this country. They all visitedMount Vernon in 1788. After their return to France, herminiature profile was engraved, and proof impressions of itsent by the Count to General Washington. The original ofit appears also to have been intended by Madame de Brehan(or Brienne) for Mrs. Washington.An original likeness of Washington, from a miniature byArchibald Robertson painted in 1792, forms the vignette tothe present edition of the Diary. Robertson came to thiscountry in the Spring of 1791 , at the instance of the Earl ofBuchan, bringing with him, as a present to Washington fromthe Earl, a box made of the wood of the oak tree whichsheltered Wallace after the battle of Falkirk. No impression of this miniature by Robertson had ever been made, before it was engraved in wood for the present work.In a manuscript left by Mr. Robertson (from which anextract has been kindly furnished to me by Mr. T. W. C.Moore) he says-"The first sittings for the original miniature of General and Mrs.Washington were in Philadelphia toward the end of December 1791and finished in January 1792. In the succeeding month of April, theportrait (in oil) of Washington for Lord Buchan was dispatched by Col.Lear, then on a mission to Europe. His Lordship afterwards expressed his high satisfaction in a letter of thanks to the artist. The originalminiatures he (the artist) retains in his own possession, and intends them86 THE MOUNT VERNON remain in his family an heir-loom and memorial of his veneration forthe great and successful champion of American Liberty. "It is evident on an inspection of this likeness of Washington, that it was painted before he had begun to wear artificialteeth. The eye, also, I am told, is of a lighter blue than theeye in Stuart's portrait. Mr. William Dunlap in an the Atlantic Magazine of 1824, says-"If we wish to behold Washington, when he began to wane in hislatter years, when he had lost his teeth, but with full vivacity and vigorof eye, looking at the spectator, we must behold Robertson's portrait ofhim."These interesting miniatures of General and Mrs. Washington are now in the possession of the granddaughter of theartist, Miss A. Robertson of New York, who two or threeyears ago kindly permitted a few photographic copies ofthemto be taken, for a pair of which I am indebted to the courtesyof Mr. Moore. Being mounted as a brooch, the miniatureof the General are somewhat faded by exposure to solarlight, and it is not impossible that the lighter blue of the eyemay be accounted for in that way. It is scarcely possiblethat a colorist like Stuart, at the meridian of his power shouldhave failed in that respect.In the manuscript above referred to, Mr. Robertson givesan interesting account of the nervous agitation he experienced,on approaching General Washington. It is one among thenumberless facts showing the awe which was felt in his presence. After speaking of his agitation and the kind attempts ofWashington to overcome it, he proceeds:"The General, not finding his efforts altogether successful, introducedme to Mrs. Washington, whose easy, polished, and familiar gaiety and ceaseless cheerfulness almost accomplished a cure. Another effort ofthe President to compose his guest was at a family dinner-party, at whichthe General, contrary to his usual habits, engrossed most of the conversation, and so delighted the company with humorous anecdotes, that hecompletely set the table in a roar. "THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 87It was my intention , in the commencement of this article,to extract some of the more interesting portions of the Diary,but there remains too little space for that purpose, and its fulfilment must be deferred. It may not be inappropriate to thisdescription of Robertson's miniature, which serves as a vignetteto the remarks introductory to the Diary, to observe that Mr.Carson Brevoort is also the possessor of the original portrait ofWashington by Pine. This painting which, if I am not mistaken, has never been copied nor engraved, is one of extremevalue. I hope at some future time, with the permission oftheliberal proprietor to have it in my power to offer the readersof the Ledger an accurate description of it. It is the portraitwith reference to which Washington gives the famous good natured but somewhat plaintive account of the heavy drafts uponhis time, required to satisfy the demands for his likeness.It is in the following words:-President Washington to Francis Hopkinson, Esq.MOUNT VERNON, 16 May, 1785.DEAR SIR-In for a penny in for apound, is an old adage. I am sohackneyed to the touches of the painter's pencil, that I am altogether attheir beck; and sit, " like Patience on a Monument," whilst they aredelineating the lines of my face. It is a proof among many others, ofwhat habit and custom can accomplish. At first I was as impatient atthe request, and as restive under the operation, as a colt is under thesaddle. The next time I submitted very reluctantly, but with less flouncing. Now, no dray-horse moves more readily to his thill, than I to thepainter's chair. It may easily be conceived, therefore, that I yieldeda ready obedience to your request and to the views of Mr. Pine.Letters from England recommendatory of this gentleman came to myhands previous to his arrival; not only as an artist of genius and taste,but as one who had shown a very friendly disposition towards this country, for which it seems he had been marked.It gave me pleasure to hear from you. I shall always feel an interestin your happiness, and with Mrs. Washington's compliments and bestwishes joined to my own for Mrs. Hopkinson and yourself, I am, &c.I venture to subjoin, by way of comparison, an originalletter of the Duke of Wellington on a similar subject, in88 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.reply to an application which I made to him in behalf of ourcountryman, Mr. Inman. I am glad to be able to add, thata short time after the following letter was written, the Dukeextended a courteous invitation to Mr. Inman to visit him atSrathfieldsaye, of which, however, he was unable to avail.himself.The Duke of Wellington to Mr. Everett.LONDON, 22 Feb., 1845.MY DEAR SIR-I have to apologize for having omitted to return ananswer immediately to your note of the 18th, received two days ago.I am much flattered by the desire of Mr. Inman, that I should sit tohim for a picture. But I am much concerned to add that, during theSession of Parliament and while the Court is in town, it is impossible forme to find time which I can devote to him.I am bankrupt in respect to portraits and busts. I am certain thatthere are not less than a dozen artists in London, with commissions topaint portraits, or model busts of me. But I cannot find time to give toany one a sitting. I have not been able to give a sitting for many years.I receive the artists at my houses in the country; either Strathfieldsayeor Walmer Castle; and give them sittings at their leisure. Wilkie,Chantrey, Campbell, Mr. Lucas, Mr. Lister and others, the principalartists , have come down and passed their three or four days at my house,and I really can find no other time to give them.In the last autumn, H. M. the Queen desired me to sit for my portraitfor the King of the French, and I sat at Windsor Castle, instead of goingout hunting one day and shooting another with his Royal Highness Prince Albert.I do everything in my power to have time at my disposition! I never dine in company on the days on which the house of Parliament, ofwhich I am a member, sits for the decision of business! Nor go out inthe evening. I rise early and go to bed late.But still my whole time is occupied, and it is absolutely impossiblefor me to name an hour at which I could receive Mr. Inman, and sit tohim for a picture.Ever, my Dear Sir, yours most faithfully,EDWARD EVERETT, ESQ. , No. 46 Grosvenor Place.WELLINGTON.NUMBER TEN.WASHINGTON'S DIARY.PART II.Commencement of his tour to the Eastern States in 1789 -First day's journey to Rye- Description of the road-The three different visits of Washington to this part of the country-Second day's journey to Fairfield and description of the road -Third day's journey to New Haven through Stratford and Milford - Description of NewHaven-Sunday passed at New Haven-Fourth day's journey to Hartford through Wallingford and Middletown and incidents by the way-Fifth day's jour ney to Springfield and description of that place-Sixth day's journey to Spencer- Express received at Brookfield from Governor Hancock-Seventh day's journey to Worcester and arrangements for entering Boston-Eighth day's journey toWeston-Arrival at Boston on the ninth travelling day from New York.GENERAL WASHINGTON commenced his tour in the EasternStates on the 15th of October, 1789, starting from New Yorkwhere he then resided as President of the United States.He travelled in a chariot with four horses, and was accompanied by Major Jackson as his official Secretary, by Mr.Tobias Lear, his private Secretary, and by six servants,among whom was his man Billy, his faithful attendant duringthe revolutionary war. The newly appointed Chief Justice,Mr. Jay, the Secretary of the Treasury, Colonel Hamilton,and the Sercretary at war, (for such was at that time theofficial designation, ) General Knox, accompanied the President for some distance from the city. " About 10 o'clock,it began to rain and continued to do so till eleven, when"they arrived at the house of one Hoyatt, who" kept " atavern at Kings- bridge, where" they " dined. After dinner6690 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.through frequent light showers," they " proceeded to the tavern of a Mrs. Haviland at Rye, who" kept " a very neat anddecent inn. "Such was the commencement of the journey, substantially in the words of General Washington. The following ishis description verbatim of the first day's progress, which iscopied as a specimen, with the punctuation and capital letters,as they appear in the printed diary."The Road for the greater part, indeed the whole way, was veryrough and stoney, but the Land strong, well covered with grass and aluxuriant crop of Indian Corn intermixed with Pompions (which were yet ungathered) in the field. We met four droves of Beef Cattle for theNew York Market, (about 30 in a drove) some of which were very finealso a flock of sheep for the same place. We scarcely passed a farm house that did not abd. in Geese. ""Their cattle seemed to be of a good quality, and their hogs large,but rather long legged. No dwelling house is seen without a Stone or aBrick chimney, and rarely any without a shingled roof-generally the sides are of shingles also . ""The distance of this day's travel was 31 miles, in which we passedthrough (after leaving the Bridge) East Chester, New Rochelle and Mamaroneck; but as these places (though they have houses of worship inthem) are not regularly laid out, they are scarcely to be distinguished fromthe intermediate farms, which are very close together-and separated, asone Inclosure from another is, by fences of stone, which are indeed easilymade, as the country is immensely stoney. Upon inquiry we find theircrops of Wheat and Rye have been abundant--though of the first theyhad sown rather sparingly on acct. of the destruction which had of lateyears been made of that grain by what is called the Hessian fly."The interesting journey thus commenced was not the firstwhich Washington had made in this direction . The life ofman and the history of nations present few contrasts so striking, in the fortune of individuals or of communities, as thatwhich marks the successive visits of Washington to the Eastern States. On the 20th of February, 1756 , he started fromNew York, with one or two brother officers, travelling onhorseback, and on their way to Boston. He was at that timeTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 91a provincial Colonel and had been despatched by his superiorofficer from his station on the frontiers of Maryland and Virginia, to go to Boston to take the decision of Governor Shirleywho had just been appointed Commander in chief, on a question of precedence between the Crown troops and those calledout by the provinces. The fame of his gallant conduct on thedisastrous field of Braddock's defeat went before him, and thepublic mind seemed already, by strange presentiment, to bedrawn toward the future hero of the Revolution. He probably kept his twenty fifth birthday that year at New Haven.At the end of June 1775, Washington passed through NewYork in the same direction, not now a provincial Colonel inthe British Service, and at the commencement of a war between France and England and their respective colonies, butas the Commander in chief of the armies of the Anglo-AmericanColonies, rushing to the field in the war of Independence.And now having, under a gracious Providence, and throughtrials of undescribed severity, brought that war to an auspicious close, he was commencing the same journey for thethird time, and after an interval of thirty three years since thefirst visit, as the unanimously elected Chief Magistrate of theUnited States of America.The party started the second day from the widow Haviland's at Rye at seven o'clock in the morning, and breakfastedat Stamford (which is six miles distant over a road " hilly andimmensely stoney and trying to Wheels and Carriages) at oneWebb's a tolerable good house, but not equal in appearanceor reality to Mrs. Haviland's." They stopped at Norwalk,which is ten miles further to feed their horses, from whenceto Fairfield where they dined and lodged was twelve miles."The superb Landscape " says the diary, " which is to be seen fromthe meeting house of the latter [ Fairfield] , is a rich regalia. We foundall the farmers busily employed in gathering, grinding, and expressingthe juice oftheir apples; the crop of which they say is rather above mediocrity. The average crop of wheat they add, is about 15 bushels to the92 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.acre, from their fallow land-often 20 and from that to 25. The Destructive evidences of British cruelty are yet visible both in Norwalk andFairfield; as there are the chimneys of many burnt houses standing inthem yet. The principal export from Norwalk and Fairfield is Horses and Cattle-salted Beef and Pork-Lumber and Indian Corn, and in asmall degree Wheat and Flour. "On the third day, October 17th, the party started a littleafter sunrise from Fairfield, and breakfasted at Stratford," which is a pretty village on or near Stratford River,” after adrive of ten miles. At Stratford the President was receivedwith what he good-naturedly calls " an effort of Militaryparade; and was attended to the Ferry, which is near a milefrom the centre of the Town, by sevl. Gentlemen on horseback." From the ferry they proceeded about three miles toMilford, where " a handsome Cascade over the Tumblingdam" attracts the attention of the illustrious traveller, “ but(he adds) one of the prettiest thing of this kind is at Stamford, occasioned also by damming the water for their mills; itis near 100 yards in width, and the water now being of aproper height, and the rays of the sun striking upon it as wepassed, had a pretty effect upon the foaming water as it fell. "The reader will not fail to observe, that is the third occasionon which Washington has already shown a taste for the beauties of natural scenery, in which it has been sometimes saidhe was deficient.From Milford the party took the lower road throughWest Haven and arrived at New Haven before two o'clock ,thus having time to walk through several parts of the citybefore Dinner. By taking the lower road they missed aCommittee of the Assembly, who had been appointed to waitupon the President, and escort him into town, to prepare anAddress, and to conduct him when he should leave the city ."The address," says the diary, " was presented at 7 o'clock-and atnine I received another address from the Congregational Clergy of theice. Between the rect. of the two addresses I received the compli-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 93ment of a visit from the Govr. Mr. Huntington-the Lieut. Govr. Mr.Wolcott-and the Mayor, Mr. Roger Sherman. ""The City of New Haven occupies a good deal of ground, but isthinly, though regularly laid out and built. The number of souls in itare said to be about 4000. There is an Episcopal Church and 3 Congregational meeting- Houses and a College, in which there are at thistime about 120 students under auspices of Doctr. Styles. The Harbourof this place is not good for large vessels-abt. 16 belong to it. TheLinnen manufacture does not appear to be of so much importance as Ihad been led to believe. In a word, I could hear but little of it. TheExports from this city are much the same as from Fairfield , &c . , andflax-seed (chiefly to New York. ) The road from Kingsbridge to thisplace runs as near the Sound as the Bays and Inlets will allow, but fromhence to Hartford it leaves the Sound and runs near to the Northward. "Sunday the 18th of October was passed by the Presidentat New Haven, and according to his general practice he attended Church both parts of the day. In the morning " atthe Episcopal Church," where he was " attended by the Speaker of the Assembly, Mr. Edwards, and a Mr. Ingersoll,"and in the afternoon at one of the Congregational MeetingHouses, ( so the President discriminates the places of Worship,) where he was attended " by the Governor, the Lieut.Governor, the Mayor and the Speaker. ""These Gentlemen (continues the diary) all dined with me, (by invitation, ) as did Genl. Huntington, at the house of Mr. Brown, where Ilodged, and who keeps a good Tavern. Drank Tea at the Mayor's (Mr.Sherman). Upon further inquiry, I find that there has been abt.yards of coarse Linnen manufactured at this place since it was established-and that a Glass work is on foot here, for the manufacture ofBottles. At 7 o'clock in the evening many Officers of this State, belonging to the late Continental army, called to pay their respects to me. Bysome of them it was said that the people of this State could, with moreease pay an additional 100,000 £ tax this Year than what was laid lastYear."The travellers left New Haven about six o'clock in themorning of the 19th, (pretty early rising, for the third weekof October,) and reached Wallingford to breakfast, a distance94 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.of about thirteen miles, at half past eight. It was the anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis, eight years before, butthe Diary is silent on that as on most other historical reminiscences. At this place the White Mulberry, " raised fromthe seed to feed the silk worm," attracts the President's notice."We also," continues the diary, " saw samples of lustring (exceedinggood) which had been manufactured from the Cocoon raised in this town,and silk thread very fine. This, except the weaving, is the work ofprivate families, without interference with other business, and is likely toturn out a beneficial amusement. In the Township of Mansfield, theyare further advanced in this business. Wallingford has a Church andtwo meeting-houses in it, which stand upon high and pleasant grd.About 10 o'clock we left this place, and at the distance of 8 miles passedthrough Durham. At one we arrived at Middletown on ConnecticutRiver, being met two or three miles from it by the respectable citizensof the place and escorted in by them. While dinner was getting readyI took a walk round the Town, from the heights of which the prospect isbeautiful. Belonging to this place, I was informed (by a Genl. Sage) thatthere were about 20 sea vessels, and to Weathersfield higher up, 22-and to Hartford the like number--other places on the River have theirproportion—the whole amounting to about 10,000 tons. ”" The Country hereabouts is beautiful and the Lands good. *Having dined we set out with the same escort (who conducted us intotown) about 3 o'clock for Hartford, and passing through a Parish ofMiddletown and Weathersfield, we arrived at Hartford, about sundown.At Weathersfield we were met by a party of the Hartford light horse,and a number of Gentlemen from the same place with Col. Wadsworth attheir head, and escorted to Bull's Tavern, where we lodged. "On Tuesday the 20th after breakfast, accompanied by Col.Wadsworth, Mr. Ellsworth and Col. Jesse Root, the President visited the woollen factory at Hartford, " which seemedto be going on with spirit." " Their Broadcloths, " he remarks, " are not of the first quality as yet, but they are good;as are their Coatings, Cassimeres, Serges, and Everlastings;of the first, that is, broadcloth, I ordered a suit to be sent tome at New York-and of the latter a whole piece to makebreeches for my servants. All the parts of this businessTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 95are performed at the Manufactory except the spinning-thisis done by the Country People, who are paid by the cut."The diary gives the usual account of the general appearance, population, and business of Hartford, and the numberof the churches there and at Middletown, bestowing that name,on this occasion, upon the places of congregational worship.He dined and drank tea at Col. Wadsworth's, and about 7o'clock received from, and answered the address of, theTown of Hartford. "66On Wednesday the 21st the President started for Springfield. He was to have breakfasted with " Mr. Ellsworth"(afterwards Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth) at Winsdor, buta heavy rain prevented his departure till half-past ten. He"called however on Mr. Ellsworth and stay'd there near anhour. " He reached Springfield by four o'clock; " and whiledinner was getting examined the continental stores," whichhe " found in very good order at the buildings (on the hillabove the town) which belonged to the United States." "TheElaboratory," continues the dairy, " which seems to be agood building, is in tolerable good repair, and the PowderMagazine, which is of brick, seems to be in excellent orderand the powder in it very dry. A Col. Worthington, Col. °Williams, Adjutant General of the State of Massachusetts,Gen. Shepherd, Mr. Lyman, and many other Gentlemen satan hour or two with me in the evening at Parson's Tavernwhere I lodged, and which is a good House. "After an interesting sketch of the road from Hartford andSpringfield, (the distance is stated to be twenty- eight miles)the navigation of the river, and the character and produce ofthe land, the record of the 21st of October closes with thefollowing summary description of Connecticut:Few or no "There is a great equality in the people of this State.opulent men-and no poor- great similitude in their buildings-thegeneral fashion of which is a chimney (always of Stone or Brick) anddoor in the middle, with a stair case fronting the latter, running up by96 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the side of the former-two flush stories with a very good show of sashand glass windows-the size generally is from 30 to 50 feet in length andfrom 20 to 30 in width, exclusive of a back shed, which seems to beadded as the family increases. The farms, by the contiguity of theHouses, are small, not averaging more than 100 acres. These areworked chiefly by Oxen (which have no other feed than hay) , with ahorse and sometimes two before them, both in Plow and Cart. In theirlight lands and in their sleighs they work Horses, but find them muchmore expensive than Oxen. "On Thursday, the 22d, the President left Springfield atseven o'clock, and travelled fifteen miles till he "came toPalmer, at the House of one Scott," where he breakfasted.From Palmer to Brookfield " to one Hitchcock's" was fifteenmiles. "A beautiful fresh water pond and large " is " in thePlain of Brookfield;" "the fashion of the Houses " wasmore diversified than in Connecticut, though many are builtin their style."66" At Brookfield " (says the diary) " we fed the Horses and dispatched an Express which was sent to me by Govr. Hancock-givingnotice of the measures he was about to pursue for my reception on theRoad and in Boston-with a request to lodge at his House."Continued on to Spencer, 10 miles further, through pretty goodroads, and lodged at the house of one Jenks, who keeps a pretty good Tavern. "66 On Friday the 23d says the President, we commencedour course with the sun and passing through Leicester metsome Gentlemen of the Town of Worcester, on the line between it and the former to escort us. Arrived about 10o'clock at the House oftance from Spencer 12 miles.handsome company of Militiasaluted with 13 Guns on ourWorcester, a Committee of the citizens of Boston and an Aidof Major Genl. Brooks (afterwards Governor) of the Middlesex Militia waited on the President to make "arrangewhere we breakfasted-disHere we were received by aArtillery in Uniform, whoEntry and departure." AtTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 9766 ments of military and other parade " on his way to and inthe town of Boston. Finding this Ceremony was not to beavoided though " he " had made every effort to do it," thePresident named the hour of ten to review the MiddlesexMilitia at Cambridge and twelve for entering Boston. Hesent word at the same time to General Brooks, that conceiving there was an impropriety in his reviewing the Militia orseeing them perform maneuvers, otherwise than as a privateman, he could do no more than pass along the line, whichmight be under arms to receive him.After breakfast the President left Worcester under escort and at the line between the Counties was met by a troopof Middlesex Light Horse who escorted him to Marlboroughwhere he dined and to Weston where he lodged. Here hewas met by Jonathan Jackson, Esqr. , the United States.Marshall for Massachusetts, who proposed to attend the President while he should be in the State. On Saturday the 24thOctober, the President started from Weston at 8 o'clock andreached Cambridge at the appointed hour of ten. " Most ofthe Militia having a distance to come were not in line tillafter eleven; they made however an excellent appearancewith Genl. Brooks at their head. ”Here the Lieutenant Governor, Samuel Adams, with theExecutive of the State, met the President and, says the diary,"preceded my entrance into town-which was in every degree flattering and honorable. "But we must leave the Diary for the present, proposing inanother paper to give an account of this celebrated entranceof Washington into Boston, which at the time was a matterof no little public interest and comment, and on which theDiary throws new light.5NUMBER ELEVEN.LOUIS NAPOLEON. -THREE PHASES IN HIS LIFE.The Downfall of Napoleon the First-His escape from Elba in 1815-His second fall and retirement of his family at Rome-Louis Napoleon a boy at his father's table-After a lapse of twenty-one years on trial for his life at Paris-His appearance and demeanor-His imprisonment at Ham-The revolution of February 1848 and downfall of Louis Philippe-Re-appearance of Louis Napoleon as deputy, Prince,President, and Emperor-General character of his administration-Unscrupulousviolence of the party press under Louis Philippe-His government overturned by leaders who aspired only to supplant his ministers-the Press of the United States.I REMARKED in the last number, that " the life of man andthe history of nations present few contrasts so striking, in thefortune of individuals or of communities, as that which marksthe successive visits of Washington to the Eastern States. "As far as the fortune of individuals is concerned, the name,which stands at the head of this article, exhibits a contrast ofconditions, at different periods of life, quite equal to thatwhich is presented in the career of Washington. The year1814 was a most momentous year in the history of modernEurope. The great drama of the French Revolution seemedto have found its catastrophe. Dethroned kings recoveredtheir sceptres; needy emigrants returned to the possession oftheir titles and the hope of one day regaining their estates;and what seemed to stamp with permanence the great politicaland social restoration, the mighty hero of this world-drama,crushed by the armies of combined Europe, had been banishedto a petty islet on the coast of Tuscany. Peace was concludedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 99between the United States and Great Britain at the close ofthe year, and the temple of Janus was shut.Such was the state of things when, on the 12th of April1815, I sailed for Europe in a ship of three hundred and fiftytons, which at that time was thought a large vessel. It wasthe second which sailed from Boston for England after thepeace, a fact sufficiently indicative of the profound torpor intowhich the foreign commerce of the country had sunk duringthe war. Intelligence did not reach us from Europe everythree days, as it does now. It was six or seven weeks, if Irecollect right, after the signature of the treaty of Ghent onChristmas Eve, 1814, before the welcome news reached thiscountry. Between that event and our arrival in Europe anew and most astonishing revolution had taken place. Itwas announced to us by the pilot, who climbed over the bulwarks of our little vessel off Holyhead, in the rather homelystatement that " Boney had broke loose again. " The suspicion, with which we were inclined to receive this news, wassoon removed by the sight of the Liverpool papers, whichcontained the certain intelligence that the continent of Europewas again a-blaze with war.No one of course could foretell the result for Napoleon orfor Europe. Lord Byron, in a conversation which I had withhim a few days before the battle of Waterloo, alluding to theconflict which was evidently impending, expressed the opinionthat Napoleon would drive the Duke of Wellington. This hesaid he should be sorry for, as he did not wish his countrymento be beaten, adding, however, with bitter emphasis, that hewould tell me what he did wish to see,-" Lord Castlereagh'shead carried on a pike beneath his windows. " But in a fewdays the great Message of Waterloo (first brought by a clerkof Rothschild, in advance of the Duke of Wellington's courier)arrived from Belgium, and in a few weeks the curtain againfell on the mighty drama, (and this time never more to risefor the principal actor, ) at St Helena.100 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.New restorations of fugitive kings, new return of emigrantnobles, new adjustments of the political relations of Europe,and in the final result, the kindred of the fallen hero, consignedto private life at Rome. -Here it was my good fortune, in thewinter of 1817-1818, to become acquainted with the venerablemother of an emperor, three kings, and one queen; and withthose of her children who were living at Rome, viz.: the ExKing Louis, (the father of the present Emperor of the French; )Lucian, who at an early period of his career lost the favor ofhis imperial brother; and the princess Borghese, still one ofthe most beautiful women of her day, and as amiable as shewas beautiful.In the course of the winter I saw for the first time, atdinner at his father's table, the present emperor of theFrench, than a boy of eleven years of age. The party wassmall, and being very near the ex-King, when we were invitedto seat ourselves unceremoniously, I was about to place myself in the chair next him, and as it happened on his righthand. With a good-humored smile, as if not wholly in earnest, he requested me to let his son sit there and to accept aseat myself on his left hand. —It probably did not enter eveninto his fond imagination, that the lad, for whom he claimedthis little remnant of royal deference, would one day sit uponthe throne of his Uncle. I have no distinct recollections ofhim in this first phase of his life, but as a handsome, wellbehaved youth, with an expression somewhat beyond hisyears, of mature manners, and as taking little part in the conversation of the dinner table.Twenty one years pass , and being on a second visit toEurope in the Summer of 1840, I was present in the galleryof the house of Peers in Paris, when the handsome, well-behaved, quiet boy, with whom I had dined at his father's tablein 1819, now grown up to a resolute, aspiring, fearless youngman, thirty two years of age, was on trial for his life, afterthe miscarriage of the affair at Boulogne. Four years (ITHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 101think) before, a similar attempt at Strasburg had sent him.into exile in the United States and England, where he livedwithout attracting public notice, though donhtless cherishingthe visions, which were one day to burst into startling realities for himself and Europe. Nothing had occurred in thetwenty one years to call my attention to him;- . but when Isaw him on trial for his life before the peers of France, Icould not, in the extreme peril in which he stood, but recollect with emotion under what different circumstances I.hadfirst seen him. His demeanor before his judges was firm,composed, and respectful. The French criminal jurisprudence subjects the prisoner to a severe interrogatory, for apurpose wholly forbidden by our law, that of making him, ifguilty, criminate himself. As far as I could judge, the youngman answered with frankness the questions propounded to him,and the impression made by him on his judges,-certainly theimpression on the crowded galleries-was decidedly favorable.This attempt at the time seemed rash almost to the pointofinsanity. In conversing with the ex-King of Holland a fewmonths afterwards, then living in the House of Alfieri, atFlorence, he expressed the opinion to me that it was a guetapens,‚—a snare set for his son, by the French police, in orderto get the young man into their power. I have, however,since seen it stated, that the attempt was by no means so rashas it seemed; that an understanding had taken place betweenLouis Napoleon and the regiment stationed at Boulogne; andthat, a day or two before his landing, in consequence of somevague rumor having reached Paris, that the troops could notbe relied upon, and that mischief was brewing, another regiment was sent to that city.The young man's head was spared and he was sent to thefortress of Ham, a prisoner for life. In that confinement unquestionably his character ripened for the empire. His occupations, never frivolous, assumed a severer cast. He studiedand wrote on civil engineering, artillery, and the political sys-102 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.tem of his Uncle, and escaped from the fortress, a more dangerous enemy to the reigning dynasty than he went in. Ineight years from his sentence in 1840, the government ofLouis Philippe was overturned, as good a one, probably, asFrance could bear, though far too bureaucratic for a liberalgovernment; too mild for a despotism. It promoted thematerial prosperity of France, but it was neither feared norloved. After the sad death of the Duke of Orleans, it had nohold upon the army-the sole efficient prop of a Frenchthrone. The old nobility affected to despise it though theyaccepted its favors, the legitimists hated it, -the republicanfactions swore its downfall; —and the mass of the people,who were never more prosperous than under Louis Philippe,with the fatal apathy of conservative parties, allowed it to sink.-It is not certain that anything could have upheld it muchlonger, for as was wittily said by one of Louis Philippe'scabinet, who escaped with him to London, " there are twokinds of government which the French cannot bear-oneis Republicanism , —the other Monarchy ." The catastrophe,however, was dimly foreseen, for it was said by the same exminister, "We knew we were living on the crust of a volcano,but we did not think it was so thin. "But the volcano burst forth in February, 1848; LouisPhilippe is driven into exile as Charles X. had been beforehim , the streets of Paris are piled with barricades and drenched with blood, the Tuileries are sacked, Neuilly is ravaged,and " the impossible republic " is inaugurated . Louis Napolcon, enrolled as a special constable with two hundredthousand other citizens of London, at the time of the greatchartist demonstration in April, is elected a member of theephemeral chamber; his choice as Prince President soon follows; on the 2d of December, 1852, the quiet lad of 1819,by a coup d'etat, whose unexampled boldness is excelled onlyby its success, takes possession of the throne of France; andit devolved upon me, in an official capacity, to send to Mr.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 103Rives, the American Minister in Paris, a letter of credence tothe government of his Imperial Majesty Napoleon the Third.In that capacity he has given to France the strongest government, equivalent, I fear, in that country to the best government, which she has had since the downfall of his uncle.-He has completed public works, beneath which the magnificent profusion of Louis the fourteenth staggered. He hasdecorated and improved Paris beyond all his predecessors onthe throne, and projected and accomplished the most giganticundertakings throughout the interior and along the coasts ofFrance. Abroad he has consolidated the conquest of Algeria,-maintained an undoubted superiority for France over thearmies of England associated with hers in the Crimea;-formed a firm alliance with Great Britain, against whom hisuncle waged an internecine war for twenty years; and hasrestored his country to her former rank in the politics ofEurope.* In accomplishing these objects, the press has beenfettered and the tribune silenced, and those liberties, which theAnglo-Saxon mind regards as the final cause of the politicalsocieties of men, have been grievously abridged. But Francehas yet to show that she is capable of enjoying them in peace.Happening to be in Paris during the Summer of 1840,and in the habit of reading the principal journals, as wellthose adverse as friendly to the government, I was amazedat the virulence and ferocity with which the political war wascarried on. Had the king been a military usurper instead ofa prince succeeding by a species of popular choice to thethrone, in the place of one who had forfeited it by violatingthe Constitution, he could not have been more fiercely assailed, and that by some of the most vigorous pens in France.Had the ministry, instead of holding power on the tenure ofparliamentary support, been solely dependent on the will of

  • This was written before the war of 1859, which has shown that the

Emperor of the French, to all his other extraordinary endowment unitesa military capacity of the highest order.104 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.a despot, they could not have encountered a deadlier opposition. The government was eminently pacific, and as such,it gave France a breathing space after the conflicts and exhaustions of her mighty wars; but it was daily denounced aspusillanimous. The king and his family lavished their vastprivate possessions on works of public utility and privatecharity, and were continually libelled as selfish and sordidwretches. When the law was appealed to, for that protection of their personal characters from those outrages, to whichthe humblest are entitled, triumphant verdicts of acquittalwere obtained by the calumniators. The unreflecting mass ofthe community, in the enjoyment of peace abroad and prosperity at home, were made to believe that they were themost oppressed and insulted of nations. Well aware fromthe history of the last eighteen centuries of the fiery susceptibility of Gallic blood, instead of marvelling at the Revolutionof February, 1848, when it burst out, I had for eight yearsbeen anticipating it, and predicting it to my friends .That revolution which extinguished the parliamentaryliberties of France, -which turned into dreamy nonsense thedoctrinarian wisdom of thirty years, —and joked together inone common humiliation , the leaders of the rival factions, wasthe work of party. —I do not mean that there was nothing toblame on the part of the king's government, but on the 23dof February, 1848, the popular leaders thought only of displacing their opponents in the ministry; on the 24th theyhad overturned the monarchy. On the 24th of February,1848, they drove out a constitutional king; on the 2d of December, 1852, they were marched to prison under the bayonets of an imperial guard. The statesman who falls at thepost of duty commands respect; the politician who imperilsthe great interests of his country to subvert a rival is a publicenemy, and merits no sympathy if crushed himself by an impartial despotism.All assumption of unconstitutional power is usurpation,but the government of Louis Napoleon has received theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 105sanction of an overwhelming majority of his subjects. M.Berryer, in his late defence of the Count de Montalembert,says that he has seen seventeen governments in France.Of these seventeen governments, those of Louis the sixteenthand Charles the tenth, -the two out of the seventeen leastrespected by the people and both violently superseded, -are the only ones which ruled by a regular constitutionaltitle. It is a fact not generally known, but of which I am wellinformed, that in overturning the government in 1852, LouisNapoleon, did but anticipate a movement of the Chambersagainst himself. The resolution was formed to arrest andimpeach him and no alternative remained to him but to succumb to the venal demagogues who, under the abused nameof constitutional freedom, had brought France to the brinkof ruin, or to extinguish them and with them, for the time atleast, the parliamentary liberties of the country.It is painful to reflect how many eloquent pens and persuasive voices of France are silenced by the censor; but if theydid not join in the clamor, (some of them did , ) they heldtheir peace, when the madness of party rage, by unremittingassaults on a mild and constitutional government, crushed itbeneath a load of undeserved opprobrium. They have theirreward. Would that our beloved country might profit bythe example! The Press of the United States is vigorous andenterprising, and reaches the heart of the community, far beyond that of any other country. It is for good or for evil,the most powerful influence that acts on the public mind, —the most powerful in itself, and as the channel throughwhich most other influences act. If it could learn that anopponent is not necessarily an unprincipled and selfish adventurer, a traitor, a coward, and a knave; and that our neighbors on an average are as honest and right minded as ourselves, it would increase its own power and the great interests of the country (which languish under the poison of ourparty bitterness) would be incalculably promoted .5*NUMBER TWELVE.WASHINGTON'S DIARY.Washington's entrance into Boston involved, to some extent, a question ofState rights -Major Russell's account inexact-General Washington's own account-Gov.Hancock abandons his ground and calls first on the President-Termination ofthe affair-Oratorio-Dinner at Fanueil Hall-The President requested to sit for hisportrait-Postponement of the music at the Oratorio-Duck Manufactory des- cribed-Card Manufactory-Visit to the French vessels of War-Departure from Boston and continuation of the journey-Letter to Mr. Tuft at Uxbridge.THE entrance of the President into Boston is the most important event mentioned in the Diary, inasmuch as it assumed, to some extent, the form of an issue between StateRights and Federal precedency. We have already seen thatGovernor Hancock invited the President to be his guest, during his visit to Boston. The President, in reply to this invitation, said " from a wish to avoid giving trouble to privatefamilies, I determined on leaving New York, to decline thehonor of any invitations to quarters, which I might receivewhile on my journey; and, with a view to observe this rule,I had requested a gentleman to engage lodgings for me during my stay in Boston. " On the receipt of this letter, Governor Hancock despatched a second express to the President,inviting him and his suite to an informal dinner on his arrival in Boston. This invitation met the President at Westonand was accepted.Thus far all seems to have proceeded harmoniously, atleast to outward appearance. Major Russell, however, theveteran Editor of the Columbian Centinel, and one of theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 107committee of arrangements for the reception of the Presidentstates in an interesting letter to Mr. Sparks (Washington'swritings vol. x. p. 491 ) that a collision of opinion and designexisted from the first between Governor Hancock and theCommittee of the Citizens. These two parties, according tothe Major, made arrangements independently of each other,and without mutual consultation; the Governor as we haveseen, inviting the President to be his guest;-the Citizens informing him that they had made provision for his accommodation . Major Russell represents that the express sent by theCitizens reached the President first, and that their invitationwas accepted. This is inexact. The Governor's invitation wasreceived at Brookfield and declined; that of the Citizensreached the President the day after at Worcester, but he hadpreviously informed the Governor that he should go to Lodgings. The dissatisfaction of Governor Hancock did not therefore, as Major Russell supposed, arise from his having beenanticipated by the Citizens, such not having been the fact.Major Russell states another fact at variance with theuniform tradition. He says that the Governor “ claimed theright of receiving and welcoming in person the expectedguest, on his arrival at the boundary of the Capital. TheCommittee on their part, contended, that, as the Presidentwas then about to enter the town, it was the delegated rightof the Municipal authorities to receive and bid him welcome;that it was in their opinion, the right and duty of the Governor to have met the guests at the boundary of the Stateover which he presided, and there to have received and bidhim welcome to the hospitalities of the Commonwealth. "This was, in Major Russell's recollection the matter incontroversy; and he further represents that, as the Presidentwas approaching the town, " both authorities remained intheir carriages, while the aids and Marshals were rapidlyposting between them. Both contended that the point of etiquette was on their side. The day was unusually cold and108 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.murky. The President with the Secretary had been mountedfor a considerable time on the Neck, waiting to enter thetown. He made enquiry of the cause of the delay, and onreceiving information of the important difficulty, is said tohave expressed impatience. Turning to Major Jackson , hisSecretary, he asked, ' Is there no other avenue to the town?'And he was in the act of turning his charger, when he wasinformed that the controversy was over, and that he wouldbe received by the Municipal authorities."There must, however, be much inaccuracy in this account,written after an interval of forty four years. That a tediousdelay took place is no doubt true; it is rarely wanting on occasion of extensive civic and military processions. But thatGovernor Hancock claimed the right of receiving the President in person at the entrance of the town, and was evenstruggling with the city authorities for an hour or two to effectthat object, while the President was kept waiting, is in thehighest degree improbable in itself, as it is contrary to theuniform tradition, and wholly inconsistent with the fact that,in two or three hours afterward, the Governor sent a messageto the President, that he was too ill to call upon him at hislodgings. General Sullivan in his Familiar Letters, statesthat during the detention, which, from whatever cause, undoubtedly took place at the entrance of Boston, the Presidentwas exposed to a raw northeast wind, by which exposure hewas visited by a severe cold. Many other persons were exposed and affected in like manner, and the affection becameso general, as to be called the " Washington Influenza ." General Washington rode on a white charger, with his hat off,not bowing to the spectators as he passed, but sitting his horsewith a calm dignified air. The following is the President'sown account of his entrèe in which the reader will perceivethat there is no mention of any such collision of authoritiesas Major Russell records, a circumstance too remarkable,one would think, to have been omitted had it taken place.-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 109"To pass over the Minutiae of the arrangements for this purpose, itmaysuffice to say that at the entrance I was welcomed by the Selectmenin a body. Then following the Lieut. Govr. and Council in the order wecame from Cambridge, (preceded by the Town Corps, very handsomelydressed, ) we passed through the Citizens classed in their different professions, and under their own banners, till we came to the State House,[ the old State House at the head of State Street]; from which across theStreet an Arch was thrown; in the front of which was this Inscription .To the Man who unites all hearts'-and on the other- To Columbia'sfavorite Son' and on one side thereof next the State House, in a panneldecorated with a trophy, composed of the Arms of the United Statesof the Commonwealth of Massachusetts-and our French Allies, crownedwith a wreath of Laurel, was this Inscription-' Boston relieved March17th, 1776.' This Arch was handsomely ornamented, and over the centre of it a Canopy was erected 20 feet high, with the American Eagleperched on the top. After passing through the Arch, and entering theState House, at the So. End and ascending to the upper floor and returning to a Balcony at the No. End; three cheers were given by a vastconcourse of people who by this time had assembled at the Arch-thenfollowed an ode composed in honor of the President; and well sung bya band of select singers-after this three Cheers-followed by the different Professions and Mechanics in the order they were drawn up withtheir colors through a lane of People, which had thronged about the Archunder which they had passed. The Streets, the Doors, windows andtops of the Houses were crowded with well dressed Ladies and Gentlemen. The procession being over, I was conducted to my lodgings at aWidow Ingersoll's, (which is a very decent and good house) by theLieut. Govr. & Council-accompanied by the Vice- President, where theytook leave of me. Having engaged yesterday to take an informal dinner with the Govr. to- day, but under a full persuasion that he wouldhave waited upon me so soon as I should have arrived- I excused myself, upon his not doing it, and informing me thro' his Secretary that hewas too much indisposed to do it , being resolved to receive the visit.Dined at my Lodgings, where the Vice-President favored me with hisCompany. "It is plain from the clause italicized , that it was the understanding of the President that the Governor deemed himselfentitled to receive the first visit, as Chief Magistrate of Massachusetts, which the President, on the contrary thought dueto himself as the Chief Magistrate of the whole United States,110 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Massachusetts included. There is no doubt, that GovernorHancock entertained this opinion conscientiously. Had hefirmly adhered to it, testifying in every other respect, all possible consideration for the President of the United States, hisopinion, " though most persons at the present day, as then,would propably deem it erroneous," would have been entitledto respect, certainly as held by so distinguished a revolutionary patriot. His friends however, Mr. Sparks informs us,held a consultation with the Governor in the evening, and incompliance with their advice, he wrote the following not verywell expressed note to General Washington the next day."Sunday, 26 October, half-past Twelve o'clock."The Governor's best respects to the President. If at home and atleisure, the Governor will do himself the honor to pay his respects in halfan hour. This would have been done much sooner, had his health inany degree permitted. He now hazards everything as respects hishealth, for the desirable purpose. "To this note the President returned the following reply:"The President of the United States presents his best respects to theGovernor, and has the honor to inform him, that he shall be at home tilltwo o'clock."The President need not express the pleasure which it will give himto see the Governor; but at the same time he most earnestly begs thatthe Governor will not hazard his health on the occasion. "The Diary of Sunday acquaints us with the result of thesecommunications."Sunday, 25th. Attended Divine Service at the Episcopal Churchwhereof Doctor Parker is the Incumbent, " [ Trinity Church, in SummerStreet] "in the forenoon, and the Congregational Church of Mr.Thacher" [in Brattle Street] " in the Afternoon. Dined at my lodgings with the Vice President. Mr. Bowdoin accompanied me to bothChurches. Between the two I received a visit from the Govr. , whoassured me that indisposition alone prevented his doing it yesterday,that he was still indisposed; but as it had been suggested that he expect-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 111ed to receive the visit of the President, which he knew was improper, hewas resolved at all haz'ds to pay his compliments to-day. The Lieut.Gov'r and two of the Council, to wit, Heath and Russell, were sent herelast night to express the Gov'rs concern that he had not been in a condition to call upon me so soon as I came to town. I informed them inexplicit terms that I should not see the Gov'r unless it was at my ownlodgings."These lodgings were in the house still standing, at thecorner of Court street and Tremont street, now occupied as agrocery on the ground floor, with lawyers' offices above. Asa dwelling house it was one of highly respectable appearanceand character for that day.The Diary for the following day records the sad consequence of the detention and exposure of the President onentering the town. It will be observed that he calls the warof the revolution " the dispute with Great Britain. " Thiswas frequently done by the worthies of that day, reservingthe name of " War" for the struggle between England andFrance of 1756.66 Monday 26. The day being rainy and stormy, myself much disordered by a cold and inflammation in the left eye, I was prevented fromvisiting Lexington (where the first blood in the dispute with G. Britainwas drawn) . Rec'd the compliments of many visitors to-day. Mr. Dalton and Gen'l Cobb dined with me, and in the evening [I] drank Teawith Gov'r Hancock and called upon Mr. Bowdoin on my return to mylodgings."Thus terminated an affair without serious consequencesand without scandal, which at the moment assumed an alarming character, and might with less judicious counsel have resulted in permanent mischief.The events of Tuesday and Wednesday, the remainingdays of Washington's visit to Boston, are given in the words.of the Diary:"Tuesday 27th. At 10 o'clock in the morning, received the visitsof the Clergy of the town.At 11 went to an Oratorio-and between112 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.that and 3 o'clock rec'd the Addresses of the Governor and Council-ofthe town of Boston-of the President &c . of Harvard College, and theCincinnati of the State; after wch at 3 o'clock at a large and elegantDinner at Fanueil Hall, given by the Gov'r and Council and spent theevening at my Lodgings. When the Committee from the Town presented their Address it was accompanied with a request ( in behalf they saidof the Ladies) that I would sit to have my Picture taken for the Hall,that others might be copied from it for the use of their respective families. As all the next day was assigned to various purposes, and I wasengaged to leave town on Thursday early, I informed them of the impracticability of my doing this, but that I would have it drawn when Ireturned to New York, if there was a good painter there- or by Mr.Trumbull when he should arrive, and would send it to them. "A slight mishap occurred at the Oratorio. On account ofthe indisposition of several of the first performers, (as statedin the Centinel of the following day,) the music was postponed for a week. "Several pieces, however, were givenwhich merited and received applause"! Ofthis rather seriousdrawback to the success of an Oratorio, viz.: the postponement of the music in consequence of the indisposition ofseveral of the principal performers, all mention is kindlyomitted in the Diary."Wednesday 28th. Went, after an early breakfast, to visit the duckmanufactory, which appeared to be carrying on with spirit, and in aprosperous way. They have manufactured 32 pieces of Duck of 30 or 40yds. each in a week, and expect in a short time to increase it toThey have 28 looms at work, and 14 Girls spinning with Both hands, (theflax being fastened to their Waist. ) Children (girls) turn the wheelsfor them, and with this assistance each spinner can turn out 14 lbs. ofThread pr. day when they stick to it, but as they are paid by the piece,or work they do, there is no other restraint upon them but to come at 8o'clock in the morning, and return at 6 in the evening. They are daughters of decayed families, and are girls of character-none others are admitted . The number of hands now employed in the different parts ofthe work is but the Managers expect to increase them to . Thisis a work of public utility and private advantage. From hence I wentto the Card Manufactory, where I was informed about 900 hands of onekind and for one purpose or another-all kinds of Cards are made; andTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 113there are Machines for executing every part of the work in a new andexpeditious man'r, especially in cutting and bending the teeth, wch. isdone at one stroke. They have made 63,000 pr. of Cards in a year, andcan undersell the imported Cards-nay Cards of this Manufactory havebeen smuggled into England. At 11 o'clock I embarked on board thebarge Illustrious, Captn. Penthere Gion, and visited his ship and the Superb, another 74 Gun Ship in the Harbour of Boston, about 4 miles belowthe Town. Going and coming I was saluted by the two frigates whichlye near the wharves, and by the 74s after I had been on board of them.I was also saluted going and coming by the fort on Castle Isld . Aftermyreturn I dined in a large Company at Mr. Bowdoin's, and went to theAssembly in the evening, where (it is said) there were upwards of 100Ladies. Their appearance was elegant, and many of them very handsome; the room is small but neat and well ornamented. "The President left Boston the following morning. Hisdeparture was fixed at eight o'clock. As that hour wasstriking, he was seen in the door-way of his lodgings, and atthe last stroke of the clock he started with his suite. Thetroop of Cavalry appointed to escort him did not overtakehim till nearly arrived at Charlestown Bridge. On his wayto Salem he visited Harvard College, where he expressed theopinion from the inspection of the drawing, that the inscription on Dighton rock, is the work of our aborigines. FromCambridge he passed through Malden, Lynn and Marbleheadto Salem, where he remained over night. On the 30th heproceeded to Newburyport and lodged there. From Newburyport the following day he went to Portsmouth and remained there till Wednesday the 4th of November, when hestarted on the return through Exeter, Haverhill, Bradford, Andover, Wilmington, Watertown, Needham, Sherborne, Holliston and Uxbridge. Here he lodged at one Taft's,"where, " though the people were obliging the entertainmentwas not very inviting. " The following letter written to Mr.Taft from Hartford, the second day after lodging at his house,places the gentler qualities of Washington's character in avery pleasing light. The person referred to by the name ofPolly is still living.66114 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS."HARTFORD, 8 Nov: 1789.SIR-Being informed that you have given my name to one of yoursons, and called another after Mrs. Washington's family, and being moreover very much pleased with the modest and innocent looks of your twodaughters, Patty and Polly, I do for these reasons send each of thesegirls a piece of chintz; and to Patty, who bears the name of Mrs. Washington, and who waited more upon us than Polly did, I send five guineas,with which she may buy herself any little ornaments she may want, orshe may dispose of them in any other manner more agreeable to herself.As I do not give these things with a view to have it talked of, or even toits being known, the less there is said about it the better you will pleaseme; but, that I may be sure the chintz and money have got safe tohand, let Patty, who I dare say is equal to it, write me a line informingme thereof, directed to " The President of the United States at NewYork. " I wish you and your family well, and am your humble servant ,"GEO. WASHINGTON. "I should have been pleased to be able to extend this review and abstract of President Washington's Diary, but Ihave already appropriated to it as much space as can be given up to one subject. The extracts submitted to the readerwill, if I mistake not, throw some new light on his character,shewing that he was as exact and methodical, as considerateand gentle, in the private relations and minor duties of life,as he was grand and heroic in its great emergencies. Anedition of the diary for general circulation, accompanied withcopious notes, and illustrated with accounts of his progress,the addresses made to him and his replies, and the other incidents of his reception, would be a highly valuable contribution to History.NUMBER THIRTEEN.ABBOTSFORD VISITED AND REVISITED.PART I.Invitation to Abbotsford-Arrival at Melrose-Ruins of Melrose hastily visited- Walk to Abbotsford-And reception there-Church at Selkirk-Walk to theMushroom Park-Dogs in company, who accidentally start a hare-The house and grounds-Ornaments of the rooms-Reading of the Heart of Mid Lothian-Visitto Melrose- Manner ofpassing the time at Abbotsford -Charles Scott-Departure for Selkirk, but the London Mail Coach being full, return to Abbotsford--Sir Walter's fondness for animals, dogs and cats-Piper at dinner.HAVING had the happiness, in the month of July, 1818, tomake the acquaintance of Sir Walter Scott and his amiablefamily at Edinburgh, I was honored with an invitation tovisit them at Abbotsford, after I should have returned froma short tour in Perthshire. I feel that there is a sanctity inprivate life, which ought to be respected, even after all concerned have passed away. But entertaining no feelings butthose of veneration and gratitude toward the illustrious name,which stands at the head of this paper, and having nothing torecord of him and his, inconsistent with those feclings, I trustthat I shall not offend the strictest delicacy, in describing theoccurrences of a few days passed within his family circle inthe country,—and very much in the language, in which I notedthem down at the time.On the first of August, 1818, I took passage at Edinburghin the Blücher Stage Coach for Melrose. Passing a bookseller's as we drove through the City, I saw the " Heart of Mid-116 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Lothian" advertised, and the good natured driver, by whoseside I sat, was kind enough to stop while I ran in and boughtit. This proved to be the first copy of that novel which reached Abbotsford, excepting the copy which had come in the shapeof proof sheets to the (as yet unavowed) author.It is another of the thousand illustrations of the marvellouspower of Scott's genius, that the most remarkable ruins ofthe most remarkable mediæval church in Scotland, were firstraised into general notoriety and classic renown, fifty yearsago, by "the Lay of the Last Minstrel." I shall not attempt to describe what has been so often described before, -the ruins ofthe Abbey, the Tweed, and the Eildon hills whichrise in front of you, cleft of old by the never- to-be repeatedwords ofthe mighty wizard. Although I expected to pass twoor three days in the neighborhood, I could not resist the temptation to take in advance a hasty view of the Abbey. Thosewho have never seen the ruins of a grand old building, —whatwe call a gothic ruin especially, -can form no conception ofitseffect on the feelings of a young traveller. It is one of the moststriking examples of the mingled interests of loveliness anddesolation; art and the triumph of time and violence over art;beauty and ashes, that can be seen on earth. I did not, indeed,on this occasion, visit " fair Melrose" by moonlight, as Scottsays all must do, " who would view it aright," though hisdaughter Sophia told me he never so visited it himself. I think,however, that I must have misunderstood her, or that she musthave meant that he was not then in the habit of doing it. Thathe had never surveyed it by moonlight is hard to believe, afterreading the inimitable description in " the Lay. "But whether seen by sunlight or moonlight, it is mostbeautiful in its decay. The lightness of the arches; the graceof the curves; the slender airy mullions still standing, thoughsashes and painted glass have long been gone; mysteriousstaircases in ruinous turrets; the fragments of pillars scattered on the pavements; broken, uncouth images piouslyTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 117laid up against the walls in order to preserve them from further injury; the tomb of Michael Scott and of Alexander oneof the kings of Scotland, -how much is there not here, ―especially when passed through the prism of some of the mostadmirable strains of modern poetry, -to fire a youthful imagination! But I shortened my visit, hoping before I left theneighborhood to visit Melrose in company with a greatermagician than he that sleeps within its crumbling vaults.While I was making my solitary pilgrimage to the ruins,my stage-coach companions were ordering dinner at the inn;a less ethereal gratification, but in its place not to be disdained, particularly at the end of a day's journey, and in theshape of trout from the Tweed and green peas from the gardens on its banks. After dinner I started on foot for Abbotsford, distant about three miles. In former times, and whenone travelled by stage coaches and post chaises, I always, injourneying walked as much as possible; and surely therecould be no occasion when one would more wish to do it, thanin the approach of Abbotsford and along the banks of theTweed, the road running for the most part by the river's side.Ashort hour brought me to my destination though I did not seethe house till I was close upon it , so thick a shrubbery alreadyclothed a spot, which only six years before was entirely bare.The family were at table when I arrived, the dinner hourbeing earlier than I thought; but my coming in caused no stir.I was received as an old acquaintance, -I might always sayfriend. Mr. Scott (for such he then was) alluding to someremarks that had passed betwen us in Edinburgh about theprodigious effect of his poems in turning such a vast amountof travel into the lake region of Scotland, scarcely visited before except by an occasional antiquarian tourist, —good humoredly asked, " whether I did not forgive him the time andmoney he had cost me among the lochs and hills?" Startingwith this genial salutation, the afternoon and evening passedwith inconceivable rapidity. Sir Walter was in the best pos-118 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sible spirits, and Sophia, as yet " fancy free," sang us severalballads with the most touching expression and pathos.The next day was Sunday. Sir Walter gave me mychoice of going with his wife and daughters to church, orwalking with him over the fields. I decided for the former,and drove with them to church at Selkirk. The intellectualportion of the service was not of a high order, but the devotional parts were performed with becoming solemnity. Thesinging was about such as you would hear from a well trainedchoir in one of our rural churches; -and it was a matter ofno little gratification to me, to hear some of the fine oldfamiliar tunes sung in the heart of the strange land amidstso many impressive associations, and by the voices of my interesting companions.After our return home, we walked out, in the hope ofmeeting Sir Walter, to what was called in the family the"Mushroom park; " Mrs. Scott, the young ladies and Charles, -Walter, the oldest son being in the highlands. Wetook withus a pretty formidable attendance of dogs, viz. , the favoritedeer-hound, Maida, then quite advanced in years, a grey- hound,(who was however black and called Hamlet, ) a spaniel namedFinette, and Urisk, a sprite of a terrier from the isle of Skye,all well known favorites and privileged companions at homeand abroad. We soon fell in with Sir Walter, who, though hehad been on his feet all the morning, said he made it a rule never to turn his back on good company and joined us. Wehad ascramble in the park, who should pick up the best mushroomsand the most of them. The visitor was allowed, as a privilegedperson unacquainted with the localities, to enter into a partnership with Miss Scott, and of course their joint stock wasthe largest.While we were busy searching for mushrooms, the dogs,following their instinct, were busy searching for a hare. Itwas really curious to see the approach to reason on the partof these poor animals, The grey-hound is swift of foot butTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 119has no scent; the spaniel has no fleetness but has an acutesmell. The spaniel's nose was down among the bushes andher whole little body in a flutter of search, whisking fromcover to cover like a little four-legged spirit. The lean andlong-legged grey-hound, his ribs staring through his skin,without attempting to join in the search, kept close to Finette.At last the hare was started; the grey-hound bounded off likelightning in pursuit, and poor little Finette, having done herduty, came fawning round her master. All the time, thestately old deer-hound was stalking about with sovereignunconcern; and Urisk, the little cur from the isle of Skye,a frisking, bristling, weird looking lump of live hair, wasplaying with Charles. The poor hare took the road and wassoon run down; and then the old deer-hound stalked majestically toward the game; growled sharply at Hamlet to drivehim off, and seizing the hare in his teeth, brought it with greatsolemnity, and laid it at Mr. Scott's feet. The affair wasevery way out of season. It was Sunday, and the sportingseason had not begun; but it had taken place accidentally,and I was not sorry to witness the sight for the first time inmy life; though not without compunction for poor puss.The scene interested me the more, as tallying so preciselywith Xenophon's description of the instincts of the differentspecies of dogs, in the first book of the Cyropædia.The rest ofthe day was passed in conversation, in part ofa graver cast. We had sacred music after dinner, and in theevening Sophia sung national ballads and some of her father'ssongs. She made no pretension to execution, or the bravurastyle; or at least she had no occasion to exhibit it in thesefine old Scottish melodies; -but, to my uneducated ear, nothing could be more pleasing.On Monday, Sir Walter told Sophia to show me thehouse and grounds, adding playfully that she knew a greatdeal more about both than he did. It was plain to see, fromthe manner in which he always spoke to her, that she was the120 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.object of his entire confidence and boundless love. The housewas not wholly finished. For the ornaments of the hall andpassages, Sir Walter had introduced casts of the carved workof the Abbey, and while I was there, the workmen were putting up masks taken from the " Corbells grotesque and grim,"mentioned in " the Lay." As we walked through the grounds,I had a long conversation with Sophia about the authorship ofthe novels. I omit the details of what was said by her onthis subject, having furnished them to my friend Mr. Allibone, for insertion in his second volume, which has not yetappeared. I will only say here, that, though she firmly believed, as I did, that her father was the author of the novels,she did not at that time know it. We passed an hour or twothis day in reading the " Heart of Mid Lothian " aloud, SirWalter taking his turn with the rest, and remarking withunconcern on the passages that struck him. He was muchamused at my attempt to imitate the Scottish cadence, andsaid " if I would bide awhile in Tweedale, they would giveme a very pretty accent. "I asked Sophia to manage to have dinner a little earlier,that we might go to Melrose, and to get her father to go withus. She said he had so often been there with visitors , whenhe first came to Abbotsford, that he had got tired of it , andhad seldom been of late; but she thought he would go withus, which he was kind enough to do. I am not ashamed toconfess that a visit to Melrose Abbey, with Sir Walter Scottand his family, kindled my imagination, at the age of twentyfour, as it has perhaps never been excited on any other occasion. I have attempted to describe the feelings awakened bythe scene, in a speech at the anniversary ofthe Scots' Charitable Society in Boston, on the 30th of November, 1839. Norwas it, I own, without emotion " too deep for tears," that, inthe solitude of my room at night, after contemplating theseinteresting ruins in the company of him who has made thespot which they cover holy ground, I reflected that, in allTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 121human probability, after one or two more days, I should neversee him or them again. This is a reflection which not seldommingles a shade of sadness with the pleasure one derives frommeeting agreeable and congenial acquaintances and friends, inour travels through foreign countries and distant parts of ourown. I must own that in two or three days I had becomestrongly attached to every member of the amiable family atAbbotsford. Our whole time was passed together in conversation, reading, or singing on the part of the ladies; at duska dance on the lawn; in walks and drives. Sir Walterpoured out all the treasures of his memory, in traditionsof the border times, anecdotes of celebrated characters, interspersed with constant sallies of quiet pleasantry; —andCharles contracted so great a fondness for the American guest,that he asked his father's permission to accompany me on myapproaching journey to Greece and Constantinople, which, inconsideration of his being under thirteen years of age, waswithheld. Later in life this interesting young man was attached to the British embassy in Persia. In 1839 he wroteto me from the Foreign Office in London, reminding me ofmy visit twenty one years before to his father's; but manyyears since, he, with all the rest of the family, one after another, passed away.It was with no common regret that I took my leave ofthe family. I was to go to Selkirk and there be taken up bythe Mail coach for London. If the coach was full I was toreturn to Abbotsford. Mrs. Scott and her daughter took meto Selkirk, and left me there. Although much pressed fortime, in reference to the commencement of my tour on theContinent, I could not find it in my heart to grieve, when theMail coach drove up and was reported " full." It shows thelimited amount of travel at that time, that one Mail coachdaily was all that passed on that route, between Scotland andEngland. It was now evening. I made myself as comfortable as I could that night at Selkirk, and early the next morn6122 THE MOUNT VERNON walked over to Abbotsford to spend the day. I wasreceived there as an old friend. The young ladies said thatthey were thankful I had come, for now they should have agood excuse for not attending their master upstairs. I inquired of them what they were studying, and they said"Tasso." I told them I could not encourage truancy andidleness, and, taking the book out of Anne's hand, began toexamine them. The parents entered heartily into the humorof this scene, and begged me to be strict with my newscholars. But it ended in a hearty laugh, and that day wemade but little progress in Tasso.At dinner the veteran deer-hound made his appearance,and laid his great nose upon his master's arm. He had already been fed elsewhere, but he received a bonne bouchefrom Sir Walter's hand. After dinner a favorite cat placedherself upon the table near him. As I sat next he begged menot to be disturbed. He caressed the animal, who was evidently a pet, and said that " if cats were as well treated asdogs they would be as gentle and faithful." This I thinksomewhat doubtful, since, if the experience of mankind hadnot shown the contrary to be the case, there is no reason whythey should not have secured to themselves that kind treatment which is bestowed on dogs. The habits and instincts ofanimals were a favorite topic of conversation with Sir Walter.He traced the practice of dogs, in turning themselves once ortwice round, before they lie down, to their habit of scoopingout, as it were, a bed in the leaves, while in a state of nature.We were regaled at dinner by the gardener, in the character of piper, dressed in his tartans, and playing national airson the bagpipe on the little lawn before the house. For thiscontribution to our entertainment, he was called in by SirWalter, and rewarded with a glass of whiskey. The bagpipeat the banquet, played by the Chieftain's piper, is a part ofthe ancient Celtic state, still kept up in the great ScottishTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 123houses. Sir Walter clung with patriotic fondness to thesenational traditions.But I must reserve for another paper the rest of theserecollections, as well as a brief account, ―alas, under a mournful change of circumstances, -of" Abbotsford revisited " aftera lapse of twenty six years.3NUMBER FOURTEEN.THE FOURTH OF MARCH, 1789.Commencement of the present United States Government in New York, seventy years ago this day-- Sketch of the History of the promulgation and ratification of the Constitution-Delay in organizing the new Congress-Arrival of Washingtonat New York and his inauguration-Question as to the titles to be given to the President and Vice President-Amusing anecdote-Causes of the prevailing apathy-The general languor of the country a circumstance favorable to a peacefulrevolution- No such revolution possible in highly prosperous times- Much owing to the disinterested patriotism of the revolutionary and constitutional leaders andespecially Washington-Closing reflection.On this day seventy years ago an event took place, inferior in importance to no other, in the history of the country,ifto any other in the political history of the world. On thisday seventy years ago, the present Constitution of the UnitedStates became " the supreme law of the land," and New Yorkbecame for a time the seat of the new government. If, asGeneral Hamilton asserts in the last number of " the Federalist," the " establishment of a Constitution, in time of profound peace, by the voluntary consent of a whole people, is aProdigy," that prodigy became an historical fact on the fourthof March, 1789. Let us dwell upon it for a moment in reverent contemplation. It is not one of the Prodigies of ancientfable, which told howA lioness hath whelped in the streets,And graves have yawned, and yielded up their dead:Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds,In ranks and squadrons, and right form of war,With drizzled blood upon the Capitol:The noise of battle hurtled in the air,Horses do neigh, and dying men did groan,And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 125These were the prodigies which foretold the assassinationof Cæsar, and the inauguration of a despotism, doomed forfourteen centuries to master and oppress the world. Ourswas the auspicious Prodigy of a well-compacted republic,formed by the counsels of unselfish patriots, pure from thestain of blood, destined, let us trust, to be the safe-guard andthe blessing of far- distant ages.The Constitution of the United States was finally proclaimed by the Federal Convention on the 17th of September,1787, and was on that day, in pursuance of an unanimousvote of its framers, transmitted to the Congress of the Confederation, then sitting at New York, with a letter signed byGeorge Washington, President of the Convention. The Constitution itself fixed no day when it should begin to be offorce, as the supreme law of the land. It provided only thatwhen ratified by the Conventions of nine States it should gointo operation " between the States ratifying the same."With this provision it went forth to the States and to thepeople, to be ratified by their Conventions. It was a seasonof expectation, of anxiety, and, on the part of many true patriots, of alarm. The people were divided into parties; anda document so extensive and comprehending so many detailsof course presented many points open to criticism. By manypersons, and among them there were tried patriots and goodcitizens, the proposed new government seemed to be fraughtwith menace to the hardly-earned, dear-bought rights of theStates, and liberties of the people; by others, it was lookedupon as the only hope for the salvation of the country.Washington was one of those who regarded it in this light." There is a tradition, " says Mr. Curtis in his valuable Ilistory of the Constitution, (vol. II. , p. 487,) "that when Washington was about to sign the instrument, he rose from hisseat, and, holding the pen in his hand, after a short pause,pronounced these words: Should the States reject this excellent Constitution, the probability is that an opportunity-126 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.will never again offer to cancel another in peace, the nextwill be drawn in blood.' "The public press was enlisted on both sides of the momentous question. Writers of great ability attacked anddefended the new project of government, but the letters ofPublius, under the title of" the Federalist, " the joint work ofAlexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison havealone survived the occasion that drew them forth, and descended with a classical reputation. The first number of thisremarkable series of papers was written by General Hamilton, toward the end of the month of October, 1787, on boarda packet bound up the North River. They produced a greateffect on the public mind, and formed an armory of weaponsfor the defence of the Constitution, throughout the country.Little Delaware led off with her ratification on the 7th ofDecember, 1787; and the remaining States followed, Pennsylvania on the 12th of December; New Jersey on the 18th ofDecember, 1787; Georgia on the 2d of January, 1788; Connecticut on the 9th of January; Massachusetts on the 6th ofFebruary; Maryland on the 28th of April; and South Carolina on the 23d of May. Eight months had now elapsedsince the formation of the Constitution, and eight States onlyhad ratified it. In two of the five remaining States, viz.:North Carolina in the South and Rhode Island in the North,no ratification was at present expected; and the other threeStates, New Hampshire, New York, and Virginia were yet toact; thus conferring on any one of the three great sections ofthe country (for the West at that time had not been calledinto existence) the power of consummating the organizationof the Union. In New York and Virginia a very formidableopposition was expected, and the result was doubtful; everything for the moment seemed to depend on New Hampshire.On the 21st of June, 1788, her ratification took place, andwith it the Constitution, as between the nine ratifying States,became the supreme law of the land. The ratification of Vir-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 127ginia followed on the 26th of June, and that of New York onthe 26th of July. North Carolina delayed her ratification.till the 21st of November, 1789; and Rhode Island hers tillthe 29th of May, 1790.As soon as the ratification of nine States was certified tothe old Congress, (and that of New Hampshire, all- importantas it was in calling the new government into being, does notappear to have been officially reported till the 2d of July,)the nine ratifications were referred to a Committee to examinethe same, and report an act of Congress for putting the Constitution into operation, " in pursuance of the resolution of theFederal Convention. " A struggle immediately arose as tothe place where the new government should be established.Most of the members from New England and the MiddleStates wished either that the seat of the government shouldcontinue at New York or be removed to Philadelphia; theSouthern members desired a situation nearer the geographicalcentre of the Union. These conflicting opinions were atlength reconciled, by the adoption, on the 13th of September,1788, of a resolution which provided that, in order to carrythe new Constitution into operation, Presidential electorsshould be appointed in the several States on the first Wednesday of January, 1789; that the said electors should meetin their several States and vote for President and vice- President on the first Wednesday of February; " and that the firstWednesday in March next " (the fourth of March, 1789, ) bethe time, and the present seat of Congress (New York) theplace, for commencing proceedings under the said Constitution. "As originally framed, the Constitution provided that twopersons should be voted for by the Electors as President andvice-President; the candidate having the highest number ofvotes to be President, and, in case of equality, the House ofRepresentatives, voting by States, and each State giving onevote, was to decide. -The whole number of electoral votes for128 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.President and vice-President, cast on the first Wednesday ofFebruary, was sixty nine. They were given unanimously forWashington, who was predestined in the public mind for theoffice of President. A much smaller number of votes wasgiven for Mr. John Adams, who, however, united a large plurality over any other person, as a candidate for the secondoffice . The State of New York took no part in the firstPresidential election! She is now much more attentive toher political duties .At length the fourth of March, 1789, —the appointed day,which was to give an organized Constitutional existence to anew Confederate Republic, about to enter on an equal footinginto the family of nations, -arrived; but on that day thereassembled at the seat of the new government at New York,of the Senate, only the two Senators from New Hampshire,Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, and one each from Massachusetts and Georgia. These eight punctual men met and adjourned from day to day for a week, without any addition totheir number. On the 11th of March they " agreed that acircular should be written to the absent members requestingtheir immediate attendance." Another week passed with thesame result, and on the 18th of March it was again agreed,that " another circular should be written to eight of thenearest absent members, particularly desiring their attendance, in order to form a quorum. " On the 19th of Marcha Senator from New Jersey dropped in; on the 21st a Senator from Delaware made his appearance, and then for anothermortal week no increase of the number of Senators in attendance took place. The other Senator from New Jersey camein on the 28th. No one else came till the 6th of April,when " Richard Henry Lee of Virginia appearing, took hisseat, and formed a quorum of the whole Senators of theUnited States," viz.: twelve in number, the States which hadas yet ratified the Constitution being but eleven. Such wasTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 129the tardy organization of the Senate, which at first sat withclosed doors, as well for legislative as executive business.Of the Representatives, of whom the whole number fromthe eleven ratifying States was but fifty-nine, thirteen onlyassembled at New York on the 4th of March, viz.: four fromMassachusetts, three from Connecticut, four from Pennsylvania, one from Virginia, and one from South Carolina. Onthe following day one more arrived from New Hampshire,one from Massachusetts, two from Connecticut, and one fromPennsylvania. No one else came in till the 14th of March,the house adjourning from day to day for want of a quorum.On that day JAMES MADISON, JNR. and two other membersfrom Virginia came in, but there was still no quorum. Onthe 17th and 18th of March two more members from Virginia appeared, and no further arrivals took place till the 23d.On that day two members came in from New Jersey, and onthe 25th another from Virginia. No additional membersarrived till the 30th of March, when another member fromMaryland and Virginia appeared. On the first of April, another member each from New Jersey and Pennsylvania camein, and a quorm was formed. It was five days more before aquorum of the Senate was present, and the first Congress ofthe United States was organized. On the 21st of April, theVice-President, John Adams, appeared, and took his seat asPresident of the Senate. In his address on taking the Chair,he paid an emphatic and eloquent tribute to the newly- electedChief Magistrate.Expectation now dwelt on the arrival of Washington.He received the official notice of his election on the 14th ofApril, at Mount Vernon, and immediately started for the seatof Government. Attended from city to city by the joyousand grateful salutations of the people, he reached New Yorkon the 23d of April. The necessary arrangements for his inauguration occupied a week, and, at length, on the 30th ofApril, in the gallery in front of the Federal Hall, just erected6*130 THE MOUNT VERNON Wall street, in the presence of the newly-organized Congress, of the municipal authorities of New York, and hersympathizing population, he took the oath to " preserve,protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States. "The oath was administered by Chancellor Livingston; theSecretary of the Senate began to raise the Bible to the President's lips, but he bowed his head and kissed the sacredvolume. At the close of the solemn ceremony ChancellorLivingston proclaimed " Long live George Washington, Pres.ident of the United States! " He was then fifty-seven years,two months, and six days old, and he lived ten years, sevenmonths, and fourteen days, from the time of his inauguration.Before the arrival of the President, a Committee had beenappointed by the Senate to consider " what style or title itwill be proper to annex to the offices of the President andVice-President of the United States, if any others than thosegiven in the Constitution ." This Committee consisted of Mr.Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, Mr. Izard of South Carolina,and Mr. Dalton of Massachusetts, and they reported in favorof addressing the Chief Magistrate as " His Highness thePresident of the United States of America, and Protector oftheir Liberties. " The Senate was inclined to favor that styleof address, which was, no doubt, suggested by the title adopted by the Protector Cromwell, and that of the States Generalof Holland, who, as was remarked by Mr. Madison, assumedthe style of " their High Mightinesses. " The House of Representatives deemed it expedient not to bestow any title onthe President and Vice- President, and in the answers of thetwo houses to the President's inaugural speech, he was, without any titular addition, addressed as " President of theUnited States." The Senate persevered for a few days inthe attempt to establish a title by legislation; the house continued to dissent; a committee of conference was appointedwho could agree on no report; and the Senate, " desirous ofpreserving harmony with the House of Representatives,"THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 131postponed the report of their Committee, and resolved thatthe present address be " To the President of the UnitedStates, without the addition of title. "Notwithstanding this wise decision of the two houses ofCongress, grandiloquent titles were occasionally bestowed onthe President in the newspapers and other publications of theday. During his tour in 1789, he was sometimes spoken ofas his " Ilighness, the President." This is the case in the account of his reception at Worcester; and the following amusing anecdote is found in the " Massachusetts Spy " of 12th ofNovember. It appears from Washington's Diary, underdate of 6th of November, that " the house in Uxbridge had agood appearance, (for a tavern, ) but the owner of it beingfrom home, and his wife sick, we could not gain admittance,which was the reason of my coming on to Taft's. " The anecdote is as follows: -" The following is handed us for fact, and is one of the many instances, which show that it is necessary the President of the UnitedStates should have some title , or address at least, to distinguish himfrom other great personages, who may have occasion to travel eitherin their own or other States. -Towards the close of one day last week, amessenger was sent forward to inform the keeper of the Inn where hisHighness intended to lodge that night, that " the President was nearby,and wished to be accommodated with lodging, and a little necessaryrefreshment, " &c. The innkeeper was absent; the landlady, supposingthe messenger meant, by " the President, " the President of Rhode Island College, for it was in the neighborhood of that State, and that ofcourse he had his lady with him, and being herself unwell, she told themessenger she could not entertain " the President"-and that he must goon to the next tavern-in consequence of which the messenger, althoughit was late, had to send word back to his Highness that he had proceeded on to the next inn, to provide that entertainment which he could notget at the first. The landlady soon after found out her mistake, andmost piteously lamented that she could not have known that it was theillustrious Washington, who intended honoring her house.- Bless me,'exclaimed she, the sight of him would have cured me of my illness, andthe best in my house and in town would have been at his service. 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(Video) Property of the Nation: George Washington’s Tomb, Mount Vernon, & the Memory of the First President

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eam inve th ILTI Дл =11punk a the kingmont 6 Hover " eameti na a 2: ODREKention. 1: mother wa earl i Trohat! • haw • eamTher 1 meter th worlNother insture in th4 .-whung ha- beat mud th time without bloodshenows itanortune revolution that that whet substitutedprosom . Constitution for th of contoderieim sve toni.mboy is amoion 60“ mudom times, A change governmentas mudios, as thos, whiệp hayo ounsel the drese and the densXTpauſlots behindy th diffiron enders eth Stute thavsing and th - qubsc˜Totač privers in Greves and in Kami:palures Ini t'holand in the middle a thi. seventeenti'Putin R' th plos 4th ejahteenti, wa1maisงlugmi¸tongg hVaid 196, PopolBosom ska 1.པ་ Yes, wank,' w * eve;THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 133take a part in the organization of the new government, thoughestablished in her own metropolis. It was an experiment,and the people were tired of experiments. It promised littleto gratify ambition, and its promises carried little hope offulfilment. It offered nothing to feed the appetite for gold;unable to pay its debts, it was too poor to think of bribes.The vast extent of the Union compared with its scanty population, the wide spaces which separated its great politicalcentres, —the tardiness of communication between its remotedistricts, the comparative feebleness of the press, —the poverty of the country, whose resources were nowhere developed,-the want of armies, navies, and public works, and the frugality of all the public establishments, were circumstanceswhich favored a pacific revolution . It was not only experimentum, but experimentum (comparatively speaking) in corpore vili,-an experiment on a cheap substance; it was well ifit succeeded, and no great matter if it failed . There were theState governments to fall back upon, and many good patriotswere opposed to any encroachment on their equal sovereignty.To bring about a change in the organic law, at the presentday, as radical as that which was effected by the new Constitution, would be simply impossible. The magnitude of theexisting interests is too great; the strength of the powers inpossession too vast; and the spirit of contending opinions andambitions too resolute, to admit of any great peaceable revolution. As it is only in a reduced state of the natural body,caused by regimen or disease, that certain heroic surgery can be ventured on, so it is only in a body politic,exhausted like that of the United States from 1783 to 1789,that a radical change of organization could be made withouta convulsion.But let us not ascribe too much to circumstances, and toolittle to the pure and disinterested patriotism of the greatand good men of the constitutional period. It is painful toreflect, that, in the great system of compensation which reg-134 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.ulates the fortunes of governments as well as those of individuals, the days of palmy prosperity are not those mostfavorable to the display of public virtue or the influence ofwise and good men. In hard, doubtful, unprosperous, anddangerous times, the disinterested and patriotic find their way,by a species of public instinct, unopposed, joyfully welcomed,to the control of affairs. The sufferings of the revolutionarywar and the discouragements of the succeeding period hadthrown what government there was, and there was scarceany thing that deserved the name,-into the hands of unambitious men, who served the country from a sense of duty.The Presidency of the United States under the new government, that prize in pursuit of which the best interests of thecountry are daily jeoparded, while all its political energies aredriven into the channels of party, with an expansive forcewhich seems perpetually to threaten an explosion, —that dazzling prize was, in the year 1788 and from the moment theConstitution was promulgated, spontaneously allotted, in thepublic mind, to an Individual, who not only did not covet orseek it, but who recoiled from it, with unaffected reluctance tosubmit to its burdens and cares, —and who could only be induced, by the urgent and concurring importunities of all inwhom he confided, to accept a unanimous election . Who candoubt that if, instead of such a state of things in 1788, halfa dozen of the ablest men in the country and their friends, inand out of Congress, had exerted all their influence over organized parties, and called into action all the resources of political agitation, in different parts of the Union, in order toconnect the question of the adoption of the Constitution withtheir own aspirations, the new government would have failedof adoption? It deserves the thoughtful consideration of allgood citizens, whether a state of things which would assuredly have prevented the Constitution from coming into existence, will not, if persevered in, and that with ever-increasingintensity, prove fatal to its duration, in its original integrity.NUMBER FIFTEEN.ABBOTSFORD VISITED AND REVISITED.PART II.The family of Sir Walter Scott in 1818-His mode of life and study-Playful namesgiven his daughters-A visitor recognized by the print of his horse's shoe beforehe was seen-Gratitude more affecting than ingratitude-German studies -Jestinganecdotes at table-A walk of a mile on your own land-Natural features of Abbotsford-Departure-Personal appearance ofSir Walter-Conversation -Opinionsas to the authorship of the Waverley novels-Pecuniary embarrassments- Sadchanges in the family-Visit to Abbotsford in 1814-Border Scenery-Otterburn,Jedborough-Remains of Dryburgh Abbey-Tomb of Sir Walter Scott-Melrose Abbey-Changes at Abbotsford- The Poems and Novels of Sir Walter Scott.THE family of Sir Walter Scott, at the time of my visitto Abbotsford in 1818, consisted of himself and Mrs. Scott,and his four children,-all he ever had, -Sophia, Walter,Anne, and Charles; Sophia the oldest, at this time, not beingquite nineteen years of age. Walter entered the army, afterwards married, but died childless. Charles, as was mentionedin the former paper, attached himself to the diplomatic career,and died young and unmarried; as did also Anne the youngest daughter, who at the time of my visit was in her fifteenthyear. Sophia, as is well known, married Mr. Lockhart, whowas introduced into the family in the summer of 1818. Theironly child, a young lady of the most engaging appearance andestimable character, was just entering society at the periodof my second residence in England, —the image of the lovelymaiden whom I had known at Edinburgh and Abbotsford, the136 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.pride and charm of her father's house. Walter, at the timeof my visit to Abbotsford, was in the Highlands, for theopening of the moors.Mr. Lockhart's life of Scott discloses the pleasing mannerin which he lived with his family. Notwithstanding his Herculean literary labors, with the addition of his official duties,(which while he united the offices of clerk of the Court ofSessions and Sheriff of Selkirkshire, necessarily occupiedmuch of his time, ) he never seemed, as I was told in the family, to bein want ofleisure for the engagements and amusementsof the social circle. Certainly, while I was at Abbotsford, heseemed entirely master of his time; and Sophia told me thatwhat I saw of him was a fair specimen of his country life. Heno doubt worked harder in the winter, when less exposed tointerruption by visitors; and he habitually employed theearly hours of the morning at his desk. Welearn from Mr.Lockhart's Biography, the prodigious facility and couragewith which he composed his novels, well knowing, as he did,that he was writing them for the whole civilized world. Itwas not an uncommon thing with him, as he tells us himself,to write a chapter in the evening on a tour, and despatch itunread by mail, in the morning, to his publishers.He lived in the most delightful confidence and familiaritywith his children. They were, each according to age and sex,his companions and playmates. Sophia was the first personwhom he admitted to his confidence, in reference to the authorship of the Waverley novels, except those who aided him intranscribing them for the press. This, however, he had not done at the time of my visit. He was accustomed playfullyto call his oldest daughter " Miss Feuclothes," from her habit,when some little article of dress was wanted in a hurry, ofborrowing from the wardrobe of her sister or mother, feubeing a Scottish legal term for a rent tenure, in distinctionfrom ownership. Anne was fonder of gay dress, and wouldsometimes return from her rambles in the fields, with herTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 137garments torn by jumping over the hedges. This gained herthe title of " Lady Bonnierag."On one of our walks in the fields, we noticed the print of ahorse's hoof in the Beaten path. Sir Walter told me that onone occasion, in walking, I think he said, with Mr. Southey,over the same path, having seen a similar print, he told Mr.Southey-(if he was the person)-that when they got backto the house, they should find a certain individual whom henamed. Mr. Southey asked " if he was expected? ” “ No."”"Have you any business with him which might require himto come and see you? " " No." " Have you had a second sightof him? " " Neither of these, and yet we shall find him; " andso the event proved, on their return home. After amusinghimselfwith his guest's wonder, how Sir Walter, under thesecircumstances, at such a distance from his house, which wasentirely out of sight, could know who had come there, themystery was cleared up. Sir Walter was acquainted withthe size and shape of the hoof of his visitor's horse. It madea print different from that made by any other horse in theneighborhood.Some poor person, as we passed along, expressed himselfin terms of warm gratitude to Sir Walter, for his kind inquiries after a member of his family who was ill . When we hadpassed on, I made some remark on the strong and apparentlysincere language of gratitude, which fell from the poor man,prompted as I supposed by some former and more importantacts of kindness on his part. Without particularly replying tothat suggestion, he said, " for my part, I am more touched withthe gratitude than the ingratitude of the dependent poor.We occasionally hear complaints how thankless men are forfavors bestowed upon them; but when I consider that we areall of the same flesh and blood, it grieves me more to seeslight acts of kindness acknowledged with such humility anddeep sense of obligation."Being fresh from a long residence in Germany, I had much138 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.conversation with Sir Walter about the language and literatureof that country, and the men of eminence whom I had seenthere; especially Goethe. I inferred from the general character of his remarks, that he had not, of late years, pursued hisGerman studies with as much diligence as in early life,though he had never wholly neglected them. He mentionedthe circumstances of his translation of Bürger's Lenore, verymuch as they are given in Lockhart's life.Nothing was too playful for him at table. He relatedwith great glee an anecdote of a lady in Edinburgh, who hada house servant from the highlands, altogether ignorant ofthelittle refinements of civilized life , and not entirely master ofthe English language. A visitor was staying at the house.At the dinner hour the servant was sent up to call the gentleman, and found him brushing his teeth, a process of the natureand objects of which the Gael had no knowledge, and of whichhe could only form a conception from what he witnessed.He accordingly returned to the dining-room and reported that"the gentleman would immediately come to dinner; -shewas sharpening her teeth."Another of his jesting anecdotes at table was of a gentleman, who had been passing some time with friends at acountry house. At length the time for departure arrived, andAndrew, his travelling servant, was directed to pack up theportmanteaus. At the last moment, Andrew was asked byhis master, whether " he was sure that he had put up all theirthings. " The answer, brought out by Sir Walter with a mischievous twinkle of the eye, at the emphasized word, was"At least, your Honor. "As we were walking toward Melrose, and talking on thesubject of exercise, as necessary to health, he said " he thoughta walk of a mile before breakfast, and if possible on one'sown land, was highly conducive to health." Such a walk hewas even at that time fully able to take.think I understood, amounted then to twelve hundred acres inHis property, ITHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 139rather a narrow strip on the Tweed. It was, I believe, considerably increased by additional purchases. In its natural features, when Sir Walter first became possessed of it, there wasnot much that was attractive, except the river. It was nearlyif not entirely destitute of trees, and the space between theroad and the Tweed was rather too narrow and the bank toosteep, either for entire convenience or beauty. The housewas very near the road, and wanted that seclusion whichforms so much of the charm of rural life . As far as I couldjudge from the appearance of Ashestiel, where Sir Walterlived before removing to Abbotsford, the former had the advantage in natural beauty. Abbotsford was, however, greatlyimproved by Sir Walter's plantations, and the historical andtraditionary interest of the spot was to him irresistible.But all things on earth must have an end; and those whichare most agreeable seem to come to their end the soonest.The hours of my last day at Abbotsford passed but too rapidly, and I took my leave of the family late in the afternoon,with a presentiment, too fully verified , that I should never seethem more. I rode one of Sir Walter's ponies to Selkirk,where I had left my baggage in the morning, and there took themail coach to London.think rather more.Sir Walter Scott was at this time forty-seven years ofage.He looked older, for his hair, though not thin, was gray approaching to white. He was tall, full six feet in height, IHe was not very stout for a person ofhis stature, though the framework was that of a large, fullydeveloped man. There was a certain air of heaviness inthe brow, which in moments of entire mental quiescenceseemed hardly in character for one of the most brilliant geniuses, learned antiquaries, and genial temperaments of theage. This expression, however, was wholly superficial andtransient. It was a drop-curtain between the scenes. Themoment the action of the mind commenced, either in conversation-whether charming the circle with the outpourings of140 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.bis own exhaustless memory or gorgeous fancy, or listeningto others, which he did with a courtesy and earnestness thatmarked a mind ever on the watch for some accession of ideas,or in reading a favorite author to a sympathizing audiencethe veil was lifted , the expression of heaviness vanished, andenergetic thought rayed out from every feature. His framewas cast by nature in an athletic mould; but in consequenceof early disease the right leg was a little shorter than the left.It served him, however, with the aid of a cane to walk upon,and he could hardly be said to limp.Though a Scotsman born and bred, to say that the authorof the " Lady of the Lake" and " Ivanhoe" was a perfectmaster of the English language, in its utmost refinement anddelicacy, would be a work of ridiculous supererogation. Butfor conversation, like many, perhaps most, of his countrymen,he had two dialects. In his family, and still more with thosein a subordinate station, and persons at work about the houseand the grounds, he spoke with a Scottish accent, and madeuse of words peculiar to the lowland Scottish dialect. Ingeneral conversation, these characteristics were scarcely perceptible. One Scottish word, however, he frequently used, inall the varieties of company in which I saw him, either at Edinburgh or in the country; namely, " I mind" for " I remember. ”In 1818, the secret of the authorship of the novels, ifsecret it could be called, had not been disclosed. Most persons believed him to be the author; I had never doubted it,from the appearance of the Antiquary. Some persons, however, doubted it; some ascribed them, on the most shadowyof foundations, to a brother of Sir Walter, Mr. Thomas Scott,a paymaster in the British army, stationed in Quebec; andothers spoke of a certain mythical Dr. Greenfield, if I recollect the name, -whose pretensions to the authorship of thesemagnificent productions were maintained in some of the thirdrate literary journals of the day. The late Mr. Randolph, ofVirginia, though a critical English scholar, was, at one time,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 141inclined to adopt this wild notion. Long before the secretwas formally disclosed , few persons of discernment or taste,in England or America, entertained a doubt on the subject.With the announcement of the secret, and I believe sometime before, commenced the pecuniary embarrassments of SirWalter, and the convulsive struggles to emerge from them,which embittered the last years of this noble life, and finallybrought down his gray hairs in sorrow to a premature grave.The life of Napoleon-a work to make the reputation of anordinary pen-was the first symptom of the stern necessityof writing for money. There is no period of his life at whichhe inspires a more affectionate, a more reverent interest, thanduring the last sad laborious years, when he wrote under theincubus of pecuniary distress. It is an interest that quenchescriticism, and extinguishes pity and sorrow, in admirationand gratitude.Such as I have described them were Sir Walter Scott andhis family in 1818. At the time of my second residence inEngland, ( 1841 -'45, ) parents and children, -the light of theage, the joy and beauty ofthe domestic circle, -all had passedaway. Sophia alone survived in her child, the only grandchild of Sir Walter Scott, then just entering upon society,which she was destined to adorn but for a brief season. Unusually shrinking and timid for a well-bred English maiden,she was an object of peculiar interest with all who knew her,as the sole descendant and representative of Sir Walter Scott.Toward the close of August, 1844, I took advantage ofthe general pause in political and social life, which takes placein London at that season, to make a short tour to the North.Leaving New-Castle on the morning of the 29th of August,we soon entered the region of the moors; a high, undulatingcountry, destitute of trees, but covered with bracken andheather still in bloom, and tinting the sloping surfaces, undera favorable light, with that exquisite purple, which almostmakes up for the want of woodlands in a Scottish landscape.142 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.About Otterburn, which tells you in its name that you haveentered the jurisdiction of Scott's muse, plantations and farmsbegin. We passed through Jedborough in the afternoon.On the left, as you enter the town, are the ruins of the Abbey, in the aisle of which Thomson went to school. PassingAncrum moor, a bridge crosses the Teviot, where " Englishblood swelled Ancrum ford. " The remains of DryburghAbbey form a fitting preparation for a visit to Abbotsford.The bridge built by the Earl of Buchan, over the Tweed, wascarried away a few years before, and we crossed the river, asclear as glass, in a boat. The evening was calm, and the sunwas just sinking behind the middle peak of the Eildon hills,whose sharp outline formed an indescribably graceful background. An air of desolate seclusion hangs over the remainsof the Abbey. Of great beauty in themselves, they weresadly disfigured by some attempts at restoration. Scott'splace of rest (St. Mary's aisle) had at that time a forlornlook. There was nothing in the way of a monument to designate or adorn it; not even a slab to protect it.We had fortunately engaged rooms in advance at the onlydecent inn at Melrose, and after supping, went out at nine.o'clock to see the Abbey. The moon was at the full-a harvest moon; it was impossible to see the venerable ruins togreater advantage. How many years, what varied sceneshad filled the interval since my former visit! A venerablefemale cicerone performed her duty with no little propriety,reciting the appropriate passages from " The Lay of the LastMinstrel," with a good English cadence. The churchyard.was cold and damp, and we soon took refuge in the interior.The broken fragments which I had noticed at my former visitseemed to have been somewhat cleared away. Time had evidently been gently carrying on the work begun by violence inthe border wars, and accelerated , I believe, by the stern iconoclasm of the Reformation. The ancient Abbey has, how-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 143ever, at some subsequent period, been partially covered in,and used for Protestant worship.The next day we visited Abbotsford; where changes ofevery kind had taken place in twenty-six years, since myformer visit. The plantations had been greatly extended evenduring Sir Walter's lifetime; the hall, the armory, andlibrary were unfinished, and but partly furnished, when I sawthem before. But the saddest change was the absence ofthose the venerated, the joyous, the lovely-who filled thedwelling with light and happiness. The desolate apartmentswere kept in perfect order; the innumerable objects of taste,and of antiquarian and historical interest contained in them,admirably preserved and arranged, but I could contemplatethem only with feelings of overwhelming sadness.


The rising generation of readers do not know what weenjoyed, what they can never enjoy with the zest of a freshappearance and contemporary perusal, in the poems andnovels of Sir Walter Scott. The " Lay of the Last Minstrel "was the first of his works which attracted general notice onthis side of the Atlantic, about the year 1806. It rose atonce to an unexampled popularity. It was probably the firstEnglish poetry which was as extensively read and relished ,at the time of its appearance, on this side of the Atlantic asat home. “Marmion " and the " Lady of the Lake " followedwith sustained, perhaps augmented, reputation. " Rokebyand the " Lord of the Isles " with some abatement of popularity, all within about six years. The reader who takes upthe series of Scott's poems, now-a-days, and goes throughthem as one of the volumes of the British classics, can formbut a faint conception of the eagerness with which they werewelcomed as they came successively fresh from the press.Overshadowed by the immense favor with which ChildeHarold and the other works of Byron were received, Scottretired almost wholly from the field of poetry, and soon commenced the still more wonderfully successful series of his144 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.novels. A strict incognito was at first observed, and a degreeof mystery was for several years kept up; but the authorshipof the novels gradually, and with many readers speedily,ceased to be a matter of serious question. There were manystrong grounds for ascribing them to Sir Walter,-the choice.of localities and topics, when the scene was laid in Scotland;-the peculiar tone of the nationality; many striking coincidences with his avowed works, —and, on any other supposition, the strange and persistent inactivity of his pen, in theface of daily increasing external evidence of profitable authorship. There was just doubt enough to add the element ofcuriosity to the eager interest with which each delightful workin the series was successively received. That charm is broken,and new and not undeserving favorites in the department offiction solicit the public attention. The taste of the readingworld is cloyed with the excess of this fascinating diet , andthe delight with which a new Waverley Novel " was welcomed, is buried in the grave of their illustrious author.66NUMBER SIXTEEN .THE COURT OF FRANCE IN 1818 .Impressions of the French revolution derived from Burke-Presentation at court in France in 1818-Court dress and diplomatic uniform-Mr. Gallatin and the ambas- sadors' reception-Appearance of Louis XVIII.-Duchess d'Angoulême-Duke d'Angoulême-The Count d'Artois afterwards Charles X.-The Duke de Berri and the Duchess-Fortitude of the Duchess when her husband was assassinated,and her heroic conduct in 1832-Concealed at Nantes behind the back of a fireplace for fifteen hours-The King and Count d'Artois as described by Burke- The fortunes of the Duchess de Berri.It was mentioned in a former number, that I arrived inEurope in the spring of 1815, just at the time of the escapeof Napoleon from Elba, and was a near witness of the finalcatastrophe of that world-drama, of which he was the hero.Being in Paris three years afterwards, I was curious to observe, a little more closely than it can be done through thecolumns of the newspapers, the state of things which hadsucceeded the imperial régime. The downfall of Napoleon,and the restoration of the ancient family to the throne ofFrance wore, to a youthful judgment at least, the appearanceof a great act of retributive justice in the government of theworld. The opinions of the French revolution, which prevailed among the young men of my age as well in Americaas England, were mainly derived from the study of the writings of Burke. We transferred to the entire Revolution, andto its effects on the condition of France, the frightful picturedrawn by his master pen of the reign of terror; and we expected to find, at the Court of the Restoration, a revival of 7146 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the gorgeous illusions which he has thrown round that beautiful and unfortunate Queen, whose memory he has crownedwith a brighter diadem than ever sparkled on the brow ofliving monarch. One glance behind the scenes was sufficientto dispel the error. About the middle of March, 1818, Mr.Gallatin, at that time the Minister of the United States at theCourt of France, kindly proposed to present my travellingcompanion (the late General Lyman) and myself to theKing and the other members of the Royal Family, at one ofthe regular receptions of the diplomatic body. This ceremonial required a court dress; and for this, not choosing to beat the expense of one myself, I was indebted to the liberalityof several friends , whose joint contributions furnished a verytolerable, though not entirely homogeneous, costume for theoccasion. We are inclined, on this side of the Atlantic, tolook with some disdain on diplomatic uniforms, and courtdresses. They have, at times, been put under the ban ofauthority, and the supposed simplicity of Franklin's dress, asthe American Minister at the Court of Versailles, has beenheld up for imitation. But though Franklin's dress wasundoubtedly simple in comparison with the uniforms, whichstood alone with gold lace, worn by his European colleagues,it was far enough from the austere plainness which is commonly thought. It consisted of purple velvet garments,white silk hose, and a dress sword. Official costumes, likethe other incidents and appendages of place, are often nodoubt greatly caricatured in Europe; but uniformity in dresshas its use in checking the absurd extravagances of individualtaste and want of taste, nowhere more signally and ridiculously displayed than in the adornments of the outer man.The uniform of the American Minister on this occasion, (asI believe on all occasions and at all courts, ) was remarkablefor nothing but its modest simplicity; just serving thedesigned purpose of avoiding the singularity of citizens' common clothing when every one else is in official dress.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 147At twelve o'clock Mr. Gallatin took us in his carriage tothe Tuileries, having three days before announced our namesfor presentation. We were ushered on arriving into theAmbassadors' hall, where the representatives of the variousgovernments of Europe were assembling. Mr. Gallatin wastreated by them all in a manner which indicated full appreciation of his great ability and sterling worth. His mastery ofthe French language, of course, placed him on a footing offamiliarity with his colleagues; and his great sagacity andexperience and the known moderation of his views, gave unusual importance and currency to his opinions in the diplomatic circles. There was a small side table in the corner ofthe apartment, from which coffee was served to those whowished it. Shortly after our arrival we were introduced tothe Chamberlain in attendance.A reception of this kind was held by the King and theother members of the Royal Family every other Thursday,mainly for the diplomatic corps, and it was considered amatter of course, that the foreign ministers and ambassadorsshould give their attendance. This they never failed to do,unless specially prevented. The occasion served them as anagreeable rendezvous, at which they not only exchanged thecurrent news of their different countries, but were able to givean impulse to matters of business, which might be pendingbetween the different legations. Of this there is always agreat amount between the European Ministers, —and commercial relations, and the convenience and wants of travellingcountrymen, furnish the American Minister with many occasions to serve his countrymen with his colleagues. The halfhour of attendance in the hall of the ambassadors before proceeding to the throne-room was profitably employed in thisway. At length an usher, with his rod of office, announcedthat the King was ready, and led the way to the presencechamber. As he passed the guards at the doorways he said,"Messieurs les Ambassadeurs; " and, under his guidance, we148 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.went up the principal staircase, which was lined with guards,to the throne-room. Having entered the room, the ambassadors and ministers arranged themselves in a semicircle,according to seniority in commission, the ambassadors, however, taking precedence of all the ministers, and they of allthe chargés d'affaires. This principle of arrangement wasestablished at the Congress of Vienna, and put an end to thosestruggles for precedence, which form so prominent a part ofthe diplomatic history of former times, and often led tounseemly collisions, and sometimes to bloodshed . Behindeach minister stood those he was to present. Mr. Gallatin'splace was about half way in the circle.The appearance ofthe King was in sad contrast with whatBurke had said the restored King of France must be; anenergetic prince, always on horseback. Louis the Eighteenth,in consequence of physical infirmity, could with difficulty beplaced in a carriage. He was rather under six feet in heightand corpulent, and walked with difficulty; his round andsomewhat unmeaning face indicating an amiable disposition,but no strength of character. Had he ascended the throne inquiet times, and in the natural order of succession, he possessed a temper and character to insure a prosperous reign.But the most attractive and imposing personal qualities wouldhardly have gained popularity for a king, restored at thepoint of foreign bayonets, reeking from battles fatal to thepride and power of France. But in all such qualities Louisthe Eighteenth, broken by misfortune and disease, was whollydeficient.He was dressed in a blue coat and small-clothes; a whiteMarseilles vest, which would have fitted a very much largerman, and stout hussar boots. He wore the English order ofthe garter; and supported himself with a cane, being stiff inone knee, and a great sufferer by gout. He began with theSardinian Ambassador, at the right, and passed round thecircle, saying a few words to each of the ministers, and bow-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 149ing to those presented by him. Having gone the rounds, hebowed to the circle and retired.We were then conducted through a long suite of apartments to the reception room of the Duchess d'Angoulême,the daughter of Louis the Sixteenth and Marie Antoinette, andwife of the Duke d'Angoulême, the king's nephew. In England she would have been Queen instead of Louis the Eighteenth; but the Salic law excluded her from the throne ofFrance. At this time she was forty years old. Her facewas neither beautiful nor pleasant; the lines were hard; theeye indescribably sad; the expression austere. Like severalof her family, she was said to be very devout. She enteredFrance, conducted herself with heroism beyond the men of herkindred, and rallied the friends of the family, when the tideturned against Napoleon. She had not, unfortunately, anymore than its other members, succeeded in gaining any degreeof popular favor. I could not, however, but look upon herwith respect. She had shared that terrible imprisonment inthe Temple, suffering for the want of the decent comforts oflife, and had seen her father and mother led out to the guillotine. She had seen the poor little dauphin, her brother,daily subjected to the vilest indignities, and most cruel hardships; and had lived herself in hourly expectation of sharingthe atrocious fate of her parents. These surely were titles tosympathy if not to favor. She conversed a little more atlength with the ministers, and addressed a few words to thoseintroduced by them. " Are you an American? Are youjust arrived in Paris? " were the questions which she addressed in French to me. After having gone the rounds of thecircle, she returned to her position at the head of the room,from which the company retired backward. Her husbandwas the Duke d'Angoulême, the oldest son of the Countd'Artois, the king's brother.We were next conducted to the presence of the Duked'Angoulême; a short thin man of extremely ordinary ap-150 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.pearance; dressed in the uniform of a colonel of cavalry,with hussar boots and spurs. He appeared to affect a sort ofmilitary freedom and pleasantry in his remarks to the ministers, occasionally breaking into something of a laugh, instriking contrast with the severity that marked the mannersof his wife, whom we had just quitted. He conversed withMr. Gallatin, as the duchess had also done, on a violent galewhich had lately visited the northern departments of France.His questions to me were, " Have you been long at Paris? "and " Are you attached to the Legation of the UnitedStates? "The apartments of the Duke and Duchess d'Angoulêmewere in the pavilion of Flora, as it is called, the wing of thepalace nearest the Seine. We were next conducted acrossthe entire extent of the castle, to the pavilion of Marsan,occupied by the king's brother the Count D'Artois, afterwards the successor of Louis XVIII. as Charles the Tenth.He was by far the best looking of the Royal Family; inperson slight but well made; active and graceful in movement; and ( Burke's desideratum for a restored Bourbon) agood horseman. Aware no doubt of the importance of making the most of this hold upon the imaginations of the Frenchpopulace, he almost lived in the saddle. He would have beenthought a man of fair appearance in any society; though hiscountenance was ordinary and meaningless. He was said tobe moderately popular; —more liberal in his political opinions, and more conciliatory in his temper, than his children.We were next conducted to the apartments of the Dukede Berri, the second son of the Count d'Artois; —short andstout in person; hearty in manner, and a good deal betterlooking than his older brother, the Duke d'Angoulême. Hewas the only one of the family who spoke to me in English,which he did with ease and a good accent. The late stormstill furnished the staple of the conversation; and he repeatedthe account which his father had given of a violent gale atTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 151Versailles, a year or two before, which had blown down apart of the palace. He was assassinated two years afterwards, in the streets of Paris, at the door of the opera- house,and in the presence of his wife, by a madman named Louvel.Being considered as the hope of the reigning family, his deathwas a very serious blow to its stability, and was consequentlyascribed to the procurement of its political enemies, but itseems to have been the work of a feeble intellect, thrownfrom its balance by the violence of party passion.After having passed round the circle, the Duke de Berriretired for a moment, and re-entered with his wife , the daughter of the Prince Royal of Naples, and sister of the presentking of that country. She had been married about twoyears, and was then twenty years old. She looked embarrassed and terrified; and rather crept than walked round thecircle, not addressing more than half the Ministers, nor looking them in the face. She wore a dark purple dress, withheavy steel ornaments, which gave her a bluish ghostly look.She was attended by three maids of honor, one of whom, byher dazzling beauty and exquisite grace, formed a strangecontrast with her mistress.The Duchess de Berri, notwithstanding her unpromisingappearance at this time, is not to be mentioned withoutrespect. When her husband was struck by the assassin,instead of yielding to the terror which, especially in hersituation at that time, might well have been pardoned, shesprang from her carriage, and, tearing the sash from herwaist, strove to bind up the Prince's wounds, from whichstreams of blood flowed upon her as she held him in herarms. Six months after his death, she gave birth to theDuke de Bordeaux, the present representative of the elderbranch of the house of Bourbon, under the name of Henrythe Fifth. When that branch fell by the Revolution, whichplaced the head of the younger branch, the late Louis Philippe, on the throne, she alone displayed the manly qualities152 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.which showed her worthy to have filled it. Long after themale members of the family had gone into exile, she returnedto France, traversed the departments, openly or in disguise,(in direct opposition to the judgment and wishes of M. deChateaubriand and M. Berryer and the other responsibleleaders of her party, ) seeking to rally the supporters of thefallen dynasty, and prepare the way for its return. She wasclosely tracked by the police, but so complete and variedwere her disguises, and so vigilant and faithful her adherents,that for five months she escaped her pursuers. Sometimesshe assumed the dress of a shepherdess, at others that of amiller; at one time she was to all appearance a chambermaid, and then a peasant's wife. Several times she wasconveyed to a place of safety wrapped up in a bundle ofclothes, on the back of a sturdy porter. At length, thinkingherself safer in a large city, she took up her abode at Nantes,where she was betrayed by a converted Jew, who forsome time had served her faithfully, and won her confidence.He pointed out the place of her residence to the police; theyentered it, but could find no one within. They were accompanied by masons and other artificers to sound the walls forplaces of concealment, but none were found. The corner ofone of the rooms contained a chimney, in which the gensd'armes had lighted a fire during the night. It had beenallowed to go out, but was rekindled in the morning. Itappeared to the police that some change had been made inthe fire-place and chimney during the night, by which theposition of the burning fuel was elevated. Voices also wereheard behind the chimney. The fire was now increased, andthe heat rendered so great, that the Duchess de Berri, withthree of her ladies, who were concealed in a hole to which theiron back of the chimney was a sliding door, was obliged tocome out and surrender herself. They had remained fifteenhours in this dismal place of concealment!The above described presentations lasted about two hours.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 153The narrative, after so many years, may seem somewhat aridand uninteresting, but at that time the restoration of theBourbons, and indeed the stupendous tragedies of the reign ofterror, were events so recent, as to impart some degree ofpainful interest, even to a merely ceremonial occasion of thiskind. One could not help scrutinizing the features of theDuchess d'Angoulême, to see if they reflected, in any degree,the radiance of that " delightful vision," which kindled theimagination of Burke. Is this stricken woman, whose hardfeatures and tearful eyes awaken mingled aversion and pity,the child of that youthful mother, whom the greatest ofmodern orators saw and wondered at " just above the horizon, decorating and cheering the elevated sphere she had justbegun to move in, -glittering like the morning star, full oflife, splendor, and joy "? Is the person, who, twenty-fiveyears ago, was pronounced by Burke to be, nowithstandingsome human frailties, a " character full of probity, honor, generosity, and real goodness," excelling Louis XVI. " in generalknowledge, and in a sharp and keen observation, with something of a better address, and a happier mode of speaking andwriting; his conversation open, agreeable, and well informed;his manner gracious and princely," is he the shattered formthat stands before us, advanced in years, laden with infirmities, with little personal dignity, and no influence in hisgovernment, once driven from the throne to which foreignarmies had conducted him, and still holding it by a mostprecarious tenure? Is all that remains of that Count d'Artois,"eloquent, lively, engaging in the highest degree, of a decidedcharacter, full of energy and activity; the brave, honorable,and accomplished cavalier," to be found in that unimposingand insignificant presence, destined in a few years to mountthe throne, only to be driven from it by his own kinsman,into an unpitied exile? Is this timid little foreigner, thatscarce sustains herself as she makes the circuit of her drawing-room, destined to be the mainstay and hope of the oldest7*154 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.of the Royal houses of Europe; and we may now, after theevent, well exclaim with astonishment, is she, daughter of onecrown prince, wife of another, to strive in vain, in two years,to stanch her husband's life-blood, as it flows beneath theassassin's dagger; and is she literally doomed in twelveyears more to pass through a fiery furnace in order to escapethe pursuers who are dogging her by order of her Royalrelative, who has seated himself on the throne to which herson is the " legitimate " heir? What a shocking sight formen and angels, a widowed mother of the presumptive heirto the throne of France half baked alive, not under Marat,Danton, or Robespierre, but under the reign of a wise andclement prince, her kinsman!NUMBER SEVENTEEN.LORD ERSKINE'S TESTIMONY TO WASHINGTON.Lord Erskine said by Lord Campbell to have saved the liberties of his country-Histestimony to Washington-Sketch of his life-The Earl of Buchan-Narrow circumstances of the family-Enters the navy-Original anecdote of his surveyingthe coast of Florida-Passes from the navy to the army-Commences the studyof the law-Brilliant début in the Greenwich Hospital case-His own account ofthe manner in which he came to be retained in that case-Extract from thepamphlet sent by him to General Washington-His tribute to Washington on the blank leaf.ONE of the noblest testimonies to the character of Washington is that of Lord Erskine. It is written on a blank leafin a presentation copy of a pamphlet by him, published in1797, and entitled " a view of the causes and consequences ofthe present war with France." The little volume purportsto be of the twenty-second edition, and it is said to havereached the thirty-seventh edition . The copy in question wassent by Lord Erskine to General Washington, and is stillpreserved at Mount Vernon. Before quoting this remarkabletestimony, let us contemplate, for a few moments, its illustrious author, whom the present Lord Chief Justice of England pronounces the " brightest ornament of which the Englishbar can boast;"-who " saved the liberties of his country."He was born (says Lord Campbell) on the 10th day ofJanuary, 1750. He states himself, in a memorandum dictated to Mr. Samuel Rogers, of which a copy lies before me,and to which I shall presently return, to have been born onthe 21st of January, 1749. He was the youngest of the sonsof the tenth earl of Buchan, his oldest brother being the Earl156 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.of Buchan, who sought to gain notoriety as the correspondentof Washington; and whose egregious vanity led him to averthat the most eminent men were usually childless, as evincedby the three greatest men of the age, Frederic the Second,General Washington, and himself.ofThe family of Thomas, afterwards Lord Erskine, was ofnoble, nay royal, descent, but, at the time of his birth,had sunk into very straitened circumstances. Although heearly showed himself a bright lad, it was not in the powerhis parents to educate him for a profession, their frugal meanshaving been exhausted in bestowing that advantage on hisolder brother, Henry, who rose to eminence as a lawyer.Thomas was forced to choose between the army and the navy.He strongly preferred the former, as likely to afford, in theleisure of country quarters, greater opportunity for the improvement of his mind. Circumstances, however, made itnecessary for him to adopt the other branch of the service,and at the age of fourteen he entered the navy as a midshipman on board " The Tartar " man-of-war, commanded by SirDavid Lindsay. Lord Campbell, in his biography of LordErskine, says, " it is wonderful to think, that the period of hislife, during which almost all those whose progress to greatness I have described, were stimulated to lay in stores ofknowledge at public schools and universities, was passed byErskine in the hold of a man-of-war or the barracks of amarching regiment. But his original passion for intellectualdistinction was only rendered more ardent by the difficultiesthat threatened to extinguish it."He remained four years on board the " Tartar," cruisingin the West India seas and on the coast of America. Havinghad the good fortune to make Lord Erskine's acquaintance inLondon in the spring of 1818, I heard him say, on one occasion, that he had a very accurate knowledge of some portionsof America, having, while he was in the navy, been employedin a survey of the coast of Florida; and that, while engagedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 157in that duty, “ he had turned over every muscle that lay gaping on the shore! " During his cruise he became an actinglieutenant; but on his return to England his ship was paidoff, and, owing to the great number that stood above him onthe list, he failed to obtain a lieutenant's commission. Determined not to sink back to the rank of midshipman, he abandoned the navy, and obtained the commission of Ensign inthe " Royals " or first Regiment of foot. His father wasjust dead, and the purchase of this commission absorbed thewhole ofThomas ' patrimony.For two years his regiment was quartered in variouscountry towns of England, in one of which, at the age oftwenty, and with no establishment but Ensign's pay, he fellin love with a young lady of respectable connections andestimable character, and married her.This imprudent marriage turned out auspiciously. Theyoung couple lived in uninterrupted harmony. His regiment.being ordered to Minorca, Mrs. Erskine accompanied herhusband to that island. In this secluded spot he passed twoyears, insulated from the world; but they were no doubt, asis remarked by Lord Campbell, " the most improving yearshe ever spent. " Laboriously and systematically he wentthrough a course of English literature. Shakespeare andMilton, Dryden and Pope, were his favorite authors. Heoccasionally showed the versatility of his powers by acting aschaplain to his regiment. At first he confined himself toreading the Liturgy of the church of England, but as his menwere mostly Presbyterians and discontented with the use of aprinted form of worship, he " favored them," says LordCampbell, " with an extempore prayer, and composed sermons, which he delivered to them with great unction fromthe drum-head. "The regiment returned to England in 1772, and EnsignErskine obtained a leave of absence for six months. Heavailed himself of this opportunity to mingle in general158 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.society, and produced quite a sensation in London " by hisagreeable manners and graceful volubility. " Boswell mentions seeing him at dinner in company with Dr. Johnson,with whom the bold young officer ventured to engage in argument, first on the comparative merits of Fielding and Richardson, and then on the miraculous destruction of the armyof Sennacherib, in the Old Testament. He combated withsuccess Johnson's absurd paradox, that Fielding was ablockhead " and " a barren rascal; " but wandered out ofhis depth on the subject of the Assyrian catastrophe.66In 1772 he wrote a pamphlet, which attracted attention,on abuses in the army, and in 1774 he rose to the rank ofLieutenant. In August of that year, having attended a trialunder Lord Mansfield (with whom he was acquainted) aspresiding judge, and feeling that he could have argued thecause himself, ―stranger as he was to the forum,-better thanthe counsel on either side, he conceived the thought of anotherchange of profession, and determined to study the law. LordMansfield, the same day, invited him to dinner, and, beinggreatly struck with his conversation, and pleased with hismanners, detained him till late in the evening. The ambitious lieutenant ventured to confide his newly formed purposeto the veteran magistrate, with his reasons in favor of itsadoption. He was not discouraged by Lord Mansfield, whoonly counselled him to take the advice of his mother andother near relations . The project was warmly approved byhis mother.He was unable to execute his purpose till the followingspring, when he was admitted as a student at Lincoln's Inn.The following January he was matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, thus, in name at least, at the age of twentyfive, beginning academical and professional education at thesame time. The former, however, though he kept his roomsat Cambridge, was but a nominal affair; he was, as being ofnoble family, entitled to his degree without examination; andTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 159in this way was able to cut off two of the five years of lawstudy, which would otherwise have been required of him before he could be called to the bar.By this narrow chance was Lord Erskine enabled to enterthe profession in which he earned so brilliant a reputation,and which carried him to the wool-sack. He was admitted astudent of Lincoln's Inn just one week after the commence- .ment of hostilities at Lexington. Had he retained his commission in the army but a few days longer, the news that thewar had broken out would have reached Great Britain, and itwould have been impossible for him to resign it with credit.He must have taken the chance of active service in America,and all thoughts of the future Chancellorship would have vanished like a sick man's dreams. For three years that he wasstudying the law he lived in great poverty, on borrowedmoney, in small lodgings, near Hampstead, practising painfuleconomies in food and clothing, and expressing the greatestgratitude to the manager of the Covent Garden for occasionalfree admissions to the theatre.He was called to the bar in July, 1778, and sprang at onebound to practice, fortune, and fame. His first retainer, procured by a fortunate accident, before he was actually admittedto the bar, was as junior Counsel, with four Counsel learnedin the law, to precede him. It was the famous cause of theGreenwich Hospital. Captain Baillie, deputy governor ofthat institution, had written a pamphlet exposing the grossabuses which had crept into its administration, and reflectingwith great, but just, severity upon Lord Sandwich, the firstLord of the Admiralty, and several subordinate officials.For this publication, Captain Baillie was suspended, andsome of the underlings ( at the instigation of Lord Sandwich)obtained a rule, to show cause, at next Michaelmas term, whya criminal information should not be filed against CaptainBaillie for a libel.Lord Campbell relates in some detail the manner of160 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Erskine's being retained in this memorable cause, but I amable to state it in some points more circumstantially from amemorandum dictated by Lord Erskine himself to Mr.Samuel Rogers, in 1816, and copied by me with Mr. Rogers'permission. As this memorandum has never, to my knowledge, been published, it will, I think, interest the reader."On a Sunday in June, 1778 , I was engaged to dine with Agar, inNew Norfolk street, who had become acquainted with me at TunbridgeWells, but I was persuaded by a young man, William Lyon, an Attorney, to walk as far as Enfield Chase, and dine with Mr. Barnes, a winemerchant in St. Mary Axe, remarkable for the excellence of his claret. When half way, he [ Lyon ] challenged me to leap over a ditch bythe road side. I leapt over it , but in returning, the bank gave way, andI fell and sprained my ancle. The expedition was over. I could proceed no further, and returned in a stage coach.confined at this time, and at her suggestion I resolved to keep my engagement at Agar's. She said I was justly punished, and I felt that Iwas.

My wife was"When I arrived, the dinner was begun. A tall man drew his chairaside and I went into the gap. He talked much about the pictures, andso did I, though I knew little of the subject, turning that little to asgood an account as I could. When dinner was over, he drew Agaraside, and asked who I was. Agar said I was a lawyer, and said muchin my favor. 'Could he be prevailed upon to take a brief from my brother?' Perhaps he could, ' said Agar in his pompous manner.opened the door, that I" I knew nothing of this conversation; but the next day, my servantJohn Nichols, who had served under me in the Royals, ' and who, whenhe set my books in order, used always to place the Bible a-top, as that,he said, was the best book, told me, when hemust be in another scrape, for a cross, ill- looking man, in a large, goldlaced, cocked hat, had been twice inquiring for me. 'He insists, sir,upon seeing you, and is at this moment waiting for you in BloomsburySquare Coffee- house. ' I went there, and there I found an old seaman,with a furrowed face. He was sitting gloomily in one of the boxes, witha small red trunk on the table before him, and his sword lying on thetrunk. I mentioned my name. He said, ' There are my papers; willyou read them over? ' It ended in my taking them home. I was to becalled to the bar in a few days, ( 6th of July, ) and at a consultation heldon the first of November, Bearcroft, Peckham, and Murphy were forTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 161consenting to a compromise, our client to pay all costs. My advice,gentlemen, ' I said, ' may savor more of my late profession than of mypresent, but I am against consenting. ' ' I'll be d- if I do, ' said Baillie,and he hugged me in his arms, saying, 'You are the man for me.' ' Thenthe consultation is over, ' said Bearcroft. ' It is, ' I replied, ' let us walkin the gardens.'"When the cause came on, the Senior Counsel exhausted the day andthe patience of the Court. It grew dusk and my time arrived , whenLord Mansfield adjourned. I began next morning fresh and before afresh audience. All crowded around me, and when it was over, SirArchibald McDonald had known me at school, Lee had known myfather at Harrowgate, and that night I went home and saluted my wife,with sixty-five retaining fees in my pocket. Had I not taken a nobleman's degree of M. A. , I could not have been called to the bar for twoyears later. I was then in my 30th year, having been born on the 21stofJanuary, 1749."At the foot of this memorandum, Mr. Rogers had written" Dictated by him " (Lord Erskine) " to me, as I sat withmy pen in my hand, after dinner in St. James place, in1816." S. R.This account, it will be perceived, differs in some detailsfrom that of Lord Campbell, who relates with greater fulnessthe manner in which the cause was argued by the SeniorCounsel. It seems altogether to have been an extraordinaryaffair, and not the least remarkable part of it, according toour practice, is, that a young man, just admitted to the bar,should have made the closing speech.Of this speech, so well known in the records of legaloratory, Lord Campbell remarks that "the impression made.upon the audience is said to have been unprecedented; and Imust own that, all the circumstances considered, it is themost wonderful forensic effort, of which we have any accountin our annals." It was a fitting commencement of that noblecareer, which boasts for its crowning glories the vindicationof the trial by Jury in all its efficiency, the establishment ofthe Liberty of Speech and the Press in all its perfection , andthe annihilation of the abuse of constructive treasons. This152 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.which showed her worthy to have filled it. Long after themale members of the family had gone into exile, she returnedto France, traversed the departments, openly or in disguise,(in direct opposition to the judgment and wishes of M. deChateaubriand and M. Berryer and the other responsibleleaders of her party, ) seeking to rally the supporters of thefallen dynasty, and prepare the way for its return. She wasclosely tracked by the police, but so complete and variedwere her disguises, and so vigilant and faithful her adherents,that for five months she escaped her pursuers. Sometimesshe assumed the dress of a shepherdess, at others that of amiller; at one time she was to all appearance a chambermaid, and then a peasant's wife. Several times she wasconveyed to a place of safety wrapped up in a bundle ofclothes, on the back of a sturdy porter. At length, thinkingherself safer in a large city, she took up her abode at Nantes,where she was betrayed by a converted Jew, who forsome time had served her faithfully, and won her confidence.He pointed out the place of her residence to the police; theyentered it, but could find no one within. They were accompanied by masons and other artificers to sound the walls forplaces of concealment, but none were found. The corner ofone of the rooms contained a chimney, in which the gensd'armes had lighted a fire during the night. It had beenallowed to go out, but was rekindled in the morning. Itappeared to the police that some change had been made inthe fire-place and chimney during the night, by which theposition of the burning fuel was elevated. Voices also wereheard behind the chimney. The fire was now increased, andthe heat rendered so great, that the Duchess de Berri, withthree of her ladies, who were concealed in a hole to which theiron back of the chimney was a sliding door, was obliged tocome out and surrender herself. They had remained fifteenhours in this dismal place of concealment!The above described presentations lasted about two hours.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 153The narrative, after so many years, may seem somewhat aridand uninteresting, but at that time the restoration of theBourbons, and indeed the stupendous tragedies of the reign ofterror, were events so recent, as to impart some degree ofpainful interest, even to a merely ceremonial occasion of thiskind. One could not help scrutinizing the features of theDuchess d'Angoulême, to see if they reflected , in any degree,the radiance of that " delightful vision," which kindled theimagination of Burke. Is this stricken woman, whose hardfeatures and tearful eyes awaken mingled aversion and pity,the child of that youthful mother, whom the greatest ofmodern orators saw and wondered at " just above the horizon, decorating and cheering the elevated sphere she had justbegun to move in, —glittering like the morning star, full oflife, splendor, and joy "? Is the person, who, twenty-fiveyears ago, was pronounced by Burke to be, nowithstandingsome human frailties, a “ character full of probity, honor, generosity, and real goodness," excelling Louis XVI. " in generalknowledge, and in a sharp and keen observation, with something of a better address, and a happier mode of speaking andwriting; his conversation open, agreeable, and well informed;his manner gracious and princely," is he the shattered formthat stands before us, advanced in years, laden with infirmities, with little personal dignity, and no influence in hisgovernment, once driven from the throne to which foreignarmies had conducted him, and still holding it by a mostprecarious tenure? Is all that remains of that Count d'Artois,"eloquent, lively, engaging in the highest degree, of a decidedcharacter, full of energy and activity; the brave, honorable,and accomplished cavalier," to be found in that unimposingand insignificant presence, destined in a few years to mountthe throne, only to be driven from it by his own kinsman,into an unpitied exile? Is this timid little foreigner, thatscarce sustains herself as she makes the circuit of her drawing-room, destined to be the mainstay and hope of the oldest7*162 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.wonderful speech gained for Erskine, at one blow, the reputation of a consummate advocate.In the pamphlet named at the commencement of the article, its author makes the following allusion to Washington:"The pretence of a war waged against opinions, to check, as is alleged, the contagion of their propagation, is equally senseless and extravagant. The same reason might equally have united all nations inall times, against the progressive changes which have conducted nations from barbarism to light, and from despotism to freedom. It oughtindissolubly to have combined the Catholic kingdoms to wage eternalwar, till the principles of the reformation, leading to a new civil establishment, had been abandoned. It should have kept the sword unsheathed, till the United Provinces returned to the subjection of Spain;until King William's title and the establishment of the British Revolution had given way to the persons and prerogatives of the Stuarts; anduntil Washington, instead of yielding up the cause of a Republicanempire to a virtuous and a free People, in the face of an admiring andastonished world, should have been dragged as a traitor to the bar ofthe Old Bailey and his body quartered on Tower Hill. "A copy of this pamphlet, handsomely bound in greenmorocco, was sent by Lord Erskine to General Washington,by the hand of Mr. Bond, of Philadelphia, with the followingletter written on the blank page. General Washington's letter of acknowledgment will be found in his works, Vol. XI. , p.209.To General Washington.SIR-I have taken the liberty to introduce your august and immortalname, in a short sentence, which is to be found in the book I send toyou. I have a large acquaintance among the most valuable and exaltedclasses ofmen; but you are the only human being for whom I ever feltan awful reverence. I sincerely pray God to grant a long and sereneevening to a life so gloriously devoted to the universal happiness of the world. T. ERSKINE.London, 15 March, 1797.NUMBER EIGHTEEN.THE FINANCIAL DISTRESS OF THE YEAR 1857.PART I.An inquiry into the causes of the distress of the year 1957 proposed-Difficulty of the investigation-The facts of the case stated-And the extent of the distressbriefly described-The general paralysis of business and credit-What could have produced it, in the absence of all the usual causes of public distress?—Its probable cause to be found in DEBT-An estimate of the personal debt of the people of the United States-Its annual interest ninety millions of dollars-The business debt is vastly greater-The Corporate debt-The Bank debt and the elements of which it is composed-Banks create no additional capital-By sudden contraction of credit in times of pressure produce or increase the panic.SHORTLY after my engagement to write these papers wasannounced, I began to receive letters, from different parts ofthe country, calling my attention to various subjects ofinquiry and discussion . Among other letters I received onefrom a friendly correspondent in the West, personally astranger to me, requesting me to state, if possible, the precisecause of the financial distress of the year 1857; to explainhow it happened that, in a condition of great and generalprosperity, the country should have been struck as with apalsy in all its business concerns, from which it has hardlyyet, after a lapse of eighteen months, fully recovered; and, asthis is not the first instance of events of this kind, to pointout how their periodical recurrence, in something like a regular cycle, can be prevented.My well-meaning correspondent has given me a problem,which requires for its satisfactory solution, a much wiser man164 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.than I am;-a problem which, in its entire comprehension,will not soon receive a full practical answer. Some of thetopics involved in the inquiry into the causes of the distressof the year before the last, are of an abstruse and subtlecharacter, particularly those which relate to the subject ofcredit, and how far it ought to be resorted to in carrying onthe business operations of the community,-and the effect ofa currency, composed of coin and paper, on the money valueof commodities at home and abroad. These are topics, withrespect to which different opinions are entertained by judicious and well -informed men. The other part of the inquiry,how the periodical recurrence of these seasons of generalfinancial and commercial embarrassment can be prevented,embraces moral considerations, the justice of which will notbe questioned in theory, but which it is extremely difficult toreduce to practice, to an extent sufficient to affect the condition of a community.The fact itself was pronounced by my unknown but intelligent correspondent one that would be utterly incredible, hadit not been matter of daily observation throughout the Union;it was nothing less than the almost instantaneous suspensionof active business operations of every kind and in everybranch, without any manifest assignable cause. A more thanusually abundant harvest had filled the granaries of the greatWest to repletion , but at the season of the year when theproduce of the interior is finding its way to its markets,domestic and foreign, the steamers on the great rivers andlakes stood still; the canal boats ceased to ply; and the railroad trains moved backward and forward with less than halfthe usual amount of travel and transportation . I had occasionjust as the crisis was coming on, to travel from Boston toBuffalo, to deliver an address before the New York StateAgricultural Society. Notwithstanding the great resort tothe State Fair, the travel, for more than half the way, wasreduced far below the average of ordinary seasons. I tookTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 165passage at Buffalo, on the 9th of October, 1857, in one of themagnificent steamers which plied between that city and Detroit,and which was capable of lodging two thousand persons. Itwas one of three of equal or greater capacity. The number ofpersons actually on board at that time did not exceed fifty!The boats on the line had been for some time running togreat loss, and this trip of the 9th of October was the last ofthe season. After that day they were laid up; -two or threeweeks earlier than usual.A similar state of things prevailed in the manufacturingregions. The factories either wholly stopped or worked onshort time; and then rather as a choice of evils, to preventthe dispersion of skilled labor, and injury to the machineryby disuse. The navigating interest shared the distress. Ourvessels brought home cargoes that passed into the publicstores, or were re-exported at great loss. The freighting business was nearly annihilated. The all-infecting malady of thecountry showed itself, in its most malignant form , in thebanks, and a general suspension of specie payments completedat once and indicated the universal distress . On the 6th ofOctober, as I was leaving Boston, I was told by the Presidentof one of the strongest and best conducted of our institutions,that, let what would happen, the banks would stand firm;and in less than a fortnight a universal suspension of speciepayments had begun in New York, and extended itselfthroughout the country. So complete and universal wasthe stagnation, that it was impossible to procure a draft onNew York, by which the modest proceeds of my oration onthe character of Washington could be remitted, from a prosperous town in the interior of Michigan.A short time only elapsed before the necessary consequences of such a general suspension of business were seen, ina prostration as general of credit, and in rapidly multiplyingbankruptcies of individuals and corporations. Powerful manufacturing companies, or what were deemed such, failed;166 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.substantial private houses, or houses accounted substantial,sunk; and the great industrial classes of the community, wholive by the earnings of their daily labor, were thrown out ofemployment, and driven to straits for the support of themselves and their families. The General Government at lengthshared in the embarrassment of the people; -the revenue felloff, and temporary expedients became necessary to carry onthe ordinary operations of the Treasury.What produced this most extraordinary condition ofthings? The country was in profound peace. No hostilearmies traversed and wasted it, -a frequent occurrence inEurope and the East. Our neutral commerce was not, as atsome former periods of our history, swept from the ocean bythe edicts of unscrupulous rival belligerents, intent uponinjuring each other, and to effect that object, trampling theLaw of Nations under foot. No embargo, or non-intercoursesealed our ports. No untimely frosts,-no mysterious blightmenaced famine or even scarcity. No pestilence walked indarkness, nor destruction wasted at noonday. A week beforethe panic commenced there was the appearance of universalprosperity, and after it commenced and while it lasted, thecountry possessed, and that in abundance, all the solid elements of substantial well-being. Under these circumstances,how was it possible, -under similar circumstances how is itever possible, —that an intelligent, energetic, industrious, andin the aggregate virtuous people, living under a free government, and, as far as political relations are concerned, enjoyingprivileges elsewhere and before unknown in the world, should ,even for a short time, fall into a state of general embarrassment and profound distress such as I have described?I hardly know whether it would be possible, even in avoluminous treatise on the subject, to return a full and satisfactory answer to this inquiry; whether, with business relations extending throughout a country so vast and with a population so enterprising and active as ours, living and acting inTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 167a highly artificial state of society, and especially under afinancial system singularly complicated and confined, it ispossible to trace and analyze the remote and occult causesof such a phenomenon . They may, like the ultimate secretsof the material universe, defy the grasp of our minds.But I am inclined to think, that there is one great efficientcause, which will fully account for a large part, perhaps thewhole, of this mighty and terrible effect; a cause so simple,so homely, so near at hand, that men overlook it, while theyare exploring the metaphysics of currency, credit, and thebalance of trade.If I mistake not, the distress of the year 1857 was produced by an enemy more formidable than hostile armies; bya pestilence more deadly than fever or plague; by a visitation more destructive than the frosts of Spring or the blightsof Summer. I believe that it was caused by a mountain loadof DEBT. The whole country, individuals and communities,trading-houses, corporations, towns, cities, States, were laboring under a weight of debt, beneath which the ordinary business relations of the country were, at length, arrested, andthe great instrument usually employed for carrying them on,CREDIT, broken down. Let us, by looking into a few particulars, see whether this is a true statement. I apprehend thatthe inquiry will disclose some startling facts.I will first speak of what may be called the personal debtof the country, which runs up, in the aggregate, to an almostfabulous amount. The free population of the United Statesamounts, at the present time, to about 26,000,000 of individuals, which will give, in the ordinary calculation, 5,200, -000 heads of families. I assume that each one of these persons is three hundred dollars in debt. This is, of course, apurely conjectural sum. Many persons may think it toolarge; others may think it too small; such is my own impression. I believe it will be perfectly safe to assume that,in consequence of the natural proclivity to anticipate income,168 THE MOUNT VERNON buy on credit, to live a little beyond our means, the community carries with it through life a debt of at least threehundred dollars for each family. I am aware that there aremany persons who " owe no man any thing but to love oneanother; " some, I fear, there are, who obey the apostolicinjunction, without the benign qualification . But, on the contrary, how many there are of the 5,200,000 heads of families,who owe a great deal more than three hundred dollars; howmany individuals, not included in the 5,200,000, who havelarger or smaller debts! How large a proportion of the realproperty of the country, —the houses, the farms, the plantations, is under mortgage; and of those who have no realproperty to give in security, how many pledge their credit andhonor to an extent at least equal to that assured! When allthese things are considered, I think it will be felt, that threehundred dollars is a moderate sum to assume, as an averageamount of debt for every head of a family. This basis of calculation gives us fifteen hundred and sixty millions, say fifteenhundred millions of dollars as the private personal debt of theAmerican people, or about one-half of that national debt ofEngland, which sits like an incubus on the taxable resourcesof that country. The interest of this sum is ninety millionsof dollars, which the people of this country have to pay annually on their personal debts. Stated in this naked form itis a frightful sum; and no small part of the straits, discomforts, and troubles of domestic life arise from this perpetualstrain upon the family resources. Still, in a time of prosperity, the burden is divided among so many, that it is carried with greater or less ease, according to the amount whichweighs on each individual; for though we assume for calculation an equal average amount, in point of fact the burden isvery unequally divided. Some are prudent enough to bealmost or quite free; others, as the popular expression is , are" over head and ears."The business debt, whether in trade, manufactures, orTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 169agriculture, is vastly greater; probably greater in this country,in proportion to its population, than in any other in the world.Almost all persons in business extend their transactions veryfar beyond their capital. A merchant or manufacturer with acapital of one hundred thousand dollars will often trade upon amillion. This I have been told, by two or three persons themselves extensively engaged in trade, is not an extravagant statement of the ratio between the capital and the business of ourAmerican traders and manufacturers. If this ratio is thoughttoo great, let us reduce it one-half, and suppose that our menof business, on an average, extend their transactions to fivetimes the amount of their capital; that is, a person with asolid capital of a hundred thousand dollars, will buy andsell to the amount of half a million. He will , in that case,have to carry a debt which exceeds his capital five-fold. Onthis basis, to get at what may be called the business debt ofthe country, we must multiply the business capital by five.I presume not to go into the enormous amount,—the hundreds and thousands of millions, which would result from thismultiplication, and which represent the business debt of thecountry.This debt, it is true, unlike the personal debt, is supposedto be balanced by a still larger amount of credits . Thetrader who has bought four hundred thousand dollars worthofgoods on credit, has sold them or expects to sell them forfive hundred thousand; but he is paid in the first instance incredit, that is in debt. While things are prosperous thisuntold mass of debt can be carried. If all the speculativepurchases and sales succeed, the debts on one side will bebalanced by the credits on the other, but if any great derangement takes place, distress, perhaps ruin, ensues;-to afew individuals, if the disturbing cause is confined to a localityor a single article of commerce; to large bodies, to thewhole community, if it is of a comprehensive nature. Assoon as the business debt becomes oppressive, the personal8170 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.debt above alluded to begins to pinch; and it may be observed, (what I omitted to state, in reference to the ratio ofcapital and business, ) that the capital of the country is at alltimes charged with the maintenance of those to whom it belongs, a circumstance which materially impairs its efficiencyas the means of doing business. Most men possessed of aclear property of one hundred thousand dollars, probably liveat an expense of at least six thousand a year, which reducesto that extent the efficiency of the capital as a basis to tradeupon.Then there is the corporate debt of the country, and thisof two kinds, public and private. By the former, I mean thedebt of the General Government, of the States, cities, towns,and other political and public bodies; by the latter, the debtof the various private corporations, the churches, the associations of all kinds, Railroad companies, and all the other incorporated bodies which have business transactions. Theamount of this kind of debt is of course enormous, many hundreds of millions, and much of it has been improvidently contracted; so that in many cases no permanent value has beencreated in return.I reserve for the last place the bank-debt, which is of asomewhat peculiar nature, and which exercises by its fluctuations a controlling, sometimes disastrous, influence on all theother debt-that is, all the other business-of the country.The remark already made with reference to the ratio ofthecapital and business of individuals, applies with nearly equalforce to the capital and business of the banks. They are, atall times, largely in debt. Their circulation is all debt; it isavowedly a promise to pay on demand. The deposits are somuch debt, which the banks are equally obliged to pay ondemand; and these two kinds of debt are the basis of alarge part of their business operations. Besides this, bankcapital, however solid, does not even profess to be any positive addition to the wealth of the community. The sums ofTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 171which it is made up, of course, existed elsewhere before, and,except when hoarded, were, in some way or other, employed.The banks can do nothing but collect them into masses, available for business. This is an important public benefit, but itis not a creation of capital. The circulating paper which thebanks issue, can add nothing to the capital of the country, forit is nothing but the evidence of debt. The bank borrows itfrom the public without interest, and lends it back to the public at six or seven per cent. That such an operation should bethought to add to the wealth of a community is not one ofthe least remarkable delusions of the day.The banks then are among the largest debtors of the country. It is true they are also among the largest creditors;but their credits are on time; their debts are due on demand;and their immediately available means are notoriously inadequate to meet that demand. By rapid contractions of theircredits when their debts are pressed upon them for payment,they create or increase a panic, and when it is created, theysuspend payment, and drag the whole community with them.into bankruptcy.If such as we have described it is the real state of things,-ifthe country is burdened with this enormous amount ofdebt, public and private, individual and corporate, it is quiteevident, that on the occurrence of any cause, real or imaginary, which powerfully affects the public mind, which producesalarm, and so checks the renewal or the extension of credit,and compels the whole business community to demand payment in order that it may make payment, a general stoppagemust ensue. There is no solid basis on which to stand andresist the rushing tide. Almost everybody is under obligations beyond his immediately available means; and the fewthat have property are afraid to trust it in any investment.Above a million of dollars, belonging to a person who neverwillingly left a dollar unemployed, lay idle in the banks ofBoston, during the panic of the year 1857.172 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.The real cause of the distress, then, of the year before thelast, was the overwhelming DEBT of the country, and the shockgiven to credit, by which alone that debt is sustained. I reserve to another occasion the application of these views, assuggesting the only practical remedy.NUMBER NINETEEN.THE FINANCIAL DISTRESS OF THE YEAR 1857.PART II.The view taken in the preceding paper best explains the periodical recurrence of afinancial crisis-Origin of the term Panic-Its connection with seasons of pressure and distress-The only remedy is to keep out of debt-The abuses of credit thechief cause of great commercial revulsions-Long credits deprecated by distin- guished financial authorities-The agency of banks in the dangerous extension ofcredit-Doubtful utility of a paper currency-Individual prudence must furnish the main protection - The soundness of these views confirmed by the manner inwhich the country is returning to a state of prosperity.THE view taken in the preceding number of the real causeof the financial distress of the year 1857, viz . , the mountainmass of debt under which the community was laboring, willbest explain the periodical recurrence of a similar state ofthings. The process of running in debt is, in its very nature,a growing one. It rarely stops while it can by possibility becarried on. With respect to what I have called the personaldebt of the country, if the means of the individual do notenable him, in the first instance, to get through the year without anticipating the next year's income, he will, the secondyear, besides his current expenses, have a debt, -and soon aninterest-bearing debt, -to take care of. Accustomed gradually in this way to live in part on credit, he soon begins toresort to it from convenience, as he did at first from necessity. Family expenses usually go on increasing, -the happyaccident which is greatly to augment one's means never turnsup; and the debt, which I have supposed averages at least174 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.three hundred dollars for every head of a family, swells till itis arrested by a forced liquidation , which comes sooner orlater in the case of each individual, according to the extent ofhis ability to carry a debt.The business debt of the country goes on increasing till itcan increase no longer, by a still more certain law. If thebusiness is what is called prosperous, the trader is temptedon " to enlarge the sphere of his operations, " which means, tostrain his resources still further; to buy and sell morelargely, and of course on credit; his personal expenditureincreasing all the while, and he himself often tempted intonew fields of enterprise, with which he is unacquainted . Thepanic of 1837 and that of 1857 were both preceded by seasons of unprecedented activity in the business world. In theformer year, besides a strange expansion in every other direction, the public lands were purchased in such fabulous quantities, that it became necessary to relieve the plethora of thetreasury by a distribution of the surplus revenue! The crisiscame, however, before the last instalment was paid.In the year 1857, business of all kinds had been quickenedby the influx of California gold, which gave a fallacious strengthto the banks, and tempted them not merely to aid, but tostimulate, speculation. On this occasion, the West becameagain the great field, where golden visions of sudden wealthwere to be realized . The stock of railroads through tractsof country to which the Indian title was but recently extinguished, and town lots in pathless wildernesses, were soughtwith avidity throughout the older States. A few highestprizes in this lottery, drawn by "fortunate individuals,"turned the heads of thousands, who dreamed of the samegood luck, and awoke ruined.But the business debt like the personal debt has its limits;—it cannot go on forever. The time comes at length whenborrowing must cease and paying must begin. An uneasyfeeling begins to pervade the community. The banks andTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 175the men of solid wealth, who watch the signs of the timeswith care, understand the portents. A crisis is perceived tobe coming on, —and with the unerring, but not always wise,instinct of self-interest, the individuals and the institutions ofthe creditor class, seek, not to avert the storm, but to securethemselves from its fury. Further accommodations are nowrefused, credits contracted, loans called in. The ship is putunder snug canvas, and men wait in feverish anxiety for thewhite squall to burst. It may come from a quarter and in ashape absurdly disproportioned in appearance to the effectproduced; -as in the failure of the Ohio Trust Company thebefore the last. The whole debt of that institution wasa small percentage on the aggregate of the money transactions of the New York banks for one day; and yet, as far asany individual cause can be pointed out, its failure gave thealarm, which ended in the temporary prostration of the credit,and suspension of the business of the whole country.yearBut even the dictionaries teach us that it is idle to inquireinto the cause of a Panic; that is the immediate cause; -theword is used to signify a great and general alarm, withoutany apparent adequate cause. In the oldest heathen mythology, Pan blew his conch shell , when the Titans were fightingwith the gods. The audacious rebels had stood undauntedagainst the thunders of Jupiter, but they fled at the blast ofthis harsh clarion. Having succeeded so well on this occasion, Pan accompanied Bacchus on his expedition to India,where on a certain occasion he gave a wild scream, whichfilled the echoes of the mountains and put the enemy to flight.These old fables-(what foundation of fact they may havehad in the experience of infant humanity, who can tell?)-struck to the heart of the race, and have given a name tosaddest realities in every period of history. Old dynastieshave sunk, mighty battles have been lost, -revolutions havebeen commenced by Pan-ic fears. One of the most authenticsigns of the last dread consummation is " men's hearts failing176 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.them for fear; " and when this takes place, no form of disorganization and ruin is just matter of surprise. The crackingof a seat, or a mischievous cry of fire, will, in an instant, setassembled thousands of intelligent persons frantic with terror,and cause them to trample each other to death, in their insanehaste to escape from the building. A great, strong shipstrikes an iceberg, and discipline is sometimes instantly subverted, all hope of escape in the life-boats blasted, by thefierce haste with which they are lowered into the sea andovercrowded in the dismay of the moment, and hundreds oflives lost when all might have been rescued. Almost all thegreat battles of ancient and modern times, from Pharsalia toWaterloo, have probably been decided at last by Panic.Miracles of valor are performed by brave men, blood flowslike water; —at length a wild cry is heard, on one side or theother, that all is lost, —and with that cry all is lost.It is so in a financial Crisis; a cry of alarm is raised perhaps by a feeble voice, perhaps from an insignificant quarter;but its foundation, in the general state of things, is felt by toomany persons to be just. All, alike the creditor and thedebtor class, know that the country is staggering under a loadof debt. Most persons in active business unite the two characters of creditor and debtor; and, either coerced by the necessity of meeting his own engagements or from the desire ofsecuring what is due to him, every man demands payment atthe same time, and general bankruptcy ensues. From a condition of careless and joyous prosperity, the communitypasses in a week into one of embarrassment, terror, and fortoo many persons, hopeless ruin. Individuals indebted tothe extent of from five to ten times their capital; banks thathave one specie dollar in their vaults, for from five to six oftheir deposits and circulation , are struck with the paric. Allgrasp at once at the means of paying their debts, and find thedebts many times larger than the available means of payment.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 177What, then, is the remedy! Unhappily it is so simple, sodestitute of all financial refinement, so much at war with thespeculating character of the age, that the very mention ofitwill, with many persons, excite no feelings but those of pityand derision. It is just to keep out of debt. As far as personal expenses are concerned, live within your means. Leaving out of view a small class of exceptional cases, in whichlarge future accessions of fortune can be depended on, yourmeans will never be much ampler than they now are. Ifyour trade, your business, your profession does not supportyou now, it never will; because you will generally find thatyour expenses will steadily increase with your earnings oryour income. Your family will grow, your wants will multiply, the standard of comfortable living will be constantlyrising; or, on the other hand, you will have sickness in yourfamily, or some unexpected burden will come upon you; —inshort, if you get into the habit of borrowing and living oncredit, nine times out of ten you will never get out of it .You will live under the harrow all your life, and sooner orlater be compelled to seek relief by painful and mortifyingsacrifices.So too of the business debt. I am well aware that theastonishing growth of this country in material wealth isascribed by many persons to the great facilities which haveexisted for doing business on credit. Without intending atall to question the utility of credit rightfully understood andkept within proper limits, I would rather say, that the country has prospered, not in consequence of the facility withwhich credit has been obtained, but in spite of its abuses.The vast body of land within the territorial limits of thecountry;-its almost boundless means of internal and external communication by ocean, river, and lake, the averagefertility ofmuch of its soil, and the abundance and variety ofits staple products; its free political institutions; the energyand enterprise of the Anglo-Saxon race, and the yearly acces8*178 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sion from abroad of an iminense amount of adult labor,—these are the main causes of the rapid growth of the country.Facilities of credit have in some cases and under some conditions safely supplied the place of solid capital and anticipated its creation. But this advantage is to be offset by theruinous public enterprises, and the untold amount of privatebankruptcy, which have been the disastrous result of easyborrowing at home and abroad.I heard a gentleman of acute observation and large experience say, many years ago, that he had made out two lists,one of a considerable number of farmers, and the other ofmerchants, starting with fair prospects in life;-the one classto live upon the produce of their farms, tilled for the mostpart by their own hands, and this under the comparativelyimperfect system of agriculture which prevailed in the lastgeneration; the other to take their chances in the lottery ofcommerce. At the end of the term for which the comparisonwas made, the farmers were the more prosperous body.None of them had become very rich; -a few only had whollyfailed in life, and those few from causes not essentially connected with agricultural pursuits. The greater part had livedand brought up their families in comfort. Of the merchants,by far the greater part had wholly failed; and one or twoonly had greatly prospered.I know of no circumstance so likely to produce this effect,as doing business mainly on borrowed means; keeping yourall at the mercy of events, over which you have no control;the probity or the solvency of others; political influences athome; the chances of peace and war abroad; your owncontinued health; in a word, the innumerable contingenciesoflife.Nor let it be thought that this idea of greatly limiting theuse of credit is the mere theoretical fancy of a person, whoknows nothing practically of the subject. The President ofthe Bank of Commerce in New York writing to Mr. NathanTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 179Appleton in Boston, a few days before the suspension ofspecie payments in 1857, says " when will your banks confinethemselves to short dates, and cease to encourage the pernicious system of long credits-credits ramified to the lastdegree, from which spring most of your difficulties? " Mr.Appleton in reply says, " I have always been opposed to thesystem of long credits, but I recollect very well that it was inconsequence of eight months being the established credit givenby the New York importers, that we were obliged to submitto the same in our manufactures. " These two gentlemendiffered only as to what may be called long credits, and wherethe responsibility of favoring them rests.The banks, of course, are mainly responsible for the undueexpansion of credit, which has proved so pernicious. Theseinstitutions are created in many cases for the benefit of a fewindividuals, principally active in getting them up. Theircapital is often to a considerable degree fictitious, paid in oneday and borrowed out the next, not in the discount of business paper, but to be employed in speculations, wholly unjustifiable on any sound banking principles. Where a solidcapital is actually paid in, a desire to increase the profits ofthe bank often leads it to push its accommodations beyondthe limits of prudence and safety. In the month of January1857, the banks of New York owed one hundred and fourmillions of dollars to their depositors and bill holders, andthey had eleven millions of specie in their vaults. In otherwords, they were carrying a fearful debt themselves, to enabletheir customers to carry one equally fearful. In a little morethan nine months, under the influence of no assignable causebut panic, banks and customers in New York and throughoutthe greater part of the Union, were involved in one commonbankruptcy.Banks of deposit and discount, confining their operations.strictly to business paper of short date, would no doubt beof great convenience in carrying on an active commerce,180 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.They would insure the safe keeping of large sums of money;bring idle funds into active use; facilitate payments, andhasten the consummation of business transactions. But itmay well be doubted whether banks of circulation , that is,banks authorized by the States to create a paper currency,which, having no real value, is accepted by the public as if itwere solid money, are not in the long run, an injury ratherthan a benefit to the community. They have directly andindirectly had the chief agency in causing those periodicalseasons of pressure and distress, which have so often occurredin this country, and with such disastrous consequences to individuals and the public.It must be admitted, however, that there is very littlehope of a remedy. Although the public mind is probablyalmost unanimous in the conviction, that a National Bank,once deemed by many persons absolutely essential for thecollection of the revenue and the regulation of the currency, isby no means necessary either for the government or the people; there is not the least probability that the States willforego the power of establishing local banks, and clothingthem with the right to create a fictitious currency. Suchbeing the case, the country is too likely, in time to come asin time past, to suffer every twenty or twenty-five years theenormous evils resulting from the inflation of credit, and thearbitrary expansion and contraction of a circulating medium,resting on misplaced confidence and not on a basis of solidvalue.There remains then no remedy, but that not entirely efficient, yet still very important one, which each individual isable to apply to his own affars. The man who lives withinhis means, will in prosperous times pass through life with asgreat a freedom from pecuniary distress, as our imperfectnature admits. Even he may suffer from ill health on hisown part or that of others, paralyzing his activity or burdening his means, and a general stagnation of busines may, byTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 181no fault or imprudence of his own, fatally cripple his resources. These are misfortunes, for which there is no help.They belong to the imperfections of our social nature; buteven these will be resisted and sustained far more successfullyby the unembarrassed man, than by one already staggeringunder a load of debt.So with reference to business, no individual, however prudent, can place himself wholly beyond the reach of thosefrightful storms, that from time to time burst upon the trading community, with the fury of a typhoon, sweeping all before them to destruction. But even in times like these, theman who has contented himself with moderate gains, has kepthis liabilities within his means, conducted his business on asubstantial basis, and eschewed gigantic speculations, will bemost likely to go through the crisis unscathed; and in allordinary cases be successful and prosperous, in life; whilethose who pursue the opposite course, strain their credit tothe utmost, and trade on a capital far beyond their, besides leading a life of splendid anxiety and ostentatious care, are the most likely to be prostrated by the firstblast which sweeps over the country.It may be remarked, in conclusion, that the justice of theforegoing views, both as to the cause of the distress of 1857and the only security against the recurrence of a similarcalamity, is confirmed by the manner in which a partial recovery has been brought about. No new branches of business have been established, no new markets have been opened.There has been no fortunate change in affairs domestic or foreign, for the pressure was not caused by any thing adverse inour political condition at home or abroad. It is not years ofplenty succeeding years of famine; nor health returning afterthe visitations of pestilence. The change has been broughtabout simply by arresting the augmentation of debt, relievingthe money market of gigantic borrowers, looking desperateconcerns in the face and treating them accordingly; —in short,182 THE MOUNT VERNON settling up old accounts. Great sacrifices have attendedthe process; but they would have been greater had they beenlonger delayed. If the country would learn wisdom by experience, all would be well. But in matters of this kind, menseldom learn by any experience but their own; and that isapt to come too late. They gain wisdom and nothing else.NUMBER TWENTY.TRAVELLING IN FORMER TIMES.First visit to New York by packet from Newport in 1810-Exodus from Dorchesterto Connecticut River in 1635, in fourteen days-Madam Knight's journey to New York in 1704-Extracts-Franklin's voyage to New York in 1723-Abandonsvegetable diet by the way-Franklin's reasons in 1754 for recommending Phila- delphia as the seat of a provincial Union-Anecdote of General Adair andGeneral Root-Rapid journey of Cardinal Wolsey from Richmond to Bruges and back-Washington's first journey to the Eastern States in 1756-Travelling bystage coach fifty years ago-" Waking up the wrong passenger"-Indifferent accommodations both for passengers and baggage-Anecdote of a German travel- ler-This mode of travelling sometimes very pleasant.THE generation now coming forward in life can have but afaint idea of the change, which has taken place within thirtyyears, in the facilities of travelling, as we in our turn probably form an inadequate conception of the state of things whichexisted before the establishment of stage-coaches. My firstvisit from Boston to New York was made in August, 1810,in a coasting packet from Newport, and if I mistake not wewere out two nights and a part of three days. A secondvisit was made in December, 1814, in a stage-coach, and occupied three days of very diligent and severe travel, and thisstate of things lasted several years longer.Changes are made with such rapidity in this country, thata couple of centuries have witnessed results, which in Europehave filled up the whole period from the dawn of civilization.When the first settlers of the Connecticut River emigratedfrom Dorchester, in Massachusetts, about one hundred men,184 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.women, and children, they were fourteen days in making thedistance, which is now daily crossed over by the express trainin three hours. This was the first movement in that greatmarch of emigration from the coast to the interior, which important a space in the annals and in the " destiny " ofAmerica. The history of the country contains few pages ofgreater interest, than those which record this first Exodus tothe American promised land. The touching narrative is admirably given by Dr. Ellis, in the thirteenth volume ofSparks' American Biography.Such as there described were the men and women, suchthe toils and hardships, by which this beautiful and prosperous America, now filled with its rapidly multiplying millions,approached and traversed in every direction by steam boatand steam car, on ocean and land, on river and lake, was settledbut little more than two centuries and a quarter since.Madam Sarah Knight was a heroine of a different character, and made her journey from Boston to New York onhorseback in October, 1704. She was a person of thrift andwent to settle important affairs; and as her business, goingand coming, required her to stop in several places, her diarydoes not enable us to calculate the time which was then absolutely necessary for a journey from New York to Boston, thedistance being then estimated at two hundred and seventymiles. About a fortnight is supposed to be the time usuallyemployed on the journey. Madam Knight's journal, a mostcurious record, was first published in New York in 1825, andwas reprinted in Littell's Living Age for 26 June, 1858. Thefollowing extracts will show the style of travelling betweenBoston and New York in 1704:"In about an how'r, or something morc, after we left the Swamp, wecome to Billingses, where I was to Lodg. My Guide dismounted andvery Complacently help't me down and shewd the door, signing to me wth his hand to Go in; wch I Gladly did -But had not gone many stepsinto the Room, ere I was Interrogated by a young Lady I understoo·lTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 185afterwards was the Eldest daughter of the family, with these, or words tothis purpose (viz ) Law for mee-what in the world brings You here atthis time a night?-I never see a woman on the Rode so Dreadfull latein all the days of my versall life. Who are You? Where are You going?I'me scared out of my witts-with much more of the same Kind. I stoodaghast, Prepareing to reply, when in comes my Guide-to him Madamturned, Roreing out: Lawful heart, John, is it You?-how de do!Where in the world are you going with this woman? Who is she? Johnmade no Ansr. but sat down in the corner, fumbled out his black Junk,and saluted that instead of Debb; she then turned agen to mee and fellanew into her silly questions, without asking me to sitt down. -I told hershee treated me very Rudely, and I did not think it my duty to answerher unmannerly Questions. But to get ridd of them, I told her Icome there to have the post's company with me to-morrow on myJourney, &c.I paid honest John wth money and dram according to contract, andDismist him, and pray'd Miss to shew me where I must Lodg. Shee conducted me to a parlour in a little back Lento, wch was almost fill'd wththe bedstead, wch was so high that I was forced to climb on a chair togitt up to the wretched bed that lay on it; on wch having Stretcht mytired Limbs, and lay'd my head on a Sad- coloured pillow, I, began to thinkon the transactions of ye past day."The following was Madam Knight's experience at Rye:"-Early next morning set forward to Norrowalk, from its halfe Indianname North-walk, where about 12 at noon we arrived, and Had a Dinnerof Fryed vension, very savoury. Landlady wanting some pepper in theseasoning, bid the Girl hand her the spice in the little Gay cupp on yeshelfe. From Hence we Hasted towards Rye, walking and leading ourHorses neer a mile together, up a prodigios high Hill; and so Riding tillabout nine at night, and there arrived and took up our Lodgings at anordinary, wch a French family kept. Here being very hungry, I desireda fricasee, wch the Frenchman undertakeing, mannaged so contrary tomy notion of Cookery, that I hastened to Bed superless; And beingshewd the way up a pair of stairs wch had such a narrow passage that Ihad almost stopt by the Bulk of my Body; But arriving at my apartmentfound it to be a little Lento Chamber furnisht amongst other Rubbish witha High Bedd and a Low one, a Long Table, a Bench and a BottomlessChair, Little Miss went to scratch up my Kennell wch Russelled asif shee'd bin in the Barn amongst the Husks, and suppose such wasthe contents of the tickin-nevertheless being exceeding weary, downZu I• aut a mom BUL HILL ( mang satk — jeuri ale koselig he uns it is thut - tie It List Te L-- hr te besWIN SIVE WALg wet as Dørgrę mi ad te na vsul par I made it me inne vici ve İm de uneI war a set a te time I la VLCI VE NO me te maaberlaig is ver te I'm al Ligia mt ng dectarget or vinar vaIsunet aut und enn i te mom sme a Sew Burtel i felt a VijNew Tore at that time cončki Ant de trainKolam Knight's fewerporn of vet reliance see ♬ willing and the manners and mastics í deZonja

Fralin made no rmavay Janey18. He si a frede vind me ďte tout bi vas ar bgia the wiser. Az miestCASUTE DE The bag, much wideed alm —a pora of seven-

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worse tine salon wiosted on the reommendation of in vitrfalced Tone. They won besiamed of Block bland and thepan anggi numara la earthing Od of which they& prae." I then he had stuck to thepaoutan di saing nothing that had had lii.” Fillowing thedutora of Tryon, ne consulered me taking of every fisha und of agemus unter." since none of them had been crgrout in quty of my jury, “ that might justify the masHe nad, nowever, unfortunately for the Tryciewory w Benjamin's practice under it, been formerly a greatdavet of fun. It is the wear side of people, especially ofLILLE] 2000LLess, in a certain part of the country that shall• When it came from the frying-pan." saysprug Benjamin, “ ‚t meit remarkably wel." What was theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 187dead letter of Tryon's treatise, compared with a treat likethat? " I balanced for some time between principle and inclination, till, recollecting that when the fish were opened I sawsmaller fish taken out of their stomachs, then thought I, ' ifyou eat one another, I don't see why we may not eat you,' soI dined upon Cod very heartily. "In 1754 a convention was held at Albany to concert a planof Union between the Colonies. In the articles adopted bythis convention, it was recommended that Philadelphia shouldbe the place where the first meeting for the proposed Assembly should be held. The reasons for the various provisionsembraced in his plan were stated in a memoir drawn up byDr. Franklin. The statement of the grounds for selectingPhiladelphia throws considerable light on the facilities fortravel at that time. It is as follows:"Philadelphia was named as being nearer the centre of the colonies,where the commissioners would be well & cheaply accommodated. Thehigh roads through the whole extent are for the most part very good, onwhich forty or fifty miles a day may very well be, and frequently are,travelled. Great part of the way may likewise be gone by water. Insummer time the passages are frequently performed in a week fromCharleston to Philadelphia and New York; and from Rhode Island toNew York through the Sound, in two or three days; and from New Yorkto Philadelphia, by water and land, in two days, by stage-boats andwheel carriages, that set out every other day. The journey from Charleston to Philadelphia may likewise be facilitated by boats running upChesapeake Bay, three hundred miles. But ifthe whole journey be performed on horseback, the most distant members, vizt. the two from NewHampshire and from South Carolina, may probably render themselves atPhiladelphia in fifteen or twenty days; -the majority may be there inmuch less time. "This primitive mode of travelling by horseback has, withinmy recollection, had its advocates, and that on the score ofrapidity. Much amusement was caused at Washington by afriendly argument between Gen. Adair of Kentucky and Gen.Root of New York, on the comparative advantages of travel-188 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.ling on horseback and in stage-coaches, on the score of safetyand speed, Gen. Adair declaring for the saddle. They startedeach for his home and by the conveyance which he preferred.Gen. Adair made the journey in safety on horseback and returned to Washington the same way the next December;while Gen. Root, travelling in a stage-coach, was overturnedand suffered a severe injury which detained him on the roadfor the greater part, if not the whole, of the interval betweenthe long and short sessions.Notwithstanding the great superiority of the means of conveyance at the present day, a journey was sometimes made inold times with prodigious speed. Cardinal Wolsey owed hisfirst advancement, in no small degree, to the rapidity withwhich he made the journey from London to Bruges in Flanders and back again, on an important mission to the Emperorof Germany, confided to him by Henry the Seventh. Havingreceived his despatches from the King at Richmond, he arrivedin London at four o'clock on Sunday afternoon, in season forthe Gravesend barge, by which he reached that place in aboutthree hours. The distance is about thirty miles by land asthe river winds; he must have been strongly favored by windand tide. There he took post-horses, and, travelling all night,reached Dover, about forty-five miles, on Monday morning,just as the packet was ready to sail. In less than three hourshe was at Calais, and immediately starting with post-horses forBruges, distant sixty or seventy miles, the residence at thattime of the Emperor Maximilian, he arrived there the samenight. Wolsey was immediately admitted to audience by theEmperor, and having despatched his business successfully wassent back to Calais by the Emperor the next day, under anescort of horse. He arrived at Calais as the gates of the citywere opening Wednesday morning; stepped on board thepacket just ready to sail and reached Dover at ten. Posthorses were in readiness, which conveyed him to Richmond, adistance of seventy miles, that night, after an absence of a littleTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 189more than three days. Having taken some repose, he appeared before the king, as he was going from his bed-room tomass on Thursday morning. The king at first, supposing thathe had not yet started on his mission, chided him for his delay.He was astonished at finding that he had been to Bruges andreturned. The king next inquired if he had fallen in with acourier despatched the day before with additional instructions,relative to a matter which had been overlooked. Wolseyhad met him on his own return, but having himself perceivedthe omission in his instructions, had " been so bold " ( said he)"in mine own discretion , perceiving that matter to be verynecessary, to despatch the same! " Hume erroneously givesBruxelles instead of Bruges as the residence of the Emperor.General Washington on his first visit to the Eastern Statesin 1756, travelled on horseback, starting from New York onFebruary the 20th. It is not precisely known, I believe, howlong he was on the way, probably a week. It appears fromHempstead's journal cited in Miss Caulkin's excellent historyofNew London, that he passed through that place, both goingand coming."March 8th. Colonel Washington is returned from Boston and goneto Long Island in Powers' Sloop; he had also two boats to carry six horsesand his retinue, all bound to Virginia."The journey to New York from Boston by stage- coach,and this too after that mode of conveyance was brought to avery considerable state of perfection , was in my youth, in thewinter season at least, an affair of three days. It was twodays from New York to Philadelphia, and two from Philadelphia to Baltimore, by the way of Columbia. From Baltimore to Washington in 1814 was a pretty hard day's travel,and the weariness and discomfort of the journey were quiteas formidable as the length of time required for its performance.If my recollection serves me, a single daily stage-coach192 185 MONT VERNON PAPERS.changedtwo the times in the course of the day, it wasBAYSSEY, WAZever to s was dne, to exercise a little super17016d to see that light articles, such asandexes (these last regarded withad Mine Ny te me travellers. ) carried in thee removed at each exchange of vehili was grates a tad that the first applicant hadthe choice of max za hd however, in all cases, by theclaca of the grisinde best accommodations. ThereWax 2002 4.80 in the delay of courtesy and the want of it,STAVBOA Y Moving,by an exchange ofpositions, your unJOZELAKO ALLOW Passenger, who was swaying all day long onDe access , W ' huî sippert to his back.When he vach was cre wild with unsociable and taciturnPossuiquis is love soundderod with bags and other smalldericox grow y ariaclig spen the space for extending thegs de wed her a imaging mixture of rain and snow, thePata mugih, dhe ¿overs sury and the beasts micd, one arriveddi The Vans and meat tight in a condition which a viethe Pas and scray have But with a envied.Teucracy hou velicing— a pred narured, and, still more, ssongenai ardassengers à Igit elastic air. aDecemar sin geaning vee spartame neids, a road likemartie, I sussaa za spanking kans win drivers as fearless is sabi, who generally went down hil at full gailon.—ne breakast and immer die amy but bountifuly andviesomely servad ) , active ani zdy hands, at trose mcrQi Ponte arris, what have alust vivily ceased to exist i―mier nese peunstanes a cure the stageseich vis

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ficher like us, a empart via Dana Wöstur mi Jug1 Lving of rai seme of Te poist, the mostveira, and most joyous hours of my laNUMBER TWENTY - ONE.TRAVEL IN EUROPE.No Railroads or Steamers in Europe in 1818-Fulton's first passage to AlbanyStage- coaches, posting, and vetturino in Europe-Travelling on foot and on horseback-The ancient Roman roads almost wholly lost-Visit to the Continent in 1818-Guide books-Hon. T. H. Perkins and tribute to him by John Quincy Adams-Stone Henge-Wilton House-Old Sarum-Salisbury Cathedral- Passage from Southampton to Havre-Freedom from care at sea-Transitionfrom England to France and points of contrast-French custom- house-Anecdote of a dyspeptic Bostonian.InIn the last number I alluded to the great facilities fortravelling at the present day in America, compared with thestate of things in former times. The difference is as great inEurope as in the United States, although, in reference to thepractical arts, an old country might be expected to be far inadvance of one so recently settled as the United States.1818 there was not a Railroad in Europe, with the exceptionof the tram roads used in connection with the coal mines, norwas there, if my memory serves me, on any of its waters, saltor fresh, such a thing as a steam vessel of any dimensions,with the exception of a small steamer on the river Clyde.Eight years before that time, the passage from New York toAmboy was regularly made in a steamer, and more than tenyears before, Fulton had made his memorable voyage fromNew York to Albany in the same way; -a slow and tediouspassage, but an era in human affairs;-the most importantever made since the voyage of Columbus.In England forty years ago, persons, who did not use their194 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.own carriages and horses, travelled in the stage- coach, (aremarkably compact and expeditious vehicle, usually makingten miles an hour, carrying from four to six inside, and fromeight to twelve on the top; ) or posted, that is, made use oftheir own carriages and took post-horses, one of which is ridden by a postilion, at convenient stations, where also postcarriages might be found, for those who did not make use oftheir own; a much more expensive, but otherwise far preferable mode of travelling, as it took you over roads not traversed by stage- coaches, and enabled you to choose your ownhours. When three travelled in company and divided theexpense, it did not exceed that of the stage-coach. In Franceyou had the stage-coach under the name of the Diligence, (aname rather ominous of the rate of speed, ) and a system ofposting analogous, as far as the supply of horses was concerned, to the English. Both these modes of travelling werealso found substantially in most other countries of ContinentalEurope.A third mode of travelling a good deal resorted to by persons not pressed for time and studying economy, was by whatis called vetturino. It is not yet wholly obsolete, though likestage-coaches and post-horses nearly susperseded by railroads.The vetturino conveyed you by contract with the same carriage, horses, and driver, for the whole of the proposed journey and for a stipulated price. For persons who travel, notto kill time but to employ it usefully; to see a country , notmerely to be able to say they have seen it; to visit a city andexamine its objects of interest, not " to do a city, this modeof travelling has its advantages.Two other modes of travelling were resorted to in Europeforty years ago, not yet nor likely to be ever wholly disused,with the results of which, on one or two occasions, I shall endeavor to make the reader who knows locomotion only as itexists in the railroad train, better acquainted. There areparts of the old world of the highest interest to the intelligentTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 195tourist, which he can explore only on foot. If he would enjoyany thing but the mere music of the verses in the poetry ofScott, (and that I must admit is an exquisite enjoyment, ) hemust visit the scenery of the Lay of the Last Minstrel and theLady of the Lake on foot. Sophia Scott told me that sheonce did this with her father in a drenching rain , which hepersisted in calling " a Scotch mist. " Much of Wales andthe Lake region of Westmoreland and Cumberland can beseen to advantage, or rather seen at all, -in no other way.When Wordsworth protested against allowing the district ofcountry, which he so much venerated, from being invaded byrailroads, he did not reflect that no railroad would ever penetrate their lovely and sacred retreats. The only effect oftheir construction would be to take the place of the stagecoach and the post-carriage, along one or two principal linesof travel, and thus multiply a hundred fold the numbers whowould come to worship with him at the shrine of that Nature,which he feared to desecrate. So, too, the weird recesses of theHarz Mountains, the secluded valleys, the bewitched heights,the solemn caves, the dreary dripping mines, the ruined castles, moss- grown with the legends of eight centuries, can beapproached only on foot. Last of all the imperial Alps admit.of none but the pedestrian to their crystal halls . As youapproach their glittering battlements, the inmost citadel ofnature's glory and power, -lazy affluence must fain alightfrom her chariot, the arm of the engineer is palsied, and thegrim necromancer of steam admits the presence of a Forcemightier than his own.As soon as you leave Europe for the East, ( in fact, in manyparts of Europe, ) vehicles of every kind are unknown, andyou travel on horseback, on camels, and in the further Easton elephants. In my time, there were no vehicles for travellers in the lower part of the kingdom of Naples. We hadto travel for four days on horseback in districts which, inthe time of the Romans, were traversed by the Appian way,196 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the Regina viarum, (the queen of High ways, ) and whichnow in this respect are as completely in a state of nature, asthe central plateau of our continent. In the year 1819 thefacilities for reaching Tarento were no greater than they werein the time of Pythagoras. The same was the case throughout Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, Thrace, and the whole.of Greece proper, where the great paved roads of antiquity had entirely disappeared, vehicles of every kind wereunknown, and there was no communication but by bridlepaths in any part of the countries named. Few things testifymore loudly and sadly to the desolation of those once prosperous regions, and the barbarism of the Turkish rule. TheRomans pushed their military roads to the very limits of theirempire. The Appian way, paved with blocks of granite,gneiss, or lava fourteen inches thick, was carried throughEpirus and Thessaly; but its very route, except by conjecture,is lost. No trace of it, if I remember aright, east of theAdriatic, is to be seen on the surface of the ground. Agesof civilization may exist without producing roads like theAppian way, but once produced one hardly knows how theycan be made, or allowed, wholly to disappear. In Italy itselfthis great road, in common with all the other great militaryroads of the Romans, has almost wholly vanished. It formsif I mistake not, the foundation of the modern road, onlyacross the Pontine marshes.In August 1818, after five delightful months in Englandand Scotland, divided principally between London, Cambridge,Oxford, Wales, the Lake region, Edinburgh, and the highlands of Perthshire, I left London for the continent, with scarceany object in view but to reach Italy and more especiallyRome, as expeditiously as possible. Goethe I think quotesa remark of Lessing, that when you are going to Rome, youshould be tied up in a sack on crossing the frontier of Italy,and not be taken out of it till you reach the eternal city. Ibegan to practice on the spirit of this rule from the time I leftTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 197London, hurrying rapidly through regions of which almostevery league has its memorable historical event, its ancienttradition or monument, its venerable ruin , its beautiful landscape, its remarkable collection of works of art, its importantindustrial, benevolent, or literary establishment. These areobjects of curiosity and interest, which, under all circumstances, one must take more or less from the guide books;and if in a few important localities we linger on the spot, -observe more carefully and describe more fully and accuratelyin our letters or journals, —we generally find in the works ofprofessed tourists, who travel for the avowed purpose ofmaking a book, a minute and elaborate description whichputs our hasty memoranda to shame; although the germ ofthese elaborate descriptions is not seldom itself to be foundin the friendly Reichard, or, in these modern days, the not lessfriendly Murray.I took the stage- coach to Southampton, avoiding the beatenroad by Dover and Calais, in order to see a part both of England and France, which I had not before seen. At Southampton, I found my honored friend Col. Thomas H. Perkins, ofBoston, the friend of more than forty years, to whom Idelight to pay this passing tribute. President John QuincyAdams said of him, in my hearing, in the House of Representatives of the United States, that "he had the fortune of aprince, and a heart as much above his fortune, as that wasabove a beggar's ." On meeting me at Southampton, he said,"Come let us pass a little time together. I visited a part ofthis very neighborhood with your brother, (the late AlexanderH. Everett, ) seven or eight years ago, and nearly thirtyyears ago I travelled with your father from Boston to Philadelphia,—a great journey in those days.”Accordingly we went together to the objects of interest inthe neighborhood, and scarce anywhere are they more numerous or important. Within a moderate distance from eachother, you may contemplate the monumental records of198 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.almost every stage of ancient and modern civilization; -StoneHenge, Old Sarum, Salisbury Cathedral, Wilton House, -memorials of almost every period and form of human culture.Stone Henge is the most imposing relic of that ancient Druidical period of which we know next to nothing historically,beyond a few sentences in Strabo, Cæsar, and Tacitus. Cæsarthinks the Druids were acquainted with letters, but it is probable that the knowledge of writing among them was confinedto Greeks, who had fled from home and taken refuge in theseremote and (as the Greeks deemed them) barbarous races.But if the Druids, the dominant caste of the primitive Celticraces, were unacquainted with the great instrument of civilization, it is the more extraordinary that they possessed theknowledge of mechanics, required for such a structure asStone Henge. Inigo Jones says that, " by the grace of God,"he could raise stones as great or greater to their places, whichis no doubt true. With the resources of modern art muchgreater feats of engineering are daily performed. But theDruidical architects not only wanted our modern mechanicalpowers, but could have hardly had the aid of that other potentassistance, (alluded to by Inigo Jones, ) in rearing the templefor their sanguinary rites. The galleries of Wilton, -kindlyopened to our inspection, -contain valuable specimens ofGrecian art, and some paintings of the great modern masters.Old Sarum is now a wheat field; before Lord Grey's reformbill, it sent two members to parliament, who were nominatedby the proprietor of the said wheat field, whoever he mightbe; Manchester in the mean time, with a hundred and fiftythousand inhabitants, sending no member. This certainlywas a stupendous departure from the principle of geographicalrepresentation, on which our legislatures are constituted. Butit would be a mistake to say that in a system like the English,constructed not on theory but on tradition, the members fromOld Sarum represented nothing but the wheat field. Theyrepresented the bull-dog tenacity with which the Anglo- SaxonTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 199clings to his legal traditions, after they have become legal fictions, and thus converts them back into realities, making temper do the work of logic. They represented the whole ofthat old parliament which once sat (I forget when) at OldSarum. They represented by-gone centuries, gradually struggling toward our modern constitutional ideas. They represented York and Lancaster, Plantagenet and Tudor,—in aword, the great, solemn, monumental past. Then there is , inthis region, Salisbury Cathedral, one of the most beautiful ofthose magnificent mediæval piles, in which so much of thedevotion, the art, and the social vitality of four centuries ofmodern history are embodied. We call the ages, which produced the earlier forms of this mysterious architecture, “ thedark ages; " and dark in some things they were. But withrespect to art, this arrogance would be more excusable, if,instead of the portentous abortions of modern public architecture, we produced any thing which can for a moment compare with the cathedrals of " the dark ages " for purity of conception, sublimity of thought, unity of design, richness andtastefulness of decoration, or even mechanical execution.We had a fine sail from Southampton to Havre. The distance is one hundred and ten miles, but we made it in lesstime than it took in the Spring, to cross from Calais to Dover.A lovely August night, fresh smells from either coast healthfully borne on the salt sea-breeze, the heavens blazing withtheir eternal watch-fires to their uttermost depths; a smoothsummer sea, slightly ruffled by a favorable wind; —an encircling universe of glory, loveliness, and mute praise! A shortsea-voyage, when you are free from sickness, and at a pleasantseason of the year, is beyond all question the occasion, onwhich the pulses of animal life beat with the greatest firmnessand elasticity. The exquisite purity of the air carries healthful excitement to the inmost fibre of the lungs; the ordinarycares of terra firma ( Horace to the contrary notwithstanding)do not follow you on shipboard. There is no door bell at200 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sea; there is no mail at sea. The pathways of the sea arenot paved with deafening blocks of granite. There are no newsat sea; no public meetings, nor committee meetings, nororations; the Columbian Semi- weekly Musquito & Hemisphereis not published at sea; there is nothing but the sky above, theocean around and beneath, now and then a dancing vessel insight, and the winds of heaven, -the pure bracing winds, -speeding you on your way. The Halcyons brood on the sea.Favorable winds sped us on our little voyage. We sailedafter sunset and arrived at Havre at sunrise. One night hadcarried us from England to France; from the Teuton to theCelt; from a language of Saxon origin to one of Latin origin;from the common law to the civil law; from Protestanism tothe Gallo-Roman church; from acts of parliament to royalordinances; from the neat and tasteful stage-coach, with itsnicely caparisoned horses, and driven four in hand by thebluff coachman, to the lumbering diligence, half baggagewagon and half stage coach, drawn by five fiery Normansteeds, loosely tied together by rope harness, and stragglingover the road, guided by postilions sunk to the thighs ingigantic trunk boots; and, though last not least, from thespit to the casserole, and the honest joint that tells its ownstory, to the sometimes questionable dainties of the Frenchcuisine.The English or American traveller landing on the continent in those days, ( and I believe the case is not very different now, ) first feels that he has reached a foreign countrywhen he passes through the French custom-house. The poormaniac who shot the Secretary of Sir Robert Peel, mistakinghim for Sir Robert himself, labored under the delusion thathe was pursued by fiends. With this impression on his mind.he fled from place to place, seeking rest and finding none. Atlength he crossed from Dover to Calais, and saw, to hisamazement, the footstep of Louis XVIIII. deeply cut into thegranite pavement of the quay! His diseased fancy convertedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 201this piece of loyal adulation into a work of diabolical agency.He was soon beset by the clamorous porters at the landing,and the tide-waiters of the douane, and felt that in them hisworst visions were confirmed. For myself I had never hadoccasion to echo the complaints of travellers on this subject.Taking care always to have my passport duly countersignedand to carry nothing contraband in my portmanteau, I havenever encountered a custom-house officer on any frontier orat any port, who was proof against patience, good humor, anda five-franc piece.One of our countrymen, however, who made the passagewith us from Southampton to Havre on this occasion, a respectable retired merchant from Boston, seeking relief in travelfrom chronic dyspepsia, had an amusing scene with the customofficers at Havre. The unfortunate gentleman was troubledwith an eager appetite, which of course it was not proper heshould indulge. To prevent his doing so was the arduousduty of his sisters, who were travelling with him. To eludetheir vigilance, he usually carried in his great coat pocket aprivate store of gingerbread or sponge cake, carefully wrappedup. As he was considerably reduced by ill health, but travelling in garments made while he was well, the concealedparcel of cake as he landed on the quay, caused the pocket ofthe coat, (which hung with a fulness ever suspicious to custom-house officers,) to project still more suspiciously. Theattention of the tide-waiter was awakened, and he suspectedno doubt that a case of fine English cutlery, or a package ofcigars, was about to be smuggled into France. He accordingly walked round and round our dyspeptic traveller, whosaw that all was not right, but who, speaking no French,could neither give nor understand an explanation. At lastthe officer indicated by signs that the contents of the protruding pocket must be disclosed. The watchful sisters by thistime had taken the alarm, and the idlers on the quay beganto congregate about the party. Our invalid felt guilty, not9*192 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.changed two or three times in the course of the day, it wasnecessary, whenever this was done, to exercise a little supervision over the process, and to see that light articles, such asvalises and umbrellas and bandboxes, (these last regarded withunqualified horror by the male travellers, ) carried in theinterior of the coach, were removed at each exchange of vehicles. It was generally understood that the first applicant hadthe choice of seats, qualified however, in all cases, by theclaim of the gentler sex to the best accommodations. Therewas room also for the display of courtesy and the want of it,in occasionally relieving, by an exchange of positions, your unfortunate fellow passenger, who was swaying all day long onthe middle seat, without support to his back.When the coach was crowded with unsociable and taciturnpassengers, its floor encumbered with bags and other smallarticles greatly encroaching upon the space for extending thelegs, the weather a drizzling mixture of rain and snow, theroads rough, the drivers surly and the beasts jaded, one arrivedat the journey's end late at night, in a condition which a victim of the rack would scarcely have envied. But with amoderately filled vehicle,-a good natured, and, still more, acongenial circle of fellow passengers, a light elastic air, aDecember sun gleaming over sparkling fields, a road likemarble, a succession of spanking teams with drivers as fearless as skilful, who generally went down hill at full gallop, -the breakfast and dinner table plainly but bountifully andwholesomely served by active and tidy hands, at those niceold country taverns, which have almost wholly ceased to exist;-under these circumstances, a journey in the stage- coach wasa positive enjoyment. After a lapse of forty years I recall ajourney like this, in company with Daniel Webster and JudgeStory, as having afforded some of the happiest, the mostinstructive, and most joyous hours of my life.NUMBER TWENTY- ONE.TRAVEL IN EUROPE.No Railroads or Steamers in Europe in 1818-Fulton's first passage to AlbanyStage- coaches, posting, and vetturino in Europe-Travelling on foot and on horseback-The ancient Roman roads almost wholly lost-Visit to the Continent in 1818- Guide books-Hon. T. H. Perkins and tribute to him by JohnQuincy Adams-Stone Henge-Wilton House -Old Sarum-Salisbury CathedralPassage from Southampton to Havre-Freedom from care at sea-Transition from England to France and points of contrast-French custom- house-Anecdote of a dyspeptic Bostonian.In the last number I alluded to the great facilities fortravelling at the present day in America, compared with thestate of things in former times. The difference is as great inEurope as in the United States, although, in reference to thepractical arts, an old country might be expected to be far inadvance of one so recently settled as the United States . In1818 there was not a Railroad in Europe, with the exceptionof the tram roads used in connection with the coal mines, norwas there, if my memory serves me, on any of its waters, saltor fresh, such a thing as a steam vessel of any dimensions,with the exception of a small steamer on the river Clyde.Eight years before that time, the passage from New York toAmboy was regularly made in a steamer, and more than tenyears before, Fulton had made his memorable Voyage fromNew York to Albany in the same way;-a slow and tediouspassage, but an era in human affairs; -the most importantever made since the voyage of Columbus.In England forty years ago, persons, who did not use their9-popraden a spredon us -Cory passsip *ed to in EuropepurpoP si por1IN who of the proposed jouror persons who travel, notדיgod deal resorted to by perwily obsolete, though likeAAANSve, but otherwise far preferAspro 4 -n company and divided thethe stagecoach . In Francene of the Diligence, (31(: pm a is man jo pply of horses was connodes of travelling were་ ASV OTA pID 3ou oyPII asIn ' Jd in the stage-coach, aUus venicie, usually making... ur to six inside, and tromsnorses, one of which is rd64V1 11A 1.There arepasiprolonWe called Gal ATHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 19566tourist, which he can explore only on foot. Ifhe would enjoyany thing but the mere music of the verses in the poetry ofScott, (and that I must admit is an exquisite enjoyment,) hemust visit the scenery of the Lay of the Last Minstrel and theLady of the Lake on foot. Sophia Scott told me that sheonce did this with her father in a drenching rain, which hepersisted in calling a Scotch mist. " Much of Wales andthe Lake region of Westmoreland and Cumberland can beseen to advantage, —or rather seen at all, -in no other way.When Wordsworth protested against allowing the district ofcountry, which he so much venerated, from being invaded byrailroads, he did not reflect that no railroad would ever penetrate their lovely and sacred retreats. The only effect oftheir construction would be to take the place of the stagecoach and the post-carriage, along one or two principal lines.of travel, and thus multiply a hundred fold the numbers whowould come to worship with him at the shrine of that Nature,which he feared to desecrate. So, too, the weird recesses of theHarz Mountains, the secluded valleys, the bewitched heights,the solemn caves, the dreary dripping mines, the ruined castles, moss- grown with the legends of eight centuries, can beapproached only on foot. Last of all the imperial Alps admitof none but the pedestrian to their crystal halls. As youapproach their glittering battlements, -the inmost citadel ofnature's glory and power,-lazy affluence must fain alightfrom her chariot, the arm of the engineer is palsied, and thegrim necromancer of steam admits the presence of a Forcemightier than his own.As soon as you leave Europe for the East, ( in fact, in manyparts of Europe, ) vehicles of every kind are unknown, andyou travel on horseback, on camels, and in the further Easton elephants. In my time, there were no vehicles for travellers in the lower part of the kingdom of Naples. We hadto travel for four days on horseback in districts which, inthe time of the Romans, were traversed by the Appian way,194 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.own carriages and horses, travelled in the stage-coach, (aremarkably compact and expeditious vehicle, usually makingten miles an hour, carrying from four to six inside, and fromeight to twelve on the top; ) or posted, that is, made use oftheir own carriages and took post- horses, one of which is ridden by a postilion, at convenient stations, where also postcarriages might be found, for those who did not make use oftheir own; a much more expensive, but otherwise far preferable mode of travelling, as it took you over roads not traversed by stage-coaches, and enabled you to choose your ownhours. When three travelled in company and divided theexpense, it did not exceed that of the stage- coach. In Franceyou had the stage-coach under the name of the Diligence, (aname rather ominous of the rate of speed, ) and a system ofposting analogous, as far as the supply of horses was concerned, to the English. Both these modes of travelling werealso found substantially in most other countries of ContinentalEurope.Athird mode of travelling a good deal resorted to by persons not pressed for time and studying economy, was by whatis called vetturino. It is not yet wholly obsolete, though likestage-coaches and post-horses nearly susperseded by railroads.The vetturino conveyed you by contract with the same carriage, horses, and driver, for the whole of the proposed journey and for a stipulated price. For persons who travel, notto kill time but to employ it usefully; to see a country, notmerely to be able to say they have seen it; to visit a city andexamine its objects of interest, not " to do " a city, this modeof travelling has its advantages.Two other modes of travelling were resorted to in Europeforty years ago, not yet nor likely to be ever wholly disused,with the results of which, on one or two occasions, I shall endeavor to make the reader who knows locomotion only as itexists in the railroad train, better acquainted. There areparts ofthe old world of the highest interest to the intelligentTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 195tourist, which he can explore only on foot. If he would enjoyany thing but the mere music of the verses in the poetry ofScott, (and that I must admit is an exquisite enjoyment, ) hemust visit the scenery of the Lay of the Last Minstrel and theLady of the Lake on foot. Sophia Scott told me that sheonce did this with her father in a drenching rain, which hepersisted in calling " a Scotch mist. " Much of Wales andthe Lake region of Westmoreland and Cumberland can beseen to advantage, or rather seen at all,-in no other way.When Wordsworth protested against allowing the district ofcountry, which he so much venerated, from being invaded byrailroads, he did not reflect that no railroad would ever penetrate their lovely and sacred retreats. The only effect oftheir construction would be to take the place of the stagecoach and the post-carriage, along one or two principal linesof travel, and thus multiply a hundred fold the numbers whowould come to worship with him at the shrine of that Nature,which he feared to desecrate. So, too, the weird recesses of theHarz Mountains, the secluded valleys, the bewitched heights,the solemn caves, the dreary dripping mines, the ruined castles, moss- grown with the legends of eight centuries, can beapproached only on foot. Last of all the imperial Alps admitof none but the pedestrian to their crystal halls. As youapproach their glittering battlements,-the inmost citadel ofnature's glory and power,-lazy affluence must fain alightfrom her chariot, the arm of the engineer is palsied, and thegrim necromancer of steam admits the presence of a Forcemightier than his own.As soon as you leave Europe for the East, (in fact, in manyparts of Europe, ) vehicles of every kind are unknown, andyou travel on horseback, on camels, and in the further Easton elephants. In my time, there were no vehicles for travellers in the lower part of the kingdom of Naples. We hadto travel for four days on horseback in districts which, inthe time of the Romans, were traversed by the Appian way,1I .. EH WANA1Literie an HT 1 - DJGella tante are . Mer Crane wthe trawat Epra Jof Grand P.ut exileyUtani. ant thereraKthe grave T cનTIA. wenjate a part of the evehot word a live latte- 1 less1 Torts of trekkjust , all the wrist thekomas puster their miempire. The Appaguriss, or avas, patetfurten me theL 1. CAN 02 rate.vas cared throughEpirus aucus: ut ne very rome, ex lust. No trace of it. if I remember a east of theAdriatic is to be set of the surface of the grounć. Agesof civilization my earst without producing roads like theAppian way , but once produced one nardy knows how theycan be made, or alowed, wholy to disappear. I katy itselfthis great rowl, in common with al. the other great militaryroads ofthe Romans, has almost willy vanished. k formsif 1 mistake not, the foundation of the modern road, onlyacross the Poutine August 1818, after five delightful months in Englandand Scotland, divided principally between London, Cambridge,Oxford, Wales, the Lake region, Edinburgh, and the highlands ofPerthshire, I left London for the continent, with scarceaoy object in view but to reach Italy and more especiallyRome, as expeditiously as possible. Goethe I think quotesa remark of Lessing, that when you are going to Rome, youshould be tied up in a sack on crossing the frontier of Italy,and not be taken out of it till you reach the eternal city. Ibegan to practice on the spirit ofthis rule from the time I leftTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 197London, hurrying rapidly through regions of which almostevery league has its memorable historical event, its ancienttradition or monument, its venerable ruin, its beautiful landscape, its remarkable collection of works of art, its importantindustrial, benevolent, or literary establishment. These areobjects of curiosity and interest, which, under all circumstances, one must take more or less from the guide books;and if in a few important localities we linger on the spot, -observe more carefully and describe more fully and accuratelyin our letters or journals,—we generally find in the works ofprofessed tourists, who travel for the avowed purpose ofmaking a book, a minute and elaborate description whichputs our hasty memoranda to shame; although the germ ofthese elaborate descriptions is not seldom itself to be foundin the friendly Reichard, or, in these modern days, the not lessfriendly Murray.I took the stage-coach to Southampton, avoiding the beatenroad by Dover and Calais , in order to see a part both of England and France, which I had not before seen. At Southampton, I found my honored friend Col. Thomas II. Perkins, ofBoston, the friend of more than forty years, to whom Idelight to pay this passing tribute . President John QuincyAdams said of him, in my hearing, in the House of Representatives of the United States, that " he had the fortune of aprince, and a heart as much above his fortune, as that wasabove a beggar's. " On meeting me at Southampton, he said," Come let us pass a little time together. I visited a part ofthis very neighborhood with your brother, (the late AlexanderH. Everett, ) seven or eight years ago, and nearly thirtyyears ago I travelled with your father from Boston to Philadelphia, —a great journey in those days."Accordingly we went together to the objects of interest inthe neighborhood, and scarce anywhere are they more numerous or important. Within a moderate distance from eachother, you may contemplate the monumental records of198 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.almost every stage of ancient and modern civilization; -StoneHenge, Old Sarum, Salisbury Cathedral, Wilton House, -memorials of almost every period and form of human culture.Stone Henge is the most imposing relic of that ancient Druidical period of which we know next to nothing historically,beyond a few sentences in Strabo, Cæsar, and Tacitus. Cæsarthinks the Druids were acquainted with letters, but it is probable that the knowledge of writing among them was Greeks, who had fled from home and taken refuge in theseremote and (as the Greeks deemed them) barbarous races.But if the Druids, the dominant caste of the primitive Celticraces, were unacquainted with the great instrument of civilization, it is the more extraordinary that they possessed theknowledge of mechanics, required for such a structure asStone Henge. Inigo Jones says that, " by the grace of God,"he could raise stones as great or greater to their places, whichis no doubt true. With the resources of modern art muchgreater feats of engineering are daily performed. But theDruidical architects not only wanted our modern mechanicalpowers, but could have hardly had the aid of that other potentassistance, (alluded to by Inigo Jones, ) in rearing the templefor their sanguinary rites. The galleries of Wilton, -kindlyopened to our inspection, contain valuable specimens ofGrecian art, and some paintings of the great modern masters.Old Sarum is now a wheat field; before Lord Grey's reformbill, it sent two members to parliament, who were nominatedby the proprietor of the said wheat field, whoever he mightbe; Manchester in the mean time, with a hundred and fiftythousand inhabitants, sending no member. This certainlywas a stupendous departure from the principle of geographicalrepresentation, on which our legislatures are constituted. Butit would be a mistake to say that in a system like the English,constructed not on theory but on tradition, the members fromOld Sarum represented nothing but the wheat field. Theyrepresented the bull-dog tenacity with which the Anglo- SaxonTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 199clings to his legal traditions, after they have become legal fictions, and thus converts them back into realities, making temper do the work of logic. They represented the whole ofthat old parliament which once sat (I forget when) at OldSarum. They represented by-gone centuries, gradually struggling toward our modern constitutional ideas. They represented York and Lancaster, Plantagenet and Tudor,-in aword, the great, solemn, monumental past. Then there is, inthis region, Salisbury Cathedral, one of the most beautiful ofthose magnificent mediæval piles, in which so much of thedevotion, the art, and the social vitality of four centuries ofmodern history are embodied. We call the ages, which produced the earlier forms of this mysterious architecture, "thedark ages; " and dark in some things they were. But withrespect to art, this arrogance would be more excusable, if,instead of the portentous abortions of modern public architecture, we produced any thing which can for a moment compare with the cathedrals of " the dark ages " for purity of conception, sublimity of thought, unity of design, richness andtastefulness of decoration, or even mechanical execution .We had a fine sail from Southampton to Havre. The distance is one hundred and ten miles, but we made it in lesstime than it took in the Spring, to cross from Calais to Dover.Alovely August night, fresh smells from either coast healthfully borne on the salt sea-breeze, the heavens blazing withtheir eternal watch-fires to their uttermost depths; a smoothsummer sea, slightly ruffled by a favorable wind;-an encircling universe of glory, loveliness, and mute praise! A shortsea-voyage, when you are free from sickness, and at a pleasantseason of the year, is beyond all question the occasion, onwhich the pulses of animal life beat with the greatest firmnessand elasticity. The exquisite purity of the air carries healthful excitement to the inmost fibre of the lungs; the ordinarycares of terra firma (Horace to the contrary notwithstanding)do not follow you on shipboard. There is no door bell at200 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sea; there is no mail at sea. The pathways of the sea arenot paved with deafening blocks of granite. There are no newsat sea; no public meetings, nor committee meetings, nororations; the Columbian Semi- weekly Musquito & Hemisphereis not published at sea; there is nothing but the sky above, theocean around and beneath, now and then a dancing vessel insight, and the winds of heaven,-the pure bracing winds, -speeding you on your way. The Halcyons brood on the sea.Favorable winds sped us on our little voyage. We sailedafter sunset and arrived at Havre at sunrise. One night hadcarried us from England to France; from the Teuton to theCelt; from a language of Saxon origin to one of Latin origin;from the common law to the civil law; from Protestanism tothe Gallo-Roman church; from acts of parliament to royalordinances; from the neat and tasteful stage-coach, with itsnicely caparisoned horses, and driven four in hand by thebluff coachman, to the lumbering diligence, half baggagewagon and half stage coach, drawn by five fiery Normansteeds, loosely tied together by rope harness, and stragglingover the road, guided by postilions sunk to the thighs ingigantic trunk boots; and, though last not least, from thespit to the casserole, and the honest joint that tells its ownstory, to the sometimes questionable dainties of the Frenchcuisine.The English or American traveller landing on the continent in those days, (and I believe the case is not very different now, ) first feels that he has reached a foreign countrywhen he passes through the French custom-house. The poormaniac who shot the Secretary of Sir Robert Peel, mistakinghim for Sir Robert himself, labored under the delusion thathe was pursued by fiends. With this impression on his mind.he fled from place to place, seeking rest and finding none. Atlength he crossed from Dover to Calais, and saw, to hisamazement, the footstep of Louis XVIIII. deeply cut into thegranite pavement of the quay! His diseased fancy convertedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 201this piece of loyal adulation into a work of diabolical agency.He was soon beset by the clamorous porters at the landing,and the tide-waiters of the douane, and felt that in them hisworst visions were confirmed. For myself I had never hadoccasion to echo the complaints of travellers on this subject.Taking care always to have my passport duly countersignedand to carry nothing contraband in my portmanteau, I havenever encountered a custom-house officer on any frontier orat any port, who was proof against patience, good humor, anda five-franc piece.One of our countrymen, however, who made the passagewith us from Southampton to Havre on this occasion, a respectable retired merchant from Boston, seeking relief in travelfrom chronic dyspepsia, had an amusing scene with the customofficers at Havre. The unfortunate gentleman was troubledwith an eager appetite, which of course it was not proper heshould indulge. To prevent his doing so was the arduousduty of his sisters, who were travelling with him. To eludetheir vigilance, he usually carried in his great coat pocket aprivate store of gingerbread or sponge cake, carefully wrappedup. As he was considerably reduced by ill health, but travelling in garments made while he was well, the concealedparcel of cake as he landed on the quay, caused the pocket ofthe coat, (which hung with a fulness ever suspicious to custom-house officers, ) to project still more suspiciously. Theattention of the tide-waiter was awakened, and he suspectedno doubt that a case of fine English cutlery, or a package ofcigars, was about to be smuggled into France. He accordingly walked round and round our dyspeptic traveller, whosaw that all was not right, but who, speaking no French,could neither give nor understand an explanation. At lastthe officer indicated by signs that the contents of the protruding pocket must be disclosed. The watchful sisters by thistime had taken the alarm, and the idlers on the quay beganto congregate about the party. Our invalid felt guilty, not9**202 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.of breaking the laws of France, but those of the domesticempire, and his conscious blush gave new impulse to thesuspicions of the officer. The questionable packet was atlength, with some difficulty, produced, carefully tied up.The string, in the trepidation of hastily untying it, (a commoncase,) ran into a hard knot. More delay, more suspicion,deeper blushes. At length the irritated gentleman tore openthe parcel, and with a look between the comical and the disconsolate, pulled out a great cake of gingerbread and thrustit into the officer's face. A general laugh ensued, and thetroublesome article was allowed to pass duty free.NUMBER TWENTY - TWO.HAVRE AND ROUEN.The importance of Havre owing to its position at the mouth of the Seine and the American trade-St. Pierre-Conflict of races in Normandy-LillebonneThe council-hall of William the Conqueror swept away by a cotton spinnerDetention at Rouen-Ugo Foscolo-Thomas Moore-Béranger-Society at Parisin 1817-1818-Importance of Rouen-The Cathedral-Heart of Richard Courde Lion-Church of Saint Ouen-William the Conqueror could not write his name-Deserted at his death-Place de la Pucelle, where Joan of Arc wasburned-Reflections on her fate-Her statue by the Princess Marie, daughter ofLouis Philippe-Voltaire, Schiller-Corneille-Regrets that he had not chosen the Maid of Orleans for a heroine-Overturn of the diligence.PARTING at Havre with Col. Perkins, who was travellingin a different direction, I continued the journey to Paris withmy friend, Mr. Delavan, so well known for his exertions in thetemperance cause, whose acquaintance I had had the pleasureof making at Southampton. Of antiquarian interest there isbut little at Havre, of which, however, the foundation datesfrom the early part of the sixteenth century. It owes its importance principally to its position at the mouth of the Seine,which makes it in reality the seaport of Paris, and gives itno small share of the foreign commerce of France. It wasoriginally founded by Francis I. , but the guide book tells us.that its growth in modern times is owing to a cause littleforeseen in his day, and connected with a discovery which hadbeen lately made in foreign parts by a Genoese mariner."The declaration of the Independence of the United Statesformed the groundwork of the present good fortune ofHavre." If the benefits accruing to the commerce, manufac-204 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.tures, population, and general prosperity of the leading Statesof Europe were duly estimated by them, they would feelwith how little reason they view with jealous and even hostileeye the growth of this country. To say nothing of their participation in all the general advantages of a friendly commercial intercourse with the American continent, I took the libertyin an official communication to the representatives of the twoleading powers of Europe a few years since, to express theopinion, that but for the refuge afforded in the United Statesto the starving millions ofthe old world in 1847, and the employment given to their industry by the raw materials of ouragriculture and the demands of our consumption, an explosionwould have taken place, which would have shaken society toits foundation. I have within a few weeks read a pamphletof a French adventurer in Central America, who speaks ofthe United States, in the coolness of his hatred, as a nuisanceto the other powers of the carth, which ought to be abated,not remembering to how many cities of France, besidesHavre, such an event would carry desolation!St. Pierre is, I believe, the only native of Havre who hasdistinguished himself as a writer. His birth at Havre perhaps led him in after life to engage in the enterprise for thecolonization of Madagascar. The world may be said to beindebted for " Paul and Virginia " to the fact , that Havreis a seaport carrying on a familiar commercial intercourse withthe colonies of France.In pursuance of the plan already alluded to, of loitering aslittle as possible by the way, I took the diligence in the evening for Rouen. I passed consequently by night through theregion where many of the most important scenes were acted,of that long struggle between the Norman and Saxon, andafterwards between the Anglo-Norman and the Gallo- Normanraces, which fills the most memorable ages of early Englishhistory. That long conflict has exercised as great an influenceover the fortunes of the modern world, as the old strugglesTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 205of Persia and Greece, and of Carthage and Rome, did upon thefortunes of the ancient world. It will be felt in our language,literature, manners, political institutions, and religious belief,for ages to come, and till new convulsions shall create a newchaos and a new re-organization among the families of men.The road from Havre to Rouen passes through Lillebonne,a city which stands on the site and retains substantially thename of Julia bona, (Julia the good, ) in which very remarkableremains of a spacious Roman theatre have been excavated.It is overlooked from a commanding position, by the ruins ofa castle, which was one of the residences of William the Conqueror, and in which he is said to have consulted his baronson the project of invading England. The guide book saysthat " the great Norman hall, in which, according to the tradition, William met his barons in council, has been entirelyswept away by the present proprietor, a cotton- spinner. "Not the least notable of the sweepings of King Cotton'sbesom! The " present proprietor " would, I think, havedone better to imitate the policy which William the Conqueror pursued in England, and to preserve, and, if need be,render commodious for modern use, rather than to " sweepaway" the Council Hall, in which the most momentous eventof modern history was decided upon!I had expected, on leaving Havre for a night's drive, to beable to continue our journey from Rouen, where we arrivedin the morning. We found, however, that all the places inthe diligence for Paris, except one, had been pre-engaged atRouen, an accident, we found on inquiry, to be of frequentoccurrence, and therefore supposed by impatient travellers tohappen on purpose, for the sake of detaining them for a dayin that city. All these little annoyances have of course vanished with the construction of railroads. But although wewere unable to get a couple of seats for ourselves, I succeededin obtaining one for my faithful Luigi, a respectable youngman from the shores of the Lago Maggiore, who had been206 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.recommended to me in England in the spring, by Ugo Foscolo, as a person who could at once perform the duty of atravelling servant and an Italian master. He had lived andtravelled with me in these capacities for several months, gradually adding to them that of humble friend.Having named Ugo Foscolo, one of the most originalcharacters and eminent writers of modern Italy, the readerwill pardon me, I am sure, for dwelling a few moments onmy recollections of him, as preserved from a familiar acquaintance during the spring and summer of 1818. A native ofone of the Ionian Islands, but of a Venitian family, he hadreceived a very superior classical education. He was a critical Greek scholar, and wrote and spoke the Latin languagewith fluency. He had been an officer of cavalry in the armyof the Cisalpine republic, and was one of the deputies fromthat republic to the Congress held at Lyons after the returnof Napoleon from Egypt. Here he pronounced, on behalf ofhis constituents, a remarkable discourse, in which he censuredthe preceding French governments with unsparing severity,earnestly appealing to Napoleon, of whom he was at thattime the eulogist and admirer, to correct their abuses. Hefilled, for a short time, the chair of polite literature at Pavia,and after the suppression of that and the other professorshipsof classical literature and belles-lettres, lived in discontentedretirement, brooding over the oppression of his countrymen, towhom the only alternative offered was that of the French orAustrian yoke. When I knew him he was living in straitened circumstances in England. He had delivered lectureson Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch, in London, which wereafterwards published, in different works, and form perhapsthe acutest commentary on " the all- Etruscan three." Withthe exception of Alfieri, if he is an exception, Foscolo was, atthat time, the most vigorous of the modern Italian writers.His Jacopo Ortis is an Italian Werther, but, though an imitation, had a great influence at the time of its publication on theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 207reading classes. I greatly value a copy of it given me byhimself, as also a copy of a curious satire on his literary contemporaries, written in the language and style of the Vulgate.We occupied the greater part of an afternoon passed at hisretired rural lodgings, in reading this piquant composition, ofwhich he explained to me the personal allusions; but theyhave long since lost all interest except for the literary antiquary. He used to complain of the late English hours, which,he said, destroyed health and eyesight. He quoted withgreat applause Dr. Franklin's new mode of lighting largetowns, viz. , by sunshine. I dined with him on one occasionat the hospitable table of the elder Murray, with a party consisting of some of the most distinguished literary celebritiesof the day, among others Mr. Thomas Moore, who sang several of his own songs. It will readily be believed that thehours were winged with geniality; they were, however, prolonged till two o'clock in the morning. Foscolo and myselfwalked home to our lodgings together at that unseasonablehour, (he was then living in London, ) and at every pause inthe conversation he muttered " troppo lungo, " (too long. ) Ifthe reader will look into Lord Broughton's ( Mr. Hobhouse's)" Illustrations of the fourth canto of Childe Harolde, " he willperceive that Ugo Foscolo is well entitled to the place whichI have given him in these desultory recollections. He ismentioned by Lord Byron, in his preface to the same poem,with ten or twelve others of his countrymen , as persons whowill secure to the present generation in Italy an honorableplace in most of the departments of science and belleslettres."Having stated that, on the occasion above alluded to, Iheard Mr. Thomas Moore sing some of his own songs, I mayadd that I had a similar gratification, the preceding winter atParis, in hearing several of Béranger's songs, and especiallythe Dieu des bons gens, sung by himself. It was my goodfortune occasionally to meet this remarkable man at the tables208 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.of General Lafayette, Benjamin Constant, and one or twoother persons belonging to the circle of liberal statesmen inFrance. Besides the two named, the Abbé de Pradt, then atthe height of his popularity, the baron Alexandre von Humboldt, Bishop Grégoire, Mr. Gallatin, M. Manuel, GeneralFoy, M. David d'Angers, the sculptor, and Talma, the greattragedian, were of these parties, where the conversation, it isscarcely necessary to say, was most brilliant and fascinating.Béranger was often an honored and favorite guest, thoughsomewhat reserved in his manners. Amidst all the delicaciesof the French cuisine, the material repast, which, by the way,was of a brevity to satisfy Ugo Foscolo himself, was, beyondcomparison, the least attractive part of the banquet. Thehighest political and social questions of the day were discussed by men of master minds, trained in the great vicissitudesof the revolution , the empire, and the restoration. No oneshone to greater advantage on these occasions than Mr. Gallatin, whose memory was a vast storehouse of discriminatingobservation and important fact, and whose acuteness surpassed that of most men whom I have known. These dinnersrarely passed off without one of his own songs from Béranger,often the last composed by him. Like Thomas Moore, hehad scarce any thing of a voice, but in the case of both, exquisite poetry, the deep pathos of an aggrieved nationality, andconscious influence over public sentiment, more than suppliedthe want of mere musical execution.But I have wandered far ( not I trust to the discontent ofthe reader, who will not be offended with these somewhatdisconnected recollections of great men who have passedaway) from the little Lombardian travelling servant recommended to me by Ugo Foscolo. Having no occasion for hisservices on the way to Paris, I took the only vacant place forhim, in the diligence that started in the morning, and remained myself to pass the day at Rouen, one of the mostimportant cities of France. As a manufacturing town it isTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 209one of the most considerable, and it has a depth of water inthe Seine which admits vessels of two or three hundred tons.It possesses architectural monuments of extreme magnificenceand beauty; and its historical associations, as the capital oflower Normandy, are of the most rich and varied character.It will readily be supposed that a day's observation of such aplace could add nothing to the stock of information containedin the guide books; in fact, could but embrace a portion ofthe objects worthy the traveller's attention. But here, as inso many other places, even a day's observation gives a distinctness of impression, especially as to localities, not to begot from books alone, and leads you to read with greatly increased relish and profit.The Cathedral of Rouen is one of the grandest of thestructures of this class. It is severely criticized by Mr. Galley Knight, and other learned amateurs, for incoherent mixture of style and excess of ornament, portions of it being builtin a declining age of art; but the entire effect upon an uncritical eye is extremely imposing. Its interior is not farfrom four hundred and fifty feet in length, and the nave isabout ninety feet in height. There are three magnificent rosewindows in the nave and transept; and in the last chapel, onthe southern side of the nave, is the monument of Rollo, thefirst duke of Normandy. Several of the chapels containpainted glass windows, of great age and beauty. Within thechoir a piece of colored marble, sunk into the pavement, indicates the spot where the heart of Richard Cœur de Leonwas buried. His rude statue, which disappeared in the timeof the Huguenots in the sixteenth century, was discoveredunder the high altar about twenty years after my visit. His"lion heart " shrunk, but in perfect preservation, was foundat the same time, wrapped in thick silk and enclosed in aleaden case. It was removed to the Museum. Richard hadbequeathed it to the city of Rouen, from the especial affectionwhich he bore to the Normans.210 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.The church of St. Ouen, nearly as long as the Cathedral,and of somewhat greater height, is justly deemed one of thenoblest specimens in the world of this style of architecture.It has suffered from time, from fanaticism, and from politicalVandalism. The Huguenots made bonfires in it, to burn theimages of the saints, the wood work of the altars, and thevestments of the priests; and the terrorists of 1793 set upa blacksmith's forge in one of the chapels for the repair ofarms; godless unbelief and the sternest orthodoxy meetingon the same platform of desecration. It is, however, in themain, well preserved, has been judiciously restored, and theessential parts of it having been built within one generationand in the best age of the art, it far exceeds the Cathedral inpurity of taste, and unity and harmony of design. Some ofthe finest painted glass in Europe is to be seen in this noblechurch. It is said that the master architect murdered one ofhis journeymen, from jealousy of the superior taste and skillwhich the youth had exhibited in one of the exquisitely beautiful rose windows.The Museum of Rouen contains objects of great curiosity.I have already mentioned one of them, the poor shrunkenremains of the Lion Heart, for whose living pulses Europeand Asia were too small. What a moral antithesis; theheart of Richard Coeur de Lion wrapped, not in plaited mail,but in grave clothes, encased, not in burnished steel, but inmortuary lead, and exposed to view in a museum! Thesame museum contains another relic, which illustrates in adifferent way the vanity of human greatness, -a charter ofWilliam the Conqueror, authenticated, not by his signature,but his mark. The stern and politic chieftain, who accomplished what Julius Cæsar imperfectly attempted, and Napoleon wholly failed to achieve; who ingrafted the fieryand haughty spirit of the Norman on the persistentand judicial method of the Saxon; who gave nto muscle and wind, and thus laid the foundatTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 211which, after eight hundred years, girdles the globe, could notwrite his name! The great Conqueror of the British Islandsdied in the suburbs of Rouen, and his poor remains, desertedby his courtiers, neglected by his children, stripped by hisservants, were left to be conveyed by charitable strangers totheir last resting-place at Caen. Such are the terrible homilies, in which Providence, taking Death for a text, preacheshumility to the great ones of the earth!But there is a spot in Rouen, the Place de la Pucelle(Maiden place) which teaches the lesson in sadder terms thanthe deserted death-beds of remorseless monarchs. In thisPlace, about twenty years only before the invention of the artof printing was consummated, and a complete edition of theBible was issued from the press; in this Place, in the centurythat witnessed the discovery of America, an innocent girl,who united every thing in her person and history, which couldcommand admiration and merit gentle and honorable treatment, was burned alive! Her crime was, that she had kindled such enthusiasm in the hearts of her craven countrymen,as enabled them to wrest a portion of their soil from theforeign conqueror. Her betrayers and accusers were theunworthy Frenchmen whom she had rescued from vassalage;her executioners were the English prelates and nobles, whomeanly revenged upon the poor fettered girl the shameful defeats they had suffered in the field from the maiden champion.A monument unworthy of her memory stands upon the spotwhere she perished at the stake; a nobler monument, thework of a king's daughter, is dedicated to her memory atVersailles. King Louis Philippe, in 1840, spoke to me,with moist eyes, of this admirable work of his daughter, andadded, with gratified paternal feeling, that the inhabitants ofDomrémy, the native place of Joan of Arc, had petitioned himfor a copy of it, which he, I think, has since erected in thatvillage. I know of no bitterer satire on the France of theeighteenth century, -no more striking proof that she stood in212 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.-need of some fierce and burning process of regeneration,—than that her greatest and most popular writer in that century, Voltaire, should have made this almost sainted heroine the object of his abominable ribaldry, and left it to aforeigner, Schiller, ―to celebrate her poetical apotheosis, ina strain not unworthy of the theme.About two centuries after the acting of this terrible tragedy in the Place de la Pucelle, the noblest tragic writer ofFrance, the great Corneille, was born at Rouen. His statueadorns the bridge which spans the Seine. One cannot butlament, that, instead of bestowing the immortality of hisgenius on the legends of the mythical Spanish champion, hehad not held up the inspired Maid of Orleans, (inspired,beyond the measure of ordinary humanity, with faith, patriotism, and courage, ) to the reverence of his countrymen. Hemight have rescued her by anticipation from the infamies ofVoltaire, and won for France, what now belongs to a foreign.muse, the credit of having first rendered due honor to hergentle heroism and spotless name.My poor Lombardian, who preceded me twelve hoursfrom Rouen, reached Paris but a very little time before me.The diligence in which he was travelling broke down, and thepassengers were obliged to while away their time in the highroad till it could be repaired. Luigi assured me that, whenthey crept to light from the Interior in the centre of thevehicle, the gallery behind, the Coupé in front, and the Bootabove, they amounted, all told, to twenty-three, besides theConductor, an indefinite amount of luggage and merchandisebeing bestowed in the Imperial. Such was the Diligence inFrance forty years ago!NUMBER TWENTY-THREE.WILL THERE BE A WAR IN EUROPE?The vast importance of this question-Comparative strength of the parties in amilitary point of view-The leaders described, the Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph, the King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II. , the Emperor of the French- The German Confederation in its relations to the contest-Hungary and the possibility of a new revolution-The general spirit of disaffection in Italy and the strength which it lends to Sardinia as the champion of Italian nationality-Quali- fied in practice by the hostile feelings of the Italian States toward each other." WILL there be a war in Europe? " This is a questionwhich, more than any other relating to human affairs, nowoccupies the thoughts of reflecting men throughout the civilized world. Before this paper sees the light, the questionmay have been decided, and a page of fearful significance forgood or for evil,-importing prosperity or devastation to fertile regions, permanence or downfall to established governments, life or death to tens of thousands of our fellowcreatures, may have been turned in the volume of contemporary history. If the question is decided for peace on any basisthat promises a durable settlement of the existing controversies, a period of amost unprecedented prosperity will openon the world, affording the various states of Europe ampleopportunity to recover from the exhaustion of their recentstruggles, with the energy of a mighty re-action. The abundance of recently discovered gold, and the unexampled perfection to which the mechanical arts, and the facilities fortransport and travel have been brought, with the astonishingdevelopment of mental energy and inventive sagacity which214 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.are everywhere manifesting themselves, seem to mark out thepresent time as one of the most auspicious for further improvement and progress, that the world has ever seen. Ifthegreat question is decided for war, all admit, the rival leadersin the British parliament unite in proclaiming with anxiety,-that it will be a contest of fearful range and of desolatingviolence.The parties to the contest are such, in the present state ofthe political equilibrium of Europe, as to foreshadow thetremendous proportions of the struggle. They will be, at thefirst outbreak, Austria on the one side, and on the other Sardinia and her ally, France. The army of Austria, on itsordinary peace establishment, is usually reckoned at fourhundred thousand men, capable of being carried, by callingout the reserve, very nearly to six hundred thousand. Thisarmy is in a state of effective organization and perfect drill.The regular army of France for the year 1857 was estimatedat 450,000, with sixty-two thousand seamen in the imperialnavy. The official paper denies that the regular force hasbeen augmented the present season. But if not professedlyaugmented, the regiments have undoubtedly been filled up totheir complement, and the actual state of the army (whatrarely happens in time of peace) carried up to the returns.As for Sardinia, whose population is estimated in the Frenchimperial Almanach for this year at 4,300,000, (only a thirdlarger than the State of New York, ) her regular army isabout fifty thousand, which is now said to be rapidly swelledby volunteers from every part of Italy . These armies arenot, like the undisciplined rabble of Turkey and China, armedwith rusty guns, and protected by shields emblazoned withpainted lions. They are provided with the last improvementsin ordnance and the munitions of war, and trained to perfection in their use. The lazy tactics of the last century havelong since been discarded. Celerity of movement, in overwhelming masses, artillery flying over the field on the wingsTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 215of the wind, rifled musketry of fearful range, throwing to anincredible distance balls of a murderous weight and configuration, are now introduced into the armies of Europe. In aword, the arts of destruction are not a whit behind the arts ofpeaceful culture, in the perfection to which they have beencarried. If the Austrian and Franco-Sardinian forces take thefield against each other, it will be a shock of arms scarcelywitnessed before in the world.The sovereigns by whom these great powers will be putin motion, probably commanded in person, -are all supposed to be animated by courage and military ambition. TheEmperor of Austria, Francis Joseph, now twenty-nine yearsof age, was, at the age of eighteen, called to the throne of theHapsburgs, at a period of perilous convulsion, by the abdication of his imbecile uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand, and thevoluntary renunciation of the right of succession by his father.He was thought, even at that immature age, to evince a capacity for sovereign power in arduous times. Under the influence of his mother, the Archduchess Sophia, and the advice ofwise counsellors, coming in aid of no ordinary tact, firmness,and resolution, he carried the empire through the immenseperils of the crisis, -brought the revolutionary struggle to aclose, -appeased Hungary, in appearance if not in reality, -harmonized the various races subject to his rule, -preservedthe neutrality of his empire in the Crimean war, though sorelypressed and greatly tempted by France and England to takean active part, and maintained, when strained almost torupture, relations of friendship with the great rival Germanpower, the King of Prussia. With eleven years prosperousexperience of power, the youthful Sovereign is said to retainan impatient recollection of the humiliations of his family andEmpire in the war of the French Revolution, and to burn towipe out the names of Austerlitz and Wagram from the history of Europe.The King of Sardinia is by ten years the senior of the216 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Emperor of Austria, and acceded to the throne on the abdication of his father in 1849. This prince is also animated bypersonal ambition, civil and military. He has sought toplace himself at the head of the liberal party of Italy. Parliamentary institutions and popular reforms have been introduced into his dominions. The religious houses have inmany cases been suppressed, and lands held for ages in mortmain appropriated to the service of the State. The government is carried on by a responsible ministry, the trial byjury is adopted, and the liberty of the press established . Inshort, the political organization of England has been imitated,and as much of the spirit of constitutional government borrowed with it, as is at all compatible with the fiery temperamentof the Latin races. Besides concurring in these attempts toliberalize the government of his own dominions, Victor Emmanuel II. has assumed the stand of champion of Italian nationality and independence. He is supposed to aim at thefusion of all the States of Italy into one system, of which Sardinia is to be the head. The English premier, in his speechof April 18th, ascribes much of the anxiety and distrustwhich exist on the part of Austria, and which have compelledher to clothe herself in the panoply of War, to the dispositionshown by the King of Sardinia to encourage disaffection totheir governments in the other Italian States, and especially inthe Austrian provinces, (the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, )and to his somewhat rhetorical exclamation at the opening ofthe Piedmontese Chambers, that there was a cry of anguish"from the other parts of Italy, to which he could not remainindifferent. Nor is the military spirit of this prince lessapparent. Without the slightest possible interest in theCrimean war, he allowed a considerable part of his forces tobe subsidized by England for that contest. The Sardiniangovernment, it may be proper to state, has shown at all timesa friendly disposition toward the United States, and affords66THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 217us, in the commodious harbor of Spezia, an admirable rendezvous for our vessels of war in the Mediterranean.The third and the most important party to the impendingwar is the Emperor of the French. His power also may besaid, like that of the Emperor of Austria and the King ofSardinia, to date from the memorable years of 1848-49; forthough his accession to the empire took place in December1852, the way was prepared for it by his election as Presidentof the French republic; in fact, by the subversion of thethrone of Louis Philippe. It is generally thought and said inEurope, that the question of peace or war rests exclusively,-and at present inscrutably, -within his bosom. This, however, is probably an error. It may be true that the precisetime, at which the causes shall take effect that are now working together toward an outbreak in the South of Europe, maydepend very much upon the will of the Emperor of theFrench. But that it is in his power wholly to neutralize theiraction, and substitute a good understanding between Austriaand Sardinia for the present hostile disposition of those powersto each other, and diffuse content and acquiescence in the present state of things, throughout the Italian peninsula, is, as itseems to me, an extravagant and wholly unfounded supposition . Without at all undervaluing the importance of theparticipation of Napoleon III. in the approaching contest, itwould, as I think, be a great mistake of its causes and character to suppose that it is , so to say, got up by him, thoughthis appears to be the opinion of very many persons at homeand abroad.Such are the Leaders on both sides of the great impendingstruggle, and the forces at their command. But there aremany subsidiary circumstances, which will modify the complexion of the contest and seriously affect its character. Assuming for the present, that the other three great Europeanpowers, Russia, Prussia, and England, will preserve theirneutrality in the struggle, (which will, however, in each case10218 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.most assuredly be what England through her Premier hasannounced for herself, viz. , " an armed neutrality,") there arestill very formidable auxiliary forces, which must inevitablybe drawn into the struggle. On the side of Austria, there isthe German Confederation, of which she is the head. Manyof its members will from inclination march under her banners; all owe her a qualified allegiance. The war contingentof the Federal body has already been called out by the dietat Frankfort. In a cause to which Germans as a people werehostile or indifferent, this would be a matter of little account,but the public mind in Germany is vehemently excited onthe side of Austria. The course pursued by Louis Napoleonhas been assailed with great bitterness by the leading GermanJournals. The memory of the mortifications to which Germany was subjected during the reign of Napoleon I. has beenstudiously rekindled. And whatever may be the justice withwhich the benefits accruing from his subversion of the crazymachinery of the old German empire, are urged, (and theyare plausibly urged in the Idées Napoleoniennes, ) great political changes forced by a foreign potentate on a proud people, atthe point of the bayonet, can never be the foundation of anefficient popularity. In a war of opinion between Austriaand France, not touching the political rights or material interest of Germany, she would march as one man, under thebanner ofher old imperial leader.The condition of Hungary is, however, not to be forgotten.Afew years only have elapsed since Austria was obliged torely upon Russian bayonets to quell the disaffection of thatportion of her empire; -the abode of fourteen millions of inhabitants, bound together by a language of their own, bycommunity of oppressions resented for ages, and the lateconvulsive struggle for independence. How far the recenthatreds of that struggle have been softened by the lapse often years and the conciliatory government of the presentEmperor, is uncertain; but it seems hardly in human natureTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 219that any material change in the public mind should havetaken place. None such is indicated in the expressions ofopinion occasionally put forth by Kossuth. If Hungaryshould find the opportunity for a new revolt, in the withdrawal of the main body of the Austrian army, to a war inItaly, it would strike a fatal blow at the Imperial power;especially in the present friendly relations of Russia andFrance, which would prevent the former, as in 1848, from coming to the rescue.On the Italian side of the great controversy, facts ofnearly equal significance will materially affect the strengthof the hostile parties. Sardinia herself is but a second-ratepower, but she represents both a physical and a moral forceof the most formidable character. She represents the traditionary hatred toward the " barbarian; " the passionate longings of Italy for political independence; the fervid dream ofa patriotic nationality, which has glowed unsatisfied in theItalian imagination for three or four hundred years. Clothedin no constitutional forms,-hopeless of any such forms, inthe judgment of the cool observer, -this feeling operates withso much the greater intensity. The moment an attempt ismade to turn it into a reality, the gravest practical obstaclespresent themselves; but while it is confined to the aspirationsof the ardent and generous children of the one Italian soil,and comprehends within the range of its heart- sick and longdeferred possibilities, all who-on whichever side of theApennines, and whether they breathe the refreshing gales ofthe Adriatic or the Tuscan sea-cherish the gorgeous visionof a regenerated and united Italy, it mingles in the contestwith the force of twelve legions.Unhappily however for Italy, the bright vision vanisheslike a perturbed spirit, at the breaking of the chilly dawn ofreal life. The Sardinian hates the barbarian from beyond theAlps, but he hates his Lombardo-Venetian brother on theother side of the Po, not less intensely. The Genoese has not220 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.yet forgotten that he was robbed of his sea-born independence,and made subject to the crown of Turin, by that Congress ofVienna which sat to redress the wrongs of revolutionaryFrance. Tuscans, and Neapolitans, and Sicilians, and subjectsof the Ecclesiastical state, have for ages regarded each otherwith aversion and scorn; and it is probable, at this moment,if the practical sense of the People of the various ItalianStates could be fairly polled, not one of them would exchangeits present allegiance to become subject to Sardinia. *But I must not forget that before this paper sees the light,a blow may have been struck which may render all anticipa- tions baseless and nugatory.

  • I leave this sentence as it was written ten months ago. To what extent the

unbiassed feeling of the People of the Grand Duchies favors annexation to Peidmontdoes not yet clearly appear; but events have shown that the traditionary feuds alluded to in the text are less operative, at the present day, than they appeared tobe twenty years ago. The establishment of liberal institutions in Sardinia and the Austro-Sardinian war in 1849, were events well calculated to win for Sardinia thesympathies of patriotic citizens in every part of Italy.NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR.ANOTHER VOLUME OF WASHINGTON'S DIARY.Another portion of Washington's Diary in the possession of J. K. Marshall, Esq.- Description of the manuscript and its contents -Circumspection of Washington in receiving foreigners-General appropriation bill for 1790-Tour on Long Island- Presents to foreign ministers on taking leave-Chasms in the Diary-The President starts on a Southern tour-In great danger in crossing from the Easternshore of Maryland to Annapolis-Reception there-Continues his journey to Georgetown-Conference with the proprietors of the lands on which the city ofWashington was to be erected-They agree to a cession of lands for public pur- poses-District of Columbia; Alexandria retroceded to Virginia-Description ofthe city of Washington.It may be recollected that, in the first number of thesepapers, I mentioned, as one of their objects, to give publicityto such remaining memorials of Washington as might bebrought to my knowledge in visiting different parts of thecountry, for the purpose of repeating my discourse on hischaracter. With this object in view, three papers of theseries have been devoted to an account of his journey in theEastern States in 1789, as related in his own Diary, latelyprinted for private circulation . On occasion of a late visit toRichmond, Virginia, I learned from my friend Mr. Jno. R.Thompson, the Editor of the Southern Literary Messenger,that another portion of the Diary was in the possession ofMr. J. K. Marshall, of Fauquier County in Virginia, a son ofthe late Chief Justice. At my request Mr. Thompson madeapplication to Mr. Marshall for the loan of this interestingrelic, and for permission to make use of it. This permissionwas kindly and promptly granted, and the precious manuscript222 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.safely forwarded to me by Adams' Express, to which I amalmost daily under obligations for the most important services. As this portion of the Diary has never been printed,and as it contains matter of the highest interest, I am persuaded that my readers will thank me for offering them anaccount of this important memorial of Washington from hisown pen.This portion of the Diary, like that described in the ninthnumber of these papers, is contained in a small manuscriptvolume, originally bound in marble paper covers. It isseven inches long, by four and a half wide, and contains, likeits predecessor, sixty- six leaves. It commences where thatterminates, viz. , with the 12th of March, 1790, while the seatof the government of the United States was still in NewYork. About half of the manuscript is occupied by the dailyoccurrences of the Spring and Summer of 1790, -brief memoranda of the despatches received and forwarded, of conferences of the members of the Cabinet and the Vice- President,who appears to have been consulted by the President in common with the Secretaries, the titles of Acts of Congress submitted for his signature, the names of persons entertained byhim at dinner, and the manner in which he took his daily exercise. There is scarce a line which does not throw light onhis marvellous prudence and practical wisdom, and muchcurious information is contained on matters of detail in theadministration of the government and the State of publicaffairs, for which, however, we have no room on the presentoccasion.The following extract will show the circumspection ofPresident Washington in receiving strangers: —"Information being given by Mr. Van Berkel [ the Dutch Minister]that Mr. Cazenove just arrived from Holland and of a principal mercantile House there had letters for me which he wished to deliver with hisown hands and requesting to know when he might be presented for thatpurpose, it was thought before this should be done, it might be properTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 223to know whether they were of a public nature, and whether he was actingin a public character. If so, then to let them come to me through theSecretary of State-if not then for him to send them, that the purportmight be known before he was introduced, which might be at the nextLevee where he might be received and treated agreeably to the consequence he might appear to derive from the testimonial of the letters. Itbeing conceived that etiquette of this sort is essential with all foreignersto give respect to the chief magistrate and the dignity of the government,which would be lessened if every person who could procure a letter ofintroduction should be presented otherwise than at Levee hours in aformal manner. "In mentioning the signature of the bill for the support ofthe government for 1790, the President gives the items ofappropriation contained in it. Let them be quoted for theamazement of this generation!"Bythis last [bill] was Grantdollr cents141.492-73 for the civil list.155.537-72 War department96.979-7210.000-Invalid PensionsPresident for contingent services of government.147.169-54 for demands enumerated by the Secretary of yoTreasy in wch the light Ho on Cape Henry isincludd120-96-96-To Jehoiakim McToksin" James Mathers" Giffard Dally.551.491-71 Total amount. "Such was an appropriation bill for the support of government two generations ago! By way of comparison, I subjointhe official statement of the aggregate of the appropriationsmade at the last session of Congress, reminding the reader atthe same time, that the bill appropriating several millions forthe Postal service failed to pass.224 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Legislative, executive, judicial, civil, and miscellaneousDiplomatic and consularIndian Department, revolutionary, invalid, and otherpensionsArmy fortifications and Military Academy Naval serviceOcean Steam mail service10.939.365 501.047.745 008.270.535 1415.248.657 2810.527.163 55341.229 16$41,374.695 63On Tuesday the 20th of April the President started on alittle tour through the Western end of Long Island, goingdown the South side of the Island and crossing over to theSound, proceeding as far East as Huntington. This littlecircuit occupied five days. The observations of the Presidentare characteristically minute and accurate, but we have nospace to quote them.The following extract relates to a practice, long since disused, of making a farewell present to foreign Ministers ontheir leaving the country. Such presents are still interchanged in the diplomatic service of Europe; but as the Constitution of the United States forbids the American Ministersto receive similar presents, they have long since ceased to beoffered to foreign Ministers leaving this country."Fixed with the Secretary of State [ Mr. Jefferson] on the presentwhich (according to the custom of other nations) should be made toDiplomatic characters when they return from that employment in thisCountry-and this was a gold medal, suspended to a gold Chain- inordinary to be of the value of about 120 or 130 Guineas- Upon enquiryinto the practice of other countries, it was found that France generallygave a gold snuff-box set with diamonds; and of diff . costs; to theamount generally to a Minister Plenipotentiary of 500 Louisdores-ThatEngland usually gave to the same grade 300 guineas in specie-and Holl . a Medal and Chain of the value of, in common, 150 or 180 Guineasthe value of which to be encreas'd by an additional weight in the Chainwhen they wished to mark a distinguished character. -The reason whya Medal and a Chain was fixed upon for the American present, is that thedie being once made the medals could at any time be struck at very littleTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 225cost & the chain made by our artizans, which (while the first should beretained as a memento) might be converted into Cash. "Very important memoranda are made, in this portion ofthe Diary, on the subject of consulting the Senate on questions of foreign policy, on the famous Yazoo land sales, onthe dispositions of the British government relative to the surrender of the Western posts, and other topics of importancein the politics of that day. They are necessarily, though withreluctance, omitted.From Sunday, 9th of May, to June the 24th, there is achasm in the Journal, which is accounted for as follows:"A severe illness with which I was seized the 10th of this month andwhich left me in a convalescent state for several weeks after the violenceof it had passed, and little inclination to do more than what duty to thepublic required at my hands occasioned a suspension of this Diary. "The Diary is resumed on the 24th of June, and under the29th we find the following entry, which I quote in illustrationof the statement already cited, in reference to the presents toforeign Ministers."On a consultation with the Secretary of State to-day, it was thoughtadvisable to direct him to provide two medals, one for the Marq. de laLuzerne, formerly Minister Plenipo from France to the United States ofAmerica, and the other for Mr. Van Berkel, late Minister from Holland;and to have the Dies with which they were to be struck in France, sentover here. The cost of these Medals would be about 30 guineas; -butthe chain for that designed for the Marq. de la Luzerne (on acct. of hisattachment and services to this country) was directed to cost about 200 guineas the other about 100 Guin". "No entry is made in the Diary between the 14th of July,1790, and the 21st of March, 1791. The session of Congresswas prolonged to the 12th of August, 1790, and it is probablethat even the systematic diligence and resolute punctuality ofthe President broke down under the incessant labors of the10*226 THE MOUNT VERNON, and compelled him wholly to omit these daily memoranda. The new Congress met at Philadelphia, and the nextentry in the Diary is under date of 21st March, 1791, and tothe following effect:-" Left Philadelphia about 11 o'clock to make a tour through theSouthern States. *In this tour I was accompanied by Maj . Jackson-My equipage &attendance consisted of a chariot & four horses drove in hand-a lightbaggage-wagon and two horses-four saddle horses besides a led onefor myself and five servants to wit my valet de chambre, two footmen,Coachman & Postilion . "Proceeding through Delaware and down the Eastern shoreof Maryland, the President crossed the bay from Rock- Hallto Annapolis, and on this passage appears to have been ingreat danger. IIis own narrative cannot fail to command thereader's attention.Thursday 24th. [of March] Left Chestertown about 6 o'clock-before nine I arrived at Rock Hall where we breakfasted and immediatelyafter which we began to embark-the doing of which employed us (forwant of contrivance) until near 3 o'clock-and then one of my servants(Paris) & two horses were left, notwithstanding two boats in aid of thetwo ferry Boats were procured. Unluckily embarking on board a borrowed boat because she was the largest, I was in imminent danger fromthe unskilfulness of the hands and the dullness of her sailing, added tothe darkness and storminess of the night-for two hours after we hoistedsail, the wind was light and ahead-the next hour was a stark calmafter which the wind sprung up at S. E. and increased until it blew agale -about which time and after 8 o'clock P. M. we made the mouthof the Severn River (leading up to Annapolis), but the ignorance of thepeople on board with respect to the navigation run us aground first onGreenbury (?) point from whence with much exertion & difficulty wegot off; & then having no knowledge of the channel, and the night beingimmensely dark with heavy and variable squals of wind-constantlightning and tremendous thunder-we soon grounded again on whatis called Hornes (?) point where finding all efforts in vain, & not knowingwhere we were, we remained, not knowing what might happen, tillmorning.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 227Friday 25. Having lain all night in my Great Coat & Boots, in aberth not long enough for me by the head, & much cramped; we foundourselves in the morning within about one mile of Annapolis & still fastaground-Whilst we were preparing our small Boat in order to land init, a sailing Boat came off to our assistance in weh with the Baggage Ihad on Board I landed, and requested Mr. Man at whose Inn I intendedlodging to send off a Boat to take off two of my horses & chariot whichI had left on board and with it my Coachman to see that it was properlydone but by some mistake the latter not having notice of this orderand attempting to get on board afterwards in a smaller sailing Boat wasoverset and narrowly escaped drowning.Was informed upon my arrival (when 15 guns were fired) that all myother horses arrived safe that embarked at the same time I did, about 8o'clock last night.Was waited upon by the Governor (who came off in a boat as soonas he heard I was on my passage from Rock- Hall to meet us, but turnedback when it grew dark & squally) as soon as I arrived at Man's tavern,and was engaged by him to dine with the Citizens of Annapolis this dayat Man's tavern, and at his house tomorrow-the first I accordingly did.Before dinner I walked with him, and several other gentlemen to theState house (which seemed to be much out of repair) -the College of St.John at which there are about 80 students of every description-andthen by the way of the Governor's ( to see Mrs. Howell) home.It thus appears that the President of the United States,travelling with every facility which the state of the communications at that time afforded , was five days in accomplishing the journey from Philadelphia to Annapolis, noweasily made in six hours.The city of Washington was not yet laid out, and thePresident pursued his journey from Annapolis to Georgetown,in order to bring the proprietors of land at this last- namedcity and Carrollsburg (which I suppose to be the region extending east and west from Capitol Hill) to terms of agreement as to the cession of land for the public buildings.trary to his usual practice, he went from Annapolis to Bladensburg on Sunday, and dined and lodged there. The followingday he was met by a large party of citizens from Georgetown,headed by Mr. Thomas Corcoran, ( Father of Mr. William W.Con-228 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Corcoran of Washington city, ) by whom he was addressed,and was by them escorted to Georgetown, where he arrivedat an early hour.His first care on arrival was to examine the surveys of Mr.Ellicott, who had been appointed " to survey the district often miles square for the federal seat, and also the works ofMajr. L'Enfant, who had been engaged to examine and makea draught of the grounds in the vicinity of Georgetown andCarrollsburg on the Eastern Branch." The President madearrangements to examine them himself the following day, andattended a public dinner given by the Corporation at Suter'stavern, where he lodged. At seven o'clock in the morningof the 29th, " in a thick mist and under a strong appearanceof a settled rain (which however did not happen) " he setout to institute this examination, but from the unfavorableness of the day he " derived no great satisfaction from theReview. "66 Finding the landholders of Georgetown and Carrollsburgat variance with each other, and that their fears and jealousieswere counteracting the public purposes and might prove injurious to its best interests," the President invited a conference of those concerned, and succeeded in bringing them tounite in a satisfactory arrangement. The proprietors alludedto agreed " to surrender for public purposes one-half of theland they severally possessed within bounds which were designed as necessary for the City."Thus were the District of Columbia, ten miles square, andthe City of Washington, laid out. The District originallycontained the Cities of Washington and Georgetown on theMaryland side of the Potomac, and the City of Alexandria onthe Virginia side. Such an arrangement was not indicated bythe geography of the region, though wearing in theory and onpaper an agreeable appearance. The citizens of Alexandria,after fifty years' experience of Congressional government,prayed to be restored to the genial tutelage of their parentTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 229State and all that part of the District lying on the rightbank of the Potomac was a few years since retroceded toVirginia.The situation of Washington is of unsurpassed beautyfor an inland town. The sweep of the river, as you lookfrom the balcony of the library on the Western front ofthe Capitol, the line of the Virginia hills beyond, especiallywhen seen in the early part of the day, the encircling heightswhich stretch from Georgetown round to the North, destinedat no distant period to be crowned with all the beauties ofvilla architecture, forest, and garden, (this anticipation hasbegun to be realized, ) the noble streets and avenues beforeand beneath the eye, lined already in many places with statelyprivate dwellings and magnificent public edifices, form altogether a panorama of extreme richness. Some errors nodoubt may be pointed out by a fastidious taste in the plan ofthe city. Desolate spaces, neglected amorphous spots, abortive attempts at premature display,—the necessary incidentsof a town called into being, in the first instance, by the exigencies of the public service, and sustained by a governmentpatronage alternately profuse and parsimonious, -offend theeye on a close survey of the national Capital. But fornatural advantages, beauty of position, the rapid progressalready made in the comforts and refinements of social life,and in its capacity for almost indefinite improvement, underthe fostering care of a paternal government, Washington fullyjustifies the interest taken by its illustrious Founder in itsselection as the seat of republican empire.NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE.WASHINGTON'S SOUTHERN TOUR.Washington's Southern tour in 1791 less known than his Eastern tour in 1789-Departure from Mount Vernon 7th of April-Accident in crossing the ferry at Col- chester-Fredericksburgh- Richmond-Locks in the James River Canal- State of public opinion in Virginia on the assumption of the State debts and the Excise law-Petersburgh and the President's account of it-Innocent artifice to escape an escort-Halifax, N. Carolina-No stabling at Allen's-Arrival at Newbern and description of that place-Its present condition and appearance-Arrival at Wil- mington and account of that place-The mode of taking the first census described by Washington-Present condition of Wilmington-Recent visit of the writer to North Carolina-Its general prosperity-Raleigh-Chapel Hill.Or Washington's Southern Tour little in detail has beenpublished. Of his tour in the Eastern States, two years before, some of the incidents, and particularly his relations withJohn Hancock at Boston, attracted general notice at the time,and have been narrated at some length in different publications. They furnish the matter of several pages in GeneralSullivan's " Familiar Letters " in Mr. Sparks' edition of “ theWritings of Washington, " and in the volume of Mr. Irving'sLife of Washington just issued from the press. In additionto this, that portion of the Diary of Washington which contains the account of his Western tour, had within the pasttwelvemonth, as the readers of these papers have seen, beenprinted for private circulation .Of the Southern tour, equally interesting in itself, muchless has been said. It has been dismissed with a single paragraph in the Standard lives, and the portion of the Diarywhich contains the record of it , and which, as stated in myTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 231last number, is now in the possession of Mr. James K. Marshall of Fauquier County, Virginia, ( a son of the venerableChief Justice, ) has never been committed to the press. Ihave for these reasons felt confident, that I should gratify thereader by copious extracts from this portion of the Diary,containing as they do the impressions of its illustrious authorrecorded at the time, as to the principal cities in the SouthernStates of the Union, and the various occurrences of his tour.Having completed the business which engaged his attention at Georgetown, as related in my last number, the President, on the 30th of March, 1791 , left that city, dined at Alexandria, and reached Mount Vernon in the evening. Here heremained one week, " visiting his Plantations every day," andon the 7th of April recommenced his " journey, with horsesapparently well refreshed, and in good spirits. " On crossingthe ferry at Colchester, with the four horses hitched to thechariot, by the neglect of the person who stood before them,one of the leaders got overboard, when the boat was in swimming water and fifty yards from the shore. With much difficulty he escaped from drowning before he could be disengaged. His struggles frightened the other horses in such amanner, that one after another in quick succession they all gotoverboard, harnessed and fastened as they were. With theutmost difficulty they were saved, and the carriage escapedbeing dragged after them. "The whole of it," says theDiary, " happened in swimming water and at a distance fromthe shore. Providentially,—indeed miraculously, by the exertions of People who went off in boats and jumped in theriver as soon as the Batteau was forced into wading waterno damage was sustained by the horses, carriage, or harness. "The President this day dined at Dumfries -" after which,"says the Diary, " I visited & drank tea with my niece Mrs.Tho's Lee."Starting at 6 o'clock the following day, the Presidentbreakfasted at Stafford Court House, " and dined and lodged,"232 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.says the entry, " at my sister Lewis's in Fredericksburg. "Saturday the 9th was appropriated to " a public entertainment given by the Citizens of the town. " On the followingday, Sunday the 10th, he breakfasted with General Spotswood, dined at the Bowling Green, and lodged at Kenner'stavern; in all a journey of thirty-five miles. He reachedRichmond to dinner on the 11th at 3 o'clock, having “ breakfasted at one Rawlings's " by the way. On his arrival hewas saluted by the Cannon of the place-waited on by thegovernor & other gentlemen-& saw the city illuminated bynight. "66The President remained in Richmond from Sunday, theday of his arrival, till Thursday. His first care was to inspect the locks on the James River Canal, a work in whichhe ever took the deepest interest. He records with evidentsatisfaction the impressions made upon his mind, chiefly byCol. Carrington, the marshal of the district, with reference tothe popularity of the general government. He " could notdiscover that any discontents prevail among the people at theproceedings of Congress. The conduct of the assembly respecting the assumption " [of the state debts] " he (Col. Carrington) thinks, is condemned by the people as intemperate& unwise, and he seems to have no doubt but the Excise law-as it is called-may be executed without difficulty, naymore that it will become popular in a little time." Col. Carrington evidently painted things couleur rose. On Wednesday the President attended a public entertainment given bythe Corporation of Richmond. " The buildings in this place,"he remarks, "have encreased a good deal since I was herelast but they are not of the best kind. The number of Soulsin the City are -." A blank is here left as in other similar cases for more accurate information. The industry ofRichmond in all its branches was then in its infancy, andthose topics which usually occupy so much of the President'sattention are not mentioned.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 233The next day, Thursday the 14th, he went to Petersburg.Passing through Manchester he " received a salute fromCannon & an escort of horse, under the command of Capt.David Meade Randolph, as far as Osborne's, where ” he “ wasmet by the Petersburgh Horse & escorted to that place &partook of a public dinner given by the Mayor and Corporation & went to an assembly in the evening ** at whichthere were between sixty & seventy ladies. " The President'saccount of Petersburg is in the following terms:"Petersburgh which is said to contain near 3000 souls is well situatedfor trade at present, but when the James River navigation is compleated& the cut from Elizabeth river to Pasquotanck is effected, it must decline& that very considerably. At present it receives at the Inspectionsnearly a third of the Tobacco exported from the whole State besides aconsiderable quantity of Wheat & Flour-much of the former beingmanufactured at the mills near The town-Chief of the buildings in thistown are under the hill & unpleasantly situated but the heights around itare agreeable."The Road from Richmond to this place passes through a poorCountry principally covered with Pine, except the interval lands on the River which we left on our Left."The President's anticipations of the falling off of Petersburg from a population of 3,000 have not been fulfilled . Bythe census of 1850, it was 14,010, a trifle smaller than that ofNorfolk. It cannot at this time be much if any below twentythousand.On Friday the 15th the President started from Petersburg, practicing a little artifice as to the time of his departure,of which I recollect no other instance in his whole career, andwhich, involving no departure from the strictest truth, andresorted to for the best of reasons, will not be blamed. It isdescribed in the following words:—"Friday 15th . Having suffered very much by the dust yesterday—and finding that parties of Horse and a number of other gentlemen wereintending to attend me part of the way to-day, I caused their enquiries234 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.respecting the time of my setting out, to be answered that I should endeavor to do it before 8 o'clock, but did it a little after five, by whichmeans I avoided the inconvenience above mentioned. "This day the President breakfasted after travelling twelvemiles at 66 one Jesse Lee's, a tavern newly set up on a smallscale," and proceeding fifteen miles further dined and lodged"at the House of one Oliver, which is a good one for horses& where there are tolerable clean beds. For want of properstages " he " could go no further."The President started the next day at about 5 o'clock,and travelling most of the time under a heavy rain, was compelled, for want of stopping places, to proceed as far as Halifax in North Carolina, a distance of forty-eight miles, arrivingat six o'clock in the evening. He passed the following day,Sunday the 17th, at Halifax, which he describes as " a placesaid to contain a thousand souls & apparently in a decline.”At the invitation of Colonel Ashe, (the representative of thedistrict in which Halifax was situated , ) and several other gentlemen, General Washington attended a public dinner at thatplace.On Monday the 19th the President started at six o'clock," dined at a small house kept by one Slaughter twenty twomiles from Halifax, & lodged at Tarborough fourteen milesfurther. We were received at this place " the Presidentbenignantly remarks, " by as good a salute as could be givenwith one piece of artillery. " Onthe following day (19th April)they " dined at a trifling place called Greenville 25 miles distant & lodged at one Allans 14 miles further, a very indifferent house, without stabling [ for the horses], which for thefirst time since I commenced my Journey were obliged tostand without a cover."The President left Allan's on the 20th before breakfast,and " under a misapprehension went to a Col: Allan's, supposing it to be a public house, where we were very kindly &well entertained without knowing it was at his expense untilTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 235it was too late to rectify the mistake." They crossed theNeuse at a ferry ten miles from Newbern, were they arrivedto dinner and were exceedingly well lodged."This town," says the President, " is situated at the confluence of theNuse and Trent, and though lowis pleasant. Vessels drawing more thannine feet of water cannot get up loaded. It stands on a good deal ofground, but the buildings are sparse & altogether of wood; some ofwhich are large & look well. The number of souls are about 2000. Itsexports consist of Corn, Tobacco & Pork, —but principally of naval stores & lumber.Thursday 21st. Dined with the citizens at a public dinner given bythem & went to a dancing assembly in the Evening, —both of which wasat what they call the pallace-formerly the government house & a goodbrick building but now hastening to ruins. The company at both was numerous at the latter there were about 70 ladies."Newbern still, as in General Washington's time, " thoughlow is pleasant." Its population by the Census of 1850 was4,681 , and is now considerably increased. It has a railroadconnection with Beaufort and Goldsboro' , and with the mainlines which traverse the State. Its once splendid Palace,erected by the ostentatious Tryon, and ruinous in PresidentWashington's days, has vanished from the face of the earth;-an open street passes over the site; but the substantialbrick stables remain. The grass-grown streets, shaded byelms and lined with gardens, give to Newbern an air of repose, which reminds you of some of the small German residences. The situation at the confluence of the Trent and theNeuse is magnificent. The traditional culture of a provincialmetropolis is visible at Newbern; and the honored memoryofJudge Gaston is freshly cherished. But I have experiencedits hospitable welcome too recently to speak of it with impartiality. I had the pleasure on the 12th of April of repeating my discourse on the character of the great man whosevisit I am now recording, to a crowded audience, and with anet receipt, for the benefit of the Mount Vernon Fund, of$593.236 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.The President left Newbern on the 22d April, " under anescort of horse & many ofthe principal gentlemen,” dined ata place called Trenton, at the head of the boat navigation ofthe Trent, crossed that river on a bridge, and “ lodged at oneShrine's 10 miles further-both indifferent houses." On the23d, " breakfasted at one Everet's 32 miles, bated at a Mr.Foy's 12 miles further & lodged at one Sages 20 miles beyond it, all indifferent houses."On Sunday the 24th the President " breakfasted at an indifferent house about 13 miles from Sage's & three milesfurther met a party of Light Horse from Wilmington, &after them, a committee and other gentlemen of the town,at which he arrived, under a federal salute, at very goodlodgings about two o'clock. Here says he, " I dined withthe committee whose company I asked." The country betwen Newbern and Wilmington is described by the President as being, with the exception of a few places, the mostbarren he ever beheld, especially in the parts nearest Wilmington, where it is " no other than a bed of white sand. "In some places however, " if ideas of poverty could be separated from the land, the appearances of it are agreeable, resembling a lawn well covered with evergreens and a goodverdure below, from a broom of coarse grass, which havingsprung up since the burning of the woods had a neat andhandsome look, especially as there were parts entirely open& others with ponds of water, which contributed not a littleto the beauty ofthe scene.""Wilmington," says the President, " is situated on Cape Fear River,about 30 miles by water from its mouth, but much less by land. It hassome good houses pretty compactly built.-The whole under a hill whichis formed entirely of sand. The number of souls in it amount by enumeration to about 1000, but it is agreed on all hands that the Census inthis State has been very inaccurately & shamefully taken by the Marshall's deputies; who instead of going to Peoples houses, and there onspot, ascertaining the nos. have advertised a meeting of them atTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 237certain places, by which means those who did not attend (and it seemsmany purposely avoided doing it, some from an apprehension of its beingintroductory to a tax & others from religious scruples) have gone withtheir families unnumbered. In other instances it is said that these deputieshave taken their information from the Captains of Militia companies;not only as to the men on their muster rolls, but of the souls in their respective families, which at best must, in a variety of cases be mere conjecture, whilst all those who are not on their lists, widows & theirfamilies &c pass unnoticed.Wilmington unfortunately for it has a mud bank miles belowover which not more than ten feet of Water can be brought at commontides; yet it is said vessels of 250 tons have come up. The qty of shipping which load here annually amounts to about 12,000 tons.The exports consist chiefly of Naval stores and lumber. Some Tobacco, corn,Rice & Flax Seed with Porke. It is the head of the tide navigation , butinland navigation may be extended 115 miles farther to and aboveFayette's ville which is from Wilmington 90 miles by land and 115 by water as above. " * * *Monday 25th, Dined with the citizens of the place, at a public dinnergiven by them-went to a Ball in the evening at which there were 62ladies, -illuminations, bonfires &c.—The population of Wilmington by the census of 1850 was7,264. In the period which has since elapsed, and under thestimulus of the railroads which connect it with the conterminous States North and South, it has greatly increased,and amounts no doubt at the present time to ten or twelvethousand. Its natural features have of course not changedsince President Washington's time; the " mud bank " stillobstructs the navigation, and has as yet been attacked withbut partial success, under liberal appropriations of the federalgovernment. Wilmington is however the seat of an activetrade in the staples of the country. Its population, as far asI was able to judge from a short visit, intelligent, enterprizing, and rather more than usually harmonious among themselves. The river prospects from elevated positions are remarkably fine. An immense audience, assembled in ThalianHall on the 11th April last, honored the repetition of my238 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.address on the character of Wilmington, and the net receiptsof the evening, $ 1091 80-100, were, in proportion to thepopulation, far beyond those of any other place in the Union.I reserve for another paper the account of the President'stour in South Carolina and Georgia, of which as of his tour inVirginia and North Carolina, scarce any thing has hithertobeen published. I may be permitted, by way of filling upthis Number, to say that nowhere have my anticipations ofan agreeable tour been more completely fulfilled than in thelast named State. In the course of a week I visited Wilmington, Newbern, Raleigh, and Chapel- Hill, speaking at each ofthose places. Communications between the principal placesin North Carolina is rendered expeditious by about eighthundred miles of railroad, traversing the Eastern and central portions of the State. It was not in my power to visitthe mineral district about Charlotte or the mountain regionof the West, which form a very important and attractive portion of the territory. I have already said a few words ofNewbern and Wilmington. Raleigh, the political metropolisof the State, and Chapel-Hill, the seat of the University ofNorth Carolina, honored my address with crowded and favoring audiences. The net receipts at the former were $515; atthe latter $615 60-100. I found at both places a highly intelligent social circle. Raleigh was adorned at very greatexpense to the State, with a superb statue of Washington byCanova, at a time when, if I mistake not, with the exceptionof Houdon's, there was no other statue of Washington in theUnited States. It was unfortunately destroyed by fire whenthe Capitol was burned a few years since. A copy of Hubard'scast from Houdon's Washington has lately been placed in theCapitol grounds. Raleigh itself constitutes, in its name, thenoblest monument to the illustrious but unfortunate pioneerof North American colonization . It will preserve his gallantdeeds and generous traits of character in honored remem.brance, ages after the crowned pedant who sent him to theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 239block is recollected only to be despised. The University atChapel-Hill is second to none of the Southern Seminaries,except the University of Virginia, in the number of itsStudents, and it stands in well earned high repute as a placeof education.NUMBER TWENTY-SIX.WASHINGTON'S SOUTHERN TOUR CONCLUDED.Departure from Wilmington-The Swash crossed-Arrival at Georgetown, S. C.- Capt. Alston's plantation-Description of Georgetown-Arrival at Charleston andreception and festivities there-Description of Charleston-No mention of cotton amongthe exports-Journey resumed on the 9th of May-Mrs. Gen. Green-Arrival at Savannah-Military operations in 1779-Savannah described-Road through Waynesborough to Augusta-Reception at Augusta-Description of that place- Return to the North by the way of Columbia, Camden, Charlotte, Salisbury, and Salem .HAVING sent his horses across the river the day beforethe President started for Charleston on the 26th of April,1791 , breakfasted at Mr. Ben Smith's, and lodged at oneRuss's, " an indifferent house," having made but twenty-fivemiles. On the following day the party breakfasted at William Gause's, dined at a private house, (' one Cochran's) andlodged at Mr. Vareen's, ' two miles short of the long bay.'"To this house," says the Diary, 66 we were directed as atavern, but the proprietor of it either did not keep one, orwould not acknowledge it . We therefore were entertained(& very kindly) without being able to make compensation. "The following day they were piloted by Col. Vareenacross the Swash, (which at high water is impassable and attimes, by the shifting of the sands, is dangerous, ) to the long beach of the ocean. The tide being favorable, the party followed the beach to the place for leaving it, an estimateddistance of sixteen miles. They dined at Mr. Pauley's, aprivate house, and " being met on the road & kindly invitedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 241by a Dr. Flagg," they lodged there, after a day's journey ofthirty-three miles.The record of the 29th is as follows: —"We left Dr. Flagg's at about 6 o'clock and arrived at Captain Wm.Alston's on the Waggamaw to breakfast. Captain Alston is a gentlemanof large fortune and esteemed one of the neatest Rice planters in theState of S. Carolina and the proprietor of some of the most valuablegrounds for the culture of this article. -His house which is large, new,and elegantly furnished stands on a sand-hill, high for the Country, withhis rice fields below; the contrast of which with the lands back of it andthe Sand & piney barrens through which we had passed is scarcely tobe conceived. "The President was met at Capt. Alston's by GeneralMoultrie, Col. Washington, and Mr. Rutledge, (son of thechief justice of S. Carolina, ) who had come out to escort himto Georgetown. The next day they crossed the river, after adescent of three miles " under a salute of cannon & by a company of infantry handsomely uniformed." The Presidentdined with the citizens in public, and " in the afternoon wasintroduced to upwards of fifty ladies, who had assembled ( at atea party) for the occasion.""Georgetown," says the Diary, " seems to be inthe shade of Charleston- It suffered through the war by the British, hav'g had many ofits houses burnt. It is situated on a peninsula between the river Waccamaw and Sumpter Creek about 15 miles from the sea-a bar is to bepassed, over which not more than 12 feet of water can be bro't exceptat Spring tides; which (tho' the inhabitants are willing to entertain different ideas) must ever be a considerable let to its importance; especially if the cut between the Santee & Cowper Rivers should ever be accomplished." The inhabitants of this place (either unwilling or unable) could giveno account of the number of souls in it, but I should not compute themat more than 5 or 600. Its chief export Rice."The population of Georgetown by the Census of 1850 was1628.11242 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.On Sunday, 1st of May, the party left Georgetown, andcrossing the Santee River at a distance of twelve miles, breakfasted and dined at Mrs. Horry's, about fifteen miles fromGeorgetown, " & lodged at the plantation of Mr. Manigoldabout twelve miles further. "On the 2d of May, the party breakfasted at the countryseat of Gov. Pinckney, about eighteen miles from the placewhere they had lodged, and then came to the ferry at Haddrel'spoint, six miles further, where they were met by the Recorder of the city, Gen. Pinckney, and Edward Rutledge, a twelve oared barge, rowed by twelve American captainsof ships, most elegantly dressed. There were a great numberof other boats with gentlemen and ladies in them, and twoboats with music:" All of which, ” says the Diary of the President, " attended meacross; & on the passage were met by a number of others. As we approached the town a salute of artillery commenced, and at the wharf Iwas met by the Governor, the Lt. Governor, the Intend' . of the city, thetwo Senators of the State, Wardens of the city, Cincinnati, &c. &c. andconducted to the Exchange where they passed by in procession-fromwhence I was conducted in like manner to my lodgings, -after whichI dined at the Governor's (in what he called a private way) with 15 or18 gentlemen"The lodgings provided for me in this place were very good-beingthe furnished house of a Gentleman at present in the Country; but occupied by a person placed there on purpose to accommodate me, andwho was paid in the same manner as any other letter of Lodgings wouldhave been paid. ""Tuesday the 3d breakfasted with Mrs. Rutledge (the Lady of thechief justice of the State who was on the Circuits) and dined with thecitizens at a public din' . given by them at the Exchange."Was visited at about 2 o'clock, by a great number of the most respectable Ladies of Charleston-the first honor of the kind I ever hadexperienced & it was as flattering as it was singular.""Wednesday the 4th . Dined with the members of the Cincinnati,and in the evening went to a very elegant dancing Assembly at the Exchange, at which were 256 elegantly dressed & handsome ladies.""In the forenoon (indeed before breakfast to day) I visited and ex-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 243amined the lines of attack & defence of the city & was satisfied that thedefence was noble & honorable altho the measure was undertaken uponwrong principles and impolitic. ""Thursday the 5th. Visited the works of Fort Johnson on James'Island & Fort Moultree on Sullivan's Island; both of which are-inRuins; and scarcely a trace of the latter left-the former quite fallen."Dined with a very large company at the Governor's and in the Evening went to a Concert at the Exchange at wch there were at least 400ladies—the number and appearance of wch exceeded anything of the kind I had ever seen. "On Friday the 6th, the President rode through the principal streets of Charleston, dined at Major Butler's, and wentto a ball in the evening, at the Governor's, " where there wasa select company of ladies." On Saturday, the 7th, hevisited the Orphan House before breakfast, " where therewere 107 boys & girls. " He also viewed the city from thebalcony of church, " from whence the whole is seen inone view to great advantage, the gardens & green trees whichare interspersed adding much to the beauty of the scene."On Sunday the President " went to crowded churches in themorning & afternoon," but the names of the churches areleft blank. General Washington staid an entire week inCharleston, being a considerably longer time than was givenby him to any city North or South. His summary description of it is in the following terms:"Charleston stands on a Peninsula between the Ashley & CowperRivers and contains about 1600 dwelling houses and nearly 16,000 souls[population in 1850 42,985 ] , of which about 8,000 are white- It lies lowwith unpaved Strects (except the footways) of Sand. There are a number of very good houses of brick & Wood but most of the latterThe Inhabitants are wealthy-gay-hospitable; appear happy and satisfied with the general governm¹. A cut is much talked of between theAshley & Santee [ Cowper] Rivers, but it would seem I think as if the accomplishment of the measure was not very near- It would be agreat thing for Charleston if it could be effected- The principal Exports from this place is Rice, Indigo and Tobacco; of the last from 5 to8000 Hhd have been exported and of the first from 80 to 120,000 Bar- rels. "244 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.No mention yet of cotton among the staple products ofthe South. As late as 1794, it was not known to Chief Justice Jay, when he negotiated his treaty with England, that itwas likely to be an article of United States Commerce. Sorecently has this great element of trade and of the wealth ofnations made its appearance on this side of the Ocean!On Monday the 9th of May the President resumed hisjourney for Savannah, " attended by a corps of the Cincinnati,& most of the principal gentlemen of the city, as far as thebridge over the Ashley River." After breakfast they proceeded, " with a select party of very particular friends,”—toColonel Wahington's, at Sandy Hill, a distance in the wholeof twenty-eight miles. On the following day the friends andattendants, with the exception of Gen. Moultrie and MajorButler, took leave and the party proceeded to breakfast “ atJudge Bee's & dined and lodged at Mr Obrian Smith's." -On the 11th the President was entertained at dinner " by theparishioners of Prince William " and lodged at Judge Hayward's. He enters an apology in his journal, at this place,for visiting Col. Washington, on the score " of friendship &relationship," and for lodging at Mr. Smith's and Judge Hayward's, on the ground of necessity, " there being no publichouses on the road."Starting on the 12th at 5 A. M. they arrived at Purisburg, on the Savannah River, twenty-two miles distant, tobreakfast. Here they were met by Messrs. Jones, Col.Habersham, Mr. Jno. Houston, Genl. McIntosh, and Mr.Clay, a committee from the city of Savannah. They descended the River in boats, the President in an eight oared barge,rowed by eight American captains. " In my way down theRiver," says the Diary, " I called upon Mrs. Green, thewidow of the deceased Gen! Green, (at a place called Mulberry Grove, ) & asked her how she did." The wind and tidebeing against them, it was six o'clock before they reached thecity, where they were received under every demonstration 66THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 245that could be given ofjoy and respect." The President dinedin public at a late hour in the evening. On the following dayhe dined with the Cincinnati, " and in the evening went to adancing assembly, where there were about 100 well dressed& handsome ladies. " On the 14th, in company with the principal gentlemen of the place, he took a survey of the city.He expresses himself in the following circumspect manner ofthe siege of 1779:"I visited the city & the attack & defence of it in the year 1779 under the combined forces of France and the United States commanded bythe Count de Estaing & General Lincoln. -To form an opinion of the attack at this distance of time and the change which has taken place in theappearance of the ground by the cutting away of the woods &c is hardly to be done with justice to the subject, especially as there is remaining scarcely any of the defences."""There was a public dinner this day, "under an elegantbower on the bank of the river, and in the eveningtolerable good display of fire-works. "66 aOn Sunday the 15th, after morning service, " & receivinga number of visits from the most respectable ladies of theplace, (as was the case yesterday, ) " the President started forAugusta, under a general escort of the citizens, dined withMrs. Green at Mulberry Grove, and lodged at one Spencer's." Savanna, " says the Diary, " stands upon what may be called highground for this country-It is extremely sandy which makes the walkingvery disagreeable; and the houses uncomfortable in warm & windyweather, as they are filled with dust whenever these happen. The townon three sides is surrounded with cultivated rice fields which have a richand luxuriant appearance. On the south or back side it is a pine land.—The harbour is said to be very good and often filled with square riggedvessels but there is a bar below over which not more than 12 [ feet] watercan be brot. except at spring tides. -The tide does not flow above 12 or14 miles above the city though the River is swelled by it more thandouble that distance. -Rice & Tobacco (the last of which is greatly encreasing) are the principal exports-lumber & Indigo are also exported,246 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.but the latter is on the decline and it is supposed by Hemp & Cotton. * --Ship timber vizt. live oak and Cedar is (and may be more more so) valuable in the expt. "On Monday the 16th and Tuesday the 17th the placeswhere the party breakfasted, dined, and lodged, are recorded.Of Waynesborough the Diary states that it " is a small place,but the seat of the Court of Burke's County-6 or 8 dwellinghouses is all that it contains. An attempt is making (withoutmuch apparent effect ) to establish an Academy at it, as is thecase also in all the counties. "On the 18th the President was met by " Governor Telfair, Judge Walton, the Attorney General, and most of theprincipal gentlemen " of Augusta, escorted into town, " &received under a discharge of artillery." He dined " with alarge company at the Governor's and drank tea there withmany well dressed Ladies. " On the 19th there was an Address presented by the citizens of Augusta to which thePresident replied; a dinner with a large company at theCourt House, and an Assembly in the evening at the Academy, " at which there were between 60 and 70 well dressedladies."The 20th was devoted to the survey of the remains of"the works which had been erected by the British during thewar & taken by the Americans," of " the falls " in the river,and the neighboring country. Tobacco is mentioned as theprincipal article of growth and export from this region, andas likely so to continue.“Augusta ” says the Diary " though it covers more ground than Savanna does not contain as many inhabitants, the latter having by thelate Census between 14 & 1500 whites & about 800 blacks. "The numbers of the population of Augusta are left blankin the Diary. By the Census of 1850 the numbers of thetwo cities stood, Savannah 15,312 and Augusta 9,569.—

(Video) Seasonal Eating at Mount Vernon Part 1 : Winter

  • A word or two appears to be wanting here, but the senso is plain.

THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 247From Augusta the President proceeded to Columbia,where he was detained a day longer than he intended, one ofhis horses being badly foundered by the length of the journeyfrom Augusta, the want of water, and the heat of the weather.He was entertained at dinner at Columbia by the gentlemenand ladies of that place and the vicinity, " to the amount of more than 150 of which 50 or 60 were of the latter."The following is the President's description of Columbia,then in its infancy:"Columbia is laid out upon a large scale; but in my opinion it hadbetter been placed on the River below the falls. It is now an unreclaimed wood, with very few houses in it & those all wooden ones. The Statehouse (which is also of wood) is a large and commodious building, butunfinished. The town is on dry, but cannot be called high ground, andthough surrounded by Piney & sandy Land is itself good. The Statehouse is near two miles from the River, at the confluence of the BroadRiver & Saluda. From Granby the River is navigable for craft, whichwill, when the river is a little swelled carry 3000 bushels of Grain- whenat its height less and always some. The River from hence to the Wateree below which it takes the name of Santee is very crooked it beingaccording to the computed distance near 400 miles-Columbia fromCharleston is 130 miles."Want of space compels the omission of the President'sdescription of his journey to Camden, and onward to Charlotte, and his account of those places. His remarks on theencounter of Green and Lord Rawdon and of Gates and LordCornwallis are extremely interesting; but no room remainsfor further extracts. He passed through the towns of Salisbury and Salem, where he examined the Moravian Settlements, and here this volume of the Diary concludes.No apology seems necessary for occupying so much spacewith these memoranda. They relate to a portion of GeneralWashington's personal history never before described in detail; they present in his own language the impressions madeupon him, by the principal places which he visited; and theyafford most interesting materials for comparing the state ofthe country in 1791 with its condition at the present day.NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN.ADAMS' EXPRESS AND THE EXPRESS SYSTEM OF THEUNITED STATES.Scene at Embarcation at New York for Charleston-Quantity of packages put onboard by Adams' Express-The Expressage not to be confounded with commercialtransportation -Miscellaneous nature of articles transported by Express-Connection of the Express with the periodical press-Want of all facilities for the conveyance of small parcels in former times -Sketch of the Origin and progress of theExpress System-Wm. F. Harnden-Alvin Adams-His associates-And successors Present state of Adams' Express and extent of its operations-Importanceof the Express system compared with commercial exchanges-Comparison of theExpress with the Post-office-Origin and functions of the Post- office -Growingimportance of the Express.HAVING Occasion, a little more than a year ago, to visitSouth Carolina and Georgia, for the purpose of repeating myaddress on the character of Washington, I embarked at NewYork on board the fine steamer " Columbia, " for which I wasfavored with a free passage by the liberal proprietors of theline, Messrs. Spofford, Tileston & Co. Going on boardabout half an hour before the sailing of the vessel, my attention was drawn to the animated scene on the quay, scarcelyless varied and striking than that which is witnessed on thedeparture of a first-class passenger ship for Europe. Carriages filled with passengers of either sex and of every ageand their friends; porters staggering under the weight ofheavy trunks; a discouraged maid with a lap-dog under herarm looking as if she wished the troublesome pet would jumpinto the water; the usual throng of newsboys, venders oforanges, Stewart's mixed candy, and popped corn, with look-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 249ers-on of every description and in every body's way, allcrowding and jostling each other in the narrow space; thefierce roar of the steam as if impatient for departure; thebusy windlass hoisting in merchandise in packages of everyshape, which clear their way before them, as they bound overthe sides of the vessel, and then plunge into the hold; thespasmodic energy of the crew crowding a good morning'swork into half an hour; the sharp voice of the first matedirecting the movement; the occasional yelp of an unwarycur caught at disadvantage among the warring elements; theconfused plunging of an obstinate dray-horse, who, to the dismay of his driver and the gathering multitude, persists inbacking into the dock; the majestic port of the solemn policeman as he penetrates the crowd; the cordial hand-shaking offriends parting soon to meet again; the tearful farewells ofanxious relatives bidding good-bye to their pale invalids,bound to the tropics, foreboding too truly that they shall see.them no more on earth; -all this made up a scene, and occasionally as I have witnessed it, ever makes up a scene, —whichfurnishes much food for thought as a tolerable epitome of thetragi- comedy of life.I was particularly struck, on this occasion, with the successive arrivals and unloading of the wagons of Adams' Express. I think there were at least four of them, which camedown to the quay, drawn by sleek, powerful, and docilehorses, and delivered their contents on board the ship, in thecourse of the half hour; in packages of every size and shape,from large tierces, barrels, and bales, to boxes of moderatedimensions, and of every imaginable shape and character. Inaddition to packages, large enough to go separately andsafely, there were two or three coffers of great size andstrength, braced with iron, and double locked, containing-asI was told-parcels whose contents were highly valuable;specie, packages of bank notes and bonds, jewelry, and articles of every kind, too small or too valuable to be separately11*250 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.•transported. The addresses on the separate packages andparcels showed the vast range of territory embraced in thissystem of communication, and formed a little gazetteer of theSouth Atlantic and Gulf States.Astonished at the amount of articles thus moving southward, I inquired if it was unusually large that day, and I wasanswered in the negative; about the same quantity was despatched twice every week from New York to Charleston.This, it will be remembered, is independent of what may beforwarded from New York by the steamers to Norfolk, Richmond, and City Point, to Savannah and New Orleans, and allthat goes by land to the Atlantic States of the South, by theway of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, andthe cities of North Carolina. I then asked whether the movement took place only from North to South, and I was answered that it was about equal in the opposite direction, andas might have been expected, that the ebb and flow of thismighty tide, in the long run, balanced each other.It is scarcely necessary to say, that this stupendous systemof communication is far from being confined to the seaboardor to the intercourse between New York and the region Southof it. When the steamers start from Boston for Maine andthe British provinces, Favor's Express presents the same spectacle; and from every considerable Atlantic city, on all thelines of railway that penetrate the interior, from Louisiana toMaine, from New York to Minnesota, the same permeatingnet-work, under the management of some one of the greatExpress companies, will be found in activity. Nor is it confined to the Eastern portion of the Continent; the steamersbound to the Isthmus of Panama, and connecting with thosethat ply to San Francisco, perform their part, in like manner,in carrying on this wonderful system.It would be a great mistake to confound the Expressageof the country, with its commercial and manufacturing exchanges, properly so called, -a different affair conducted byTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 251different agencies. -These latter indeed probably form a moreactive home trade than exists in any other country, for thereis no other country uniting, in the same degree, extent of territory, variety and importance of natural products, boldnessof speculation on the part of the people, energy in the transaction of business, recklessness in the use of credit, ingenuity andvigor in creating, and profusion in consuming. But the transportation of the heavy masses of merchandize is not, in ordinary cases, the " mission " ofthe Expresses. Their business isto carry parcels of considerable value in proportion to theirsize; precious articles, one thing of the kind; miscellaneouspackages, transmitted to meet the infinitely varied wants ofsocial and domestic life; parcels in reference to which speedis of importance; things, in fine, too small in amount, toomultifarious in character, too widely scattered in distributionto enter into the great regular movements of Commerce; butwhich fill up the little interstices of life with comforts, luxuries, and objects of taste and convenience. To enumeratethem all would be impossible; but besides packages of everykind of valuable merchandise despatched in urgent or exceptional cases, the Express conveys a volume transmitted to afriend at a distance; a watch which has been sent up to town tobe repaired; a daguerreotype of an absent relative; an engraving in a gilt frame; specie balances interchanged by banksin critical times; a small cask of hams of Southern curingand flavor; a piece of plate as a bridal present to a distantfriend; a pair of shoes of metropolitan fabric; specimens ofnatural history, fossil, pickled, recent; live rattlesnakes, theboxes judiciously marked "to be handled with care; " delicatefruits from suburban forcing-houses despatched to the interior; a fresh salmon from the Penobscot, packed in ice, or amaskinonge from Sault St. Marie; a buffalo robe from theplains; a box of Cincinnati or St. Louis Champagne; patentmedicines in great quantities; at some seasons, mountainpiles of newspapers, the " Ledger " overtopping them all;252 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.pickled oysters for the craving West, denied that luxury bynature; a box of Congressional documents; in a word, everyconceivable article of convenience or necessity, the growth orInanufacture of every part of the country, despatched by interest, duty, friendship, or affection to the other.There is one highly important service rendered by theExpress system to the cause of public improvement, whichought to be more particularly signalized,-I mean that towhich I have just made a passing allusion, its connection withthe periodical press. During the uncertain and stormyweather of the autumn and winter, and when the ordinaryfreight trains are not to be fully depended on, great quantitiesof the magazines, weekly newspapers, and other journals areconveyed by the various Express companies to the cities ofthe South and West, as far as St. Louis and New Orleans.Accustomed as we are to this immense accommodation , wecan hardly comprehend how people lived without it, and yetthe Express system is of quite recent growth. When I cameforward in life nothing of the kind was known.There were,as I have stated in a former Number, two great modes of conveyance from place to place, in stage coaches by land, andsailing packets along the coast. By neither conveyance wasthere any arrangement for transmitting parcels, small or large,beyond what the traveller took with him, as a part ofhis personal baggage; the amount of which was greatly restricted.The stage coaches had no boxes for the convenient deposit ofpackages and gave no receipt for them. The carriages anddrivers were changed two or three times a day; there was nosystem of " booking " a parcel, and of course no security forits transfer from driver to driver. A small bundle mightoccasionally, with an equal chance of miscarriage, be forwarded for a stage or two, if you were personally acquaintedwith the driver, and he was willing to take it, " seeing it wasyou." The coasting vessels were a safe conveyance, subjectof course to be blown off to the West Indies; but they hadTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 253no arrangements for receiving or distributing small parcels.The chief reliance, accordingly, was on the kindness of travelling friends, by whom a small parcel could occasionally besent. This was an uncertain and otherwise inconvenient resort; though for very valuable parcels necessarily dependedupon. Few persons of character, who had occasion forty orfifty years ago to travel between the large cities, but wouldbe requested by the cashiers of banks and the brokers to takecharge of packages, -often extremely valuable packages,-ofbank notes.This very imperfect state of things gradually passed away,with the extension of railroads through the country. Thechange at first was slow, for though railroads had made considerable progress by 1830, the first regular Express in theUnited States was started between New York and Boston in1839. It was projected by Wm. F. Harnden, who gave up aplace as conductor upon the Boston and Providence railroad,and commenced business as a travelling messenger betweenthe cities just named. His enterprise, like most importantenterprises, began upon a small scale. Mr. Harnden was ableat first to transport the articles confided to him in a valise,and distributed them on foot in the two cities that formed thefield of his labors. He continued for seven or eight years inthis employment, which gradually and steadily grew in hishands. At length he engaged in other undertakings, whichwere less successful, at home, and extended his Expressoperations to Europe, but without satisfactory results. Hisname, however, is inseparably connected with the origin anddevelopment of the Express system of the United States.In May, 1840, a new era in the system commenced, andthe Expressage of the country may be said to date, if not itsorigin, at least its establishment on a firm and systematicbasis from that year, when Mr. Alvin Adams, in connectionwith P. C. Burke as a partner, engaged in the business.254 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Burke soon retired from it, and the establishment was conducted by Adams alone.Alvin Adams came to Boston from Vermont, a poor orphan boy, to seek his fortune, at first in an humble capacity,afterwards with some success in trade. He was not long inperceiving, in the Express business, the elements of a lucrative occupation, capable of almost indefinite expansion. Connecting himself with Ephraim Farnsworth as a partner inNew York, he engaged actively in the conveyance of parcelsbetween the two cities by the Worcester and Norwich route,while Harnden's Express adhered to that of Providence andStonington. Farnsworth was soon succeeded by Wm. B.Dinsmore, Esq., the present energetic and intelligent President of the Adams' Express Company. On entering thepartnership, Mr. Dinsmore removed the office from Williamstreet, New York, where it was at first established, to No.17 Wall street. His only assistant at the outset was abright youth of the name of Hoey, who, with the aid of awheelbarrow, distributed the contents of the Express betweenBoston and New York. This person was in 1857-andprobably is now-at the head of the city transportationbusiness of Adams' Express in New York, with a force, atthat time, of fifty men, forty horses, and twenty wagons athis command.In 1843 Adams' Express associated with Messrs. Sanfordof Philadelphia, and Shoemaker of Baltimore, extended itselfas far South as Alexandria, in Virginia. It has since beenpushed to the farthest South. The above facts are derivedfrom a very interesting article in the New York Daily Tribune of the 10th of October, 1857, in which will also befound other curious details relative to Adams' Express, andto the establishment of the other American Expresses, viz.those of Thompson & Co. from Boston to Albany andSpringfield; of Gay & Kingsley to New York by the way ofFall River and Newport; and of Wells, Fargo & Co.'s greatTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 255Western, or, as it is more properly called, American Express. This last named enterprising house forwarded the first.Express west of Buffalo in 1845, which has been prosperouslyconducted ever since, and has grown up into an establishmentof first-rate extent and importance. No small portion of thespecie remittances from California to New York are conveyed .by Messrs. Wells, Fargo & Co. The general Expressage toCalifornia is shared by them with Freeman & Co. , late juniorpartners of Adams & Co. The houses of Adams & Co. andWells, Fargo & Co. are the two leading establishments in theExpressage of the United States.Adams' Express, though subsequent in time to Harnden'sis, as I have hinted, entitled to the credit of having first established the business on a permanent foundation. It is nowsupposed to have associated with itself, in private partnership, several of the minor establishments, which still retaintheir original separate names. Its lines of communication, asI have been informed from a reliable source, now run not onlySouth as far as New Orleans but West as far as St Louis.By friendly or tacit understanding with other Expresses, itsterritorial limits extend from Boston to New York via Springfield and New Haven; from New York to Pittsburgh viaPhiladelphia; from Pittsburgh to Cleveland, Ohio, and thenceto Cincinnati; from Cincinnati to Indianapolis, and thence toSt. Louis. The points upon these several lines are commonto Adams' and the other Expresses. All South and West ofthem is, by mutual understanding, within the territorial limitsof Adams' Express; all North of these lines is served byother Expresses. Such connections, however, exist betweenthe various establishments that packages, if I mistake not, arereceived by all of them to be forwarded to every part of theUnion.At the present time, as I learn from the same authenticsource, Adams' Express employs 3783 men; it has 972 agencies, and its messengers travel daily 40,152 miles on the rail-256 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.roads and in the steamers;-a distance equal to once roundthe globe and two-thirds round it a second time. I have madeno attempt to estimate the pecuniary value of the articles,daily conveyed by Express throughout the country, furtherthan to satisfy myself that it runs far into the millions. It isnot easy to rate too high the importance of such establishments, in promoting the general improvement and comfortof the people. Commerce is, by all admission, one of thegreat civilizers of nations and of men. But the Express system, though in many respects auxiliary to Commerce, goesbeyond the great wholesale exchanges of trade, and penetratesfurther and more directly into individual life. It reaches thefireside, without passing through the hands of the jobber andretailer. It conveys just the article that supplies your wantand suits your taste, at the time. It transports it in quantities so small as to be beneath the gigantic grasp of Commerce, and it extends to articles of which trade takes no cognizance. A single copy of a book ordered to a remote villagein the West, which it could never reach in the course of trade,-sent for to answer some particular purpose, —may rendera service to the officer, the engineer, the missionary, which hewould willingly pay with its weight in silver. The Photograph of a relative or friend , transmitted from the other sideof the Union, may impart a happiness to a fond and sorrowful spirit, which silver and gold cannot buy.In this respect the Express resembles the Post- office,which is greatly undervalued, when it is regarded only as aninstrument for carrying on the commercial correspondenceof the country. Of inestimable importance indeed in its connection with commerce, the Post- office did not derive itsorigin from the wants of trade, nor, taking the aggregate ofthe social interests into consideration, does its great utilityconsist in supplying those wants. The Posts, of antiquity,were, no doubt, like those of the Mahometan governments atthe present day, established for the purpose of carrying onTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 257the military and other official communications of the State.If they afforded any facilities for private correspondence, itmust have been irregular and incidental. The Postal arrangements, in the early periods of modern European history,were no doubt of the same kind; and had no direct connection with trade. The first approach to the modern system issaid to have been made by the University of Paris, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, for the convenience of thevast multitudes of students, who resorted to it from everypart of the world. If this supposition be well founded, it wasEducation not Trade, which gave the germ of the Post- officesystem to the civilized world; and to reward this service thecompensation of the professors of the University of Paris was,till quite modern times, charged upon the revenue of the Postoffice.However this may be, it scarce admits a question, thatthe province of the Post-office in reference to the moral, thepolitical, the social, and domestic interests and relations ofthe country, is decidedly more important than its immediateconnection with commerce, important as that is. In fact,when I contemplate the extent to which the moral sentiments,the intelligence, the affections of so many millions of people,-sealed up by a sacred charm within the cover of a letter, —daily circulate through a country, I am compelled to regardthe Post-office, next to Christianity, as the right arm of ourmodern civilization .But the Express system is rapidly rising into scarcely inferior consequence. It steps in where correspondence stops.It transports the material objects, which correspondence canonly announce. It conveys across the continent the cherishedsymbols of love, friendship, and duty. It extends to thefrontier the luxuries and comforts of the seaboard, and bringsback every article of value or interest peculiar to the frontier.In conclusion, let me not forget that the Mount Vernon causeis under the greatest obligations to the liberality of the various Express companies throughout the Union.NUMBER TWENTY- EIGHT.AT PARIS, IN 1818.The fête of St. Louis-His name in the United States-The festivities of the daycontrasted with those usual in this country-A Mat de Cocagne described-Prepa- rations for departure-Gen. Lyman-Relations with Coray, the celebrated modern Greek scholar and patriot-Brief account of his life and services-Transmits to this country the Address to the People of the United States of the Messenian Senate at Calamata-Its effects here-Contributions for the relief of the Greeksdistributed by Dr. Howe-Death and autobiography of Coray.In the twenty- second Number of these papers, I conductedmy reader on the journey toward Italy, by the way of Southampton, Havre, and Rouen, as far as Paris. The day afterour arrival at Paris, was the fete of St. Louis, the patron andmilitary Saint of France, the only one of her sovereigns,says Sismondi, who has received the honors of Canonization.Bourdaloue, one of the first preachers according to Voltaire,(an impartial judge, perhaps, on such a point, ) " who madereason eloquent," remarks, in his splendid panegyric of St.Louis, that "the other saints honored in the Christian worldwere given by the church to France, but as for St. Louis,France gave him to the church. " We Americans ought tocare something about St. Louis. One of the great centralcities of the West bears his name, which in its origin wasidentical (Ludovicus, Chlodovicus, ) with that of Clovis, thefounder of the French Monarchy. Indeed as the great predominance of the name of Louis, under the old régime inFrance, may be ascribed to its having attained the honor ofSaintship, in the person of Louis IX. he may be considered,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 259in effect, as having given his name to one of the United States.He thus enjoys,-he a half-mythical French monarch of thethirteenth century, -an honor not conferred upon any of thewise and the good of our own history.St. Louis owes his title, it may be presumed, to his having led two crusades from France against the Mussulmans inEgypt and Africa; expeditions which, as he conducted them,would, at the present day, at least, secure for a Sovereign aplace in the insane asylum rather than in the Calendar. Apartfrom his fanaticism, however, he was, in the main, a wise andvirtuous prince. When, however, we find Bourdaloue comparing him not merely to Moses but to God himself, because"he conducted his victorious arms into Egypt," and call tomind the egregious imbecility which really characterized everystep of his insane expedition into that country, and resultedin the shameful defeat and total annihilation of his army, andhis own captivity, we cannot but feel that, of all human vanities, panegyric of this kind is among the vainest.I passed the day in witnessing the festivities with whichFrance, in the nineteenth century, celebrated the birthday ofher patron saint of the thirteenth. In some parts of theUnited States that shall be nameless, the day would have been"ushered in; " that is , " sleep would have been murdered " thenight before, by tin trumpets, India crackers, and sporadicfire-arms, and the tired population would have been effectuallyroused at sunrise by a tumultuous ringing of bells and discharge of artillery. At noon we should have had an oration,containing a tolerably comprehensive history of the crusadesin general and of those of St. Louis in particular, with hisbiography in considerable detail . To this would have succeeded a procession through the streets of the civic fathersand their invited guests, headed by a band of music; a publicdinner, with a succession of patriotic toasts and still morepatriotic speeches, from those who habitually do the oratoryon these occasions, with a star or two perhaps from a dis-260 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.tance; a display of fireworks in the evening, and at half pastnine-the best part of the display-forty thousand spectatorsof all ages and ofeither sex, wending their way home, weary,pleased, and sober.The celebration at Paris was differently managed. Masswas performed in Nôtre Dame, St. Germain l'Auxerrois, andsome of the other churches; but there was no oration, no procession, no public dinner; no firing of crackers in the streetsover night, no ringing of bells, no salvos of artillery at dawn.Little or no notice, that I could see, was taken of the day inthe streets. The shops were open as usual, —in fact, they areopen on Sundays, except some of those kept by Protestants;-the cafés and restaurants perhaps a trifle more resorted to,but they are almost always full; -no perceptible augmentationof the gay and busy throng on the Boulevards. In the ChampsElysées alone some provision was made, partly by individuals on their own account, but rather more by the government, at least so I judged, for the public amusement. Therewere all kinds of rarée shows, menageries, marionettes, temporary circuses, mountebanks, and jugglers, booths for the saleof toys, flash jewelry, and fancy articles, gambling tables,popular sports of all kinds, curious gymnastic apparatus, andtheatres erected of slight materials for the occasion, in whichevery act seemed a catastrophe and every scene the windingup of the plot; the two principal actors being a head of brigands and the commander of a force sent to arrest them, whorarely failed to kill each other, and the other personages ofthe drama consisting of platoons of gens d'armerie, detachedfor the ostensible purpose of carrying on the action of thepiece, by an eternal uproar of musketry, but really to be onhand in case of need to suppress disorders among the spectators.What most attracted me was the Mâts de Cocagne, whichI had never seen before, and with which I was greatly amused.A Mât de Cocagne is a good-sized mast, such as might suit aTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 261topsail schooner, erected in the ground, its surface smearedall the way up with soap and grease, and on its top a box containing silver forks, watches and cheap jewelry, destined as aprize to reward the successful climber. No one person canhold out strong enough to attain the object, which can onlybe accomplished by several clubbing together. Those whoundertake it begin by wiping off the lubricating substanceswith wisps of straw, as high up as they can reach, and thisdone they are then allowed to throw sand on the mast torender it less slippery. This preparation enables one personto climb to a certain elevation, wiping and sanding the mast,as far up as he can sustain himself, by clinging with his legsround the part already sanded. When he is tired out, heslips down to the ground, plants himself firmly on his feet,clinging tight round the mast, while a confederate mounts onhis shoulders, and from the elevation thus gained, wipes andsands, and so fits for climbing another portion of the mast.He in turn slips down, at length, fatigued; but plants himselfon the shoulders of the first, who is still clinging to the mastifhis strength holds out. A third one then mounts upon thetwo, thus standing one above the other, and so on till thewhole mast, delubricated and sanded, is brought into a condition in which a fresh and strong associate can climb to thetop and take possession of the prize for himself and colleagues. No ladders or hooks of any kind are allowed, and theclimbers are searched to prevent their having any steel pointsor other contrivances concealed under their garments. Theonly artificial aid permitted is the wisp of straw and the sand,of which they are allowed to carry up as much as broad deeppockets made for the purpose will hold. The effort of courseis to attain the object by a party consisting of as few confederates as possible. It usually takes, as I was told, the greaterpart of the day to climb to the summit and get possession ofthe valuables there deposited. The toilsome efforts to ascend,-the persons at the bottom often giving way under the262 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.weight of those standing upon them, two or three deep, andall coming down with a run,-the appearance of a remarkablymeagre or unusually rotund climber, -with other incidentsof such an undertaking, furnish the day's amusement to thegamins of Paris and bystanders generally, and lead to the exchange of a deal of coarse pleasantry, interspersed with anoccasional scuffle between the friends of the climbers and thosewho criticize their operations too pointedly. These last demonstrations are however kept within bounds by the aforesaidgens d'armerie. Upon the whole, if one wishes to study thehumors of the bas peuple of Paris, there are few places wherehe can pass a couple of hours to greater advantage than neara Mât de Cocagne.We have nothing exactly like it in this country, but itdoes not badly symbolize the life of those, who toil and strainto climb a slippery mast of another kind, mounting on theshoulders of confederates, flinging dust in the eyes of the public, and occasionally a little mud in the faces of rivals , andfind when they reach the top, that the prizes in the basket areoflittle value in themselves, and not half numerous enough tosatisfy their associates, who are apt to quarrel over the division of the spoils.At Paris I rejoined my friend the late General Lyman ofBoston, with whom as a travelling companion I was to visitItaly and the East, -a person of great worth, and admirablyfitted as a traveller by an ever active spirit of observation,gentlemanly manners, and even temper. We remained nolonger at Paris than was necessary to make the last preparations for the journey before us, and particularly to get ourpassports duly countersigned.I availed myself of the opportunity thus afforded to visita few friends, whose society I had enjoyed the winter before,and particularly the celebrated Coray, the most learned andsagacious, as it seems to me, of the scholars of Modern Greece,and second to none of her sons, in the services rendered byTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 263him in preparing the way for her liberation . Having in viewa visit to Greece, I had eagerly sought his acquaintance on arriving at Paris in the Autumn of 1817, and had diligently cultivated it during the whole of the following winter. He wasthen seventy years of age, and of rather infirm health, but inthe full possession of his faculties. My conversation withhim, in our frequent interviews, naturally dwelt most on thesubjects uppermost in the minds of both of us, the ancientliterature of his country, the condition and prospects ofModern Greece, and the hopes of her regeneration; -but hehad seen much of the world; he possessed the principal languages of Modern Europe; had been a general reader, andhad, from observation and books amassed a fund of variousand useful knowledge, which I have rarely seen equalled. Hewas good enough to encourage the repetition of my visits,-a benignant smile ever welcomed me, even when he was suffering severe pain, and I never left him without havingheard something that was worth remembering, or learningsomething which I did not know before.This remarkable man was born in Smyrna, in 1748, andwas the son of parents in straitened circumstances. His opportunities of education were of course slender; but he earlydisplayed uncommon aptitude for learning, with an insatiable.thirst for knowledge. Native teachers were few and incompetent; the instruction which they gave, as he tells us, wasmeagre, the flogging abundant. Happily he formed the acquaintance of the Chaplain of the Dutch Consul, who desiredto learn of him the pronunciation of the Romaic, and who inreturn instructed young Coray in the Latin. He early imbibed, from the perusal of Demosthenes, a passionate love ofliberty and a galling sense of the tyranny under which histcountrymen were groaning. Brought up in trade, he wassent at the age of twenty-four to Holland to engage in business. Here he lived six years, closely confined to his duties,but passing two evenings in a week at the house of a friendly264 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.clergyman, to whom the chaplain above named had given himletters of introduction. These six years were not only agreeably but profitably passed. In 1779 he returned by the wayof Vienna, Trieste, and Venice to Smyrna. His views in lifehad by this time undergone a change; the astonishing careerof the unfortunate Rhigas had already commenced and kindledhis enthusiasm; he determined to abandon the career of amerchant, which if successful marked him out as an object ofoppression and plunder on the part of the Turkish government, to be avoided only by remaining in voluntary exile.He took up instead the profession of medicine, which, if heremained in Turkey, was the safest calling, while it furnishedsuperior opportunities for cultivating those literary pursuits,to which he looked as fitting him to act extensively on hiscountrymen. Resisting the temptation of an eligible marriage which his parents wished him to contract, he repairedto Montpelier, in France, and there for several years devotedhimself with diligence to the study of his profession, supported at first by small remittances from his father, and whenthis resource failed, by a little frugal aid from his old friendthe chaplain, and by translating medical books from Germanand English into French. In 1789, and after having takenhis degree of Doctor, he came to Paris. The Revolution wasjust breaking out, and the ten years which followed his arrivalin Paris were passed by Coray in wise obscurity, and as faras concerned the bloody game of which he was a spectator, inentire inaction. He was all the time, however, by his ownsolitary studies and a diligent but carefully guarded correspondence with his countrymen, not only in Turkey but inthe various States of Europe, educating himself and them forgreat events. He saw, a half century before the EmperorNicholas announced it, that Turkey was a sick man; " andconceived the hope that, in the general despoiling of the estateto which he looked forward, Central Greece at least would gofree.66THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 265The course he pursued to accomplish the great object whichhe had at heart was characterized by the long-suffering ofProvidence. He did not seek, in the first instance, to stir uprevolt, the fatal error, in some countries, of political regenerators, but he aimed to improve the minds of his countrymen;to facilitate to them the study of the noble authors of theirancient language; to purify the modern dialect from the barbarisms that had crept into it, and thus if possible to establish an identity between ancient and modern Greece. In addition to this, his prefaces and notes to a series of the ancientwriters furnished him the opportunity of inculcating manyseasonable lessons of patriotism among his readers. Hiseditions were published at the expense of his prosperouscountrymen at Vienna, Trieste, and elsewhere, and widelycirculated; but he did not confine himself to these indirectmethods. When, after the death of Rhigas in 1798, meanlygiven up with his associates by Austria to the Turkish government, the Patriarch of Jerusalem was compelled to issue ageneral address to his countrymen, exhorting them to submitunresistingly to the Ottoman power, Coray published a ferventand high-toned reply. In 1801 he addressed another patriotieappeal to his countrymen, exhorting them to rely on the aidand protection of France. The great movement in Greece in1821 took him at first somewhat by surprise; he had notanticipated so early an explosion; and in fact it had been prematurely brought about by the rupture of Ali Pacha of Albania with the Porte the year before. But though fearful atfirst that the time had not come for a successful revolt throughout the whole of the region, whose population was substantially of the Greek church,—as the event sufficiently provedto be the case, ―he cordially entered into the movement, andthough too old-73—to repair to Greece with a view ofrendering active service, he contributed materially by hiswise counsels, by his correspondence, and by his publications,12266 THE MOUNT VERNON animate the zeal of his countrymen and to give it a rightdirection.When I was leaving Paris for Italy and Greece, Corayfurnished me with letters to his countrymen in the principalcities which I was likely to visit in European or AsiaticTurkey, a circumstance to which I was indebted for thefreest access to the persons whose acquaintance a youthfultraveller could most wish to form, —the patriotic merchantsthe learned professors, the promising young men, in short theélite of modern Greece. The relations thus formed naturallygave me the deepest interest in the impending future of thenative land of literature, philosophy, and art.When the revolution broke out in Greece in 1821 , a deputation from the first provisional Congress was despatchedto Paris to confer with Coray, and take measures with himfor enlisting the sympathies of Western Europe and America.They brought with them the Address of the Messenian Senateof Calamata to the People of the United States. This manifesto was forwarded by Coray to me, and at the earliest moment at which it seemed likely to attract attention was translated and published with the accompanying letter of the Deputies, in the papers of the day. The interest with whichthese appeals were read was the immediately exciting causeof the enthusiasm for Greece which pervaded the UnitedStates; and which found expression in public meetingsthroughout the country, in the magnificent speech of Mr.Webster in Congress, and a year or two later in the liberaland substantial contributions to the relief of the sufferers bythe war, which were forwarded to Greece, under the care ofDr. Howe, and there distributed by him in a manner whichhas earned for him and his countrymen the abiding gratitudeof thousands.Coray lived to the age of eighty-five, and died at Paris in1833, active almost to the last in his literary pursuits, andhappy in the liberation to which he had so much contributed,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 267of a portion of his country, -though not satisfied at seeingwhat was called the Independent government the sport of therival interests of the great powers of Europe. He broughtdown his Autobiography, published by his friends since hisdeath, to the year 1829.—I have several letters from him,beautifully written in a character very nearly resembling thatof the Didot editions of the Greek classics; and I seize withpleasure the opportunity of paying this grateful tribute to hishonored memory.NUMBER TWENTY-NINE.THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD OF 1859 -PRESCOTT, BOND, HALLAM,VON HUMBOLDT.The value of their example to young men-Traits of Mr. Prescott's character, whichare within the reach of imitation by others-William Cranch Bond the Astronomer-Remarkable variety and union of qualities, scientific and practical -Hisamiable temper and disposition-His enthusiasm for Astronomy-Liberal appreciation of others-Visit of Jenny Lind to the Cambridge Observatory-Succeededin the Observatory at Cambridge by his son George P. Bond- Scientific reputationof Mr. Bond, Jnr.SINCE I commenced these Papers at the beginning of theyear,four persons ofgreat eminence in the scientific and literary world have passed away, two in this country and two inEurope. With all of them it was my happiness to stand infriendly relations, -with three of them I was intimately acquainted. They were all four men who in their respectivedepartments have left no superior. The lives and charactersof all of them are full of instruction and encouragement, especially to young men.There is no brighter example than Prescott's of what maybe accomplished by a resolute spirit and a firm purpose. Ihave already had an opportunity of paying my humble tributeto his memory, before the Massachusetts Historical Society,but I would gladly dwell upon it for a few moments in thecolumns of THE LEDGER. Undoubtedly he possessed by nature an admirable talent, -intellectual powers of a very highorder. But he owed his brilliant success in a very considerable degree to his moral qualities, his fortitude under severeTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 269trials; his resolute war against formidable obstacles; his unwearied perseverance; and even in some measure to thehumbler agencies of system and method in his studies, in hisexercise, and in his affairs. It is for this reason, that I callhis example instructive to young men, because in these hemay be imitated by persons who do not possess his admirable natural gifts. All men can be systematic in the arrangement of their regular occupations; punctual in their hoursand especially in their appointments where others as well asthemselves are concerned; and resolute in adhering to planseither of employment or relaxation; and those who are soeven with natural talents far inferior to Prescott's, may in along life bring much to pass. All men whose health requiresand whose means admit it, might like him leave their bedsbefore sunrise, in our cold New England climate, for a ride ofseveral miles before breakfast, -and yet the number of personswho have the moral energy to pursue such a course of healthful exercise, through a northern winter, is perhaps not greaterthan ofthose gifted by nature with his brilliant mental powers.In another respect Mr. Prescott's example is of inestimable value in pointing out to our young men of leisure and fortune the true path to usefulness and fame. The number israpidly increasing throughout the country of those who enterlife with large inherited means and still larger expectations.These young men, almost as a matter of course, enjoy thebest advantages for instruction at school and at college; butit is not so much a matter of course, that they make as gooduse of these advantages, as those who, in straitened circumstances, are compelled to make strenuous efforts and severe sacrifices to obtain an education. We have, however, a fewyoung men of fortune and leisure, who, without devotingthemselves to professional pursuits or seeking the increase oftheir wealth by engaging in business, -a very hazardous stepin such cases, employ their time in reading, in cultivatinga taste for science or letters, or in forming a library or a col-270 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.lection of works of art or specimens of natural history. Thereare others who resort to the country, and occupy themselvesin agricultural pursuits. The possession of fortune at the outset of their career, enables persons of this class, not only toset an example of a useful and virtuous employment of time,but to enrich the community by valuable literary, scientific,artistic, and utilitarian treasures, books, pictures, statuary,collections illustrative of science;-in agricultural pursuits,implements of husbandry, animals of improved breeds, andcostly experiments and improvements. Of those who havedevoted leisure and fortune to the pursuits, by which, while themind of the possessor is improved, the community is benefitedand honor reflected on the country, Prescott is the brightestexample in the United States; -while the almost insuperabledifficulties under which he labored, will ever encourage those,who enter life under unfavorable circumstances of any kind, notto yield to despondence. What would not the country havelost, if, abandoning, on account of his infirmity, all effort atliterary distinction, he had, like so many young men ofwealth, plunged into dissipation, or merely wasted his timein the club room, the drawing room, or on the race course!William Cranch Bond, another of the noble four to whomI have alluded, was an example not less bright though of adifferent kind. There is no man now living who watches thestars with a keener, more patient, more skilfully trained ormore wary eye than he did. Though he may be excelled byindividuals, in some single branches of his department, thereis probably no living astronomer, who, as much as he did,unites respectable scientific knowledge, acuteness and precisionof observation, conscientiousness and patient accuracy in recording its results , ingenuity as a horological machinist, andmechanical dexterity of a more ordinary kind. Witness forhis scientific knowledge, and the accuracy with which hisobservations and researches are recorded, the published volumes of the annals of the Observatory at Cambridge, andTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 271his memoirs communicated to the American Academy of Artsand Sciences. Witness for the acuteness of his observations,his discovery jointly with his son of the new ring of Saturn,his discovery of the eighth satellite of that planet,-perhapseven of a second satellite of Neptune. For his wonderful skillas a scientific machinist, it is sufficient to allude to his apparatus for registering astronomical observations adopted in theRoyal Observatory at Greenwich, which, with electric speed.and automatic precision, does the work of two observers, farmore minutely, as well as accurately, than it could be doneby human eyes and fingers.Nor was he less remarkable for mechanical skill of a lowerkind. Witness the extraordinary feat of setting up the greatEquatorial at Cambridge, taking it fromthe fourteen boxes,which contained its hundreds of pieces, the mass togetherweighing five tons, the extremely complicated apparatus suchas he had never seen before, the directions in the German language, of which he had but an imperfect knowledge, and putting them all up in their places on the pier, in two days!While his scientific talents and attainments commandedadmiration, his amiable qualities of temper and heart gainedhim the love of all who knew him. He had struggled hardfrom poverty and obscurity into the light of day. No earlyopportunities of academical education cheered him onward.Every step of his early progress was taken under disheartening difficulties, and he had hardly reached the goal ofhis career-the noble observatory at Cambridge-before thedeclining sun of life cast long shadows over the plain, andthe glow of triumph was chilled. But although frugal ofspeech, tranquil as the sky in demeanor, and all but impassive in outward appearance, the fire burned within him. Amore generous spirit, or a warmer heart, never glowed in thehuman breast.But notwithstanding the strength and kindliness of his temper, exercised in all the social relations of life, his home was272 THE MOUNT VERNON the heavens. His nightly walk was with the stars. Theposition and bearings of every fixed luminary, the orbit ofevery moving body; every law and every perturbation; thewhole range and sweep of the heavens, from the outskirts ofthe milky way, the faintest nebula, the unfathomed regionsof space, (as far as modern science has explored them, ) downto the nearest planet, and our own satellite, were as familiarto him as the features of the surrounding landscape. Broughtup in poverty, dependent all his life on a laborious mechanicaloccupation (that of a watchmaker) for a portion of the incomenecessary to the support of his family, I am persuaded thatthe discovery of the eighth satellite of Saturn gave himgreater pleasure, than it would to have fallen heir to a fortune.On the 22d of September, 1847, I received a letter from himfrom the Observatory, ( I was then connected with the University at Cambridge, ) in which he said, " You will rejoicewith me, that the great nebula in Orion has yielded to thepowers of our incomparable telescope. " I met him an houror two after the receipt of the letter, and his sweet calm faceglistened with triumphant joy, like an angel's.He emulated the peacefulness of the stars. It was asimpossible that with envious feeling, or selfish wish, or byuncharitable speech he should seek to detract from his neighbor's rights or fame, as that Jupiter and Saturn should comein conflict in their orbits. He thought the heaven and heavenof heavens a field wide enough for all who love to penetratetheir depths and survey their glories. I am persuaded that aword designed or calculated to injure another man's reputation, especially that of a brother Astronomer, never droppedfrom his lips or his pen. So valuable was his time, soprecious the use of his " incomparable telescope," so austerethe simplicity of his manners, that to strangers visiting theObservatory, as a mere object of curiosity, he sometimesseemed unduly reserved and even repulsive; but with abrother observer, or a sincere lover of science , however hum-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 273ble his attainments, or with a friend, he was the most patient,communicative, and sympathetic of men.Not less than " the music of the spheres " he loved theharmonies of the human voice. He was an especial admirerof Jenny Lind, and having myself the good fortune to beacquainted with her, he requested me to arrange with her avisit to the Observatory. Saturn happened at that time to bein a most favorable position for observation. While shewas gazing upon it through the great telescope, a meteor ofunusual brilliancy shot across the field leaving behind it forsome seconds a brilliant pathway. He regretted that it wasnot a permanent body to which, in commemoration of her visit,he might attach her name. As he was adjusting the telescope, he entered into some general explanation of the greatfacts of Astronomy, and the mechanism of the heavens, risingfrom the sun to the surrounding luminaries, from the solarfamily to the sidereal system of which it is a part, and fromthat to the mighty whole of which our universe with all itshosts, is but a member, -orb above orb, system above system, universe above universe. The last time I saw him,which was on the occasion described in the fifth number ofthese Papers, I recalled this visit to him, and spoke of thepleasure with which I had listened to what he said. Heanswered, " But what Jenny Lind said to me in reply wasbetter; AND GOD ABOVE ALL! "" I rejoice that the respectful allusion to him in that Paper, describing a visit to theObservatory for the purpose of observing the Comet, musthave fallen beneath his eyes before they were closed on thisworld to open on the nearer vision of those glories which hehad watched on earth with such reverent gaze.The friends of American science are well pleased that hismantle and his place, at the head of the Cambridge Observatory, have descended with his name. To equal patience,acuteness, and skill as an observer, Mr. George Phillips Bondunites the advantages, to which his venerable father, though a11*274 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.respectable geometer, did not lay claim, viz. , those of raremathematical talents, and thorough mathematical training andeducation. He was for years the trusted associate of hisfather's labors and studies. In Professor Loomis's valuablework on the " Recent Progress of Astronomical Science," abrief but interesting sketch is given of the researches of theMessrs. Bond, father and son, down to the year 1856.—It isthere stated that Mr. George P. Bond " has been the independent discoverer of eleven Comets, but unfortunately it subsequently appeared, that each of these, save one, had been previously discovered in Europe. The Comet of August 29th,1850, he discovered seven days in advance of the EuropeanAstronomers. Two other Comets he discovered on the samenight that they were seen in Europe, viz. , those of June 5th,1845, and April 11th, 1849. Having found this species ofobservation too severe a trial for his eyes, he has for the pastthree or four years given up comet seeking." Mr. Geo. P.Bond's Memoir in the Mathematical, Monthly on Donati'scomet, (which attracted the wondering admiration of the world.last Autumn, ) is a most successful attempt to popularizescience. The engravings accompanying it are of surpassingbeauty. The non- scientific world is under great obligations toMr. Bond, for bringing the observations made at Cambridge.and his views upon the subject of Donati's comet, down tothe level of readers not versed in the mysteries of the calculus.No men of science in this country are more honorablyreferred to in the " Cosmos " than the Messrs. Bond. Theobservations of Mr. Bond, jun. on the nebula of Andromeda,and his delineation of that most extraordinary object, haveattracted the notice of European Astronomers. "For thefirst time, I believe," says Dr. Nichols in his Architecture ofthe Heavens, " first at least in so marked a manner,-theexistence of dark lines WITHIN nebulæ, [ these Italics and Capitals are Dr. Nichols' , ] or as part of their structure, wasTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 275noticed by Mr. Bond. " This important paper and anotherpurely demonstrative, on " Some methods of computing theratio ofthe distances of a Comet from the Earth," in the thirdvolume of the new series of the Memoirs of the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences, and still more his remarkablepaper on the Rings of Saturn in the fourth volume of the sameseries, have, with his other publications, given Mr. Bond, jun.a high place, not merely among the observers but among thegeometers of the Age. His conclusion from his observationof the phenomena of Saturn's rings, that they cannot be solidbodies, confirmed as it has been, by the subsequent demonstrations of Professors Pierce and Maxwell of the mechanicalconditions of the Saturnian system, are certainly among themost brilliant results of Modern Astronomical Science.I propose in another paper, to pay an humble tribute tothe other illustrious dead of the year.NUMBER THIRTY.THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD OF 1859- PRESCOTT, BOND, HALLAM,VON HUMBOLDT.Simultaneous death of Hallam and Prescott-Hallam the first standard writer ofhistory in England after Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson-Compared with those writers-Brief account of the History of Europe in the middle ages-Of theConstitutional history of England-Of the introduction to the Literature of Europe for the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries-Personal History-Loss of his two sons- Henry counsels his father not to accept the title of BaronetReceives the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from Harvard College -Letter of acknowledgment.By the arrival of the next steamer from Europe, after thedeath of Prescott, the public mind received another shock inthis country by the news that a brother Historian had passedaway in England. Hallam had gone beyond the age of fourscore, and had for several years ceased from his literarylabors. His death left nothing to regret as to the completionof his works, or the maturity of his fame. He enjoyed hiswell- earned reputation, in a serene old age; the lapse of timehad alleviated the weight of the heavy bereavement which hehad suffered in the loss of his two noble sons; and he foundpleasure in the reflection that, though bereft of them, hislineage would not wholly perish. In the last letter which Ireceived from him, not written, except the signature, with hisown hand, he says:" I return you many thanks for your kind recollection of me, thoughthe pleasure of receiving your letter was much diminished, by the recollection that we can never meet again in this world. I continue on theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 277whole in pretty good health, but I am become very lame and infirm andunable to walk. Still I should be thankful that I am free from organiccomplaints, which so often affect people at my very advanced age. Ihave the happiness of living in the same house with my daughter bothhere and in the country, for we have a house in Kent, about twelve milesfrom town, where we pass half the year. I have two grandchildren,one of them only a few weeks old , so that I have a hope of surviving inmy posterity. "It was certainly a noticeable coincidence, that two suchlights in the intellectual firmament as Hallam and Prescott,shining with such brightness in the same department of politeletters, should have been extinguished within a few days ofeach other. Having during my residence in England, from1841 to 1845 , been honored with the intimate acquaintance, Imay venture to say, the friendship of Mr. Hallam, and withhis correspondence since my return, the reader will, I am surepardon me, even after the lapse of a few months since hisdecease, for placing on record, in these columns, my impressions of his literary and personal character.After the last of the three great English historians of theEighteenth Century had passed away, no writer appeared inthe same department sufficiently distinguished, to be considered as keeping up the line of the succession in that country.In this country historical studies had hardly commenced.Many valuable works had certainly appeared, on both sidesof the Atlantic, within the domain of history, or closely bordering upon it, but nothing which could be fairly placed on alevel with Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson. At length, aftermature preparatory studies and being then forty years ofage,Mr. Hallam in 1818 published his first, and in the opinion ofsome persons his ablest work, A View of the State ofEurope in the Middle Ages. " This work did not claim to bea History, narrating a series of events woven into unity political or territorial, but it was rather a series of historical dissertations, presenting a comprehensive view of the chief mat16278 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.ters of interest to a philosophical inquirer, in the periodcalled the middle ages. A work of this kind necessarilywanted something of the epic attraction of a great historicalwork, properly so called; but for those who read, not foramusement but instruction, it had its counterbalancing advantages. Without possessing the same charm of style as eitherof the three great writers of the eighteenth century, it is, insome important respects, of higher merit than either of them.In consequence of the great advance of philological studies,during the last half of the eighteenth and the first quarter ofthe nineteenth centuries, the learning of Hallam is more accurate and critical than that of Gibbon, though not displayed inan equal array of citations, which in "the Decline and Fallof the Roman Empire " are multiplied with superfluous profusion, and which are, in some cases, from authorities sincebecome obsolete. It is a still greater merit of Mr. Hallam'swork,―as indeed of all his works,-that they are wholly freefrom the taint of irreverence, which poisons Gibbons magnificent and truly monumental history. There is a gravity anddignity in the speculations of a few of the sceptical writers,which commands your respect, however you may deploretheir tendency and recoil from their results. But the ironyand the veiled sarcasm of Gibbon resolve themselves at lastinto nearly the worst fault of a writer, Insincerity; while anill restrained pruriency occasionally manifests itself, whichexcites no feelings but those of pity and disgust. Mr. Hallam's history far exceeds Hume's in range of topics, in depthof investigation, and extent and accuracy of research; in aknowledge not only of the common but of the civil law, andespecially in conscientious dealing with his authorities, inwhich respect, Hume, either from indolence, or a certain philosophical indifference, was far from exemplary. I cannotthink Hume ever intended knowingly and wilfully to mistakeor garble the writers whom he quotes; but those who followin his track will occasionally find traces of a carelessness,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 279which must have sprung, either from an unwillingness toencounter the toil of a laborious collation of authorities, or alofty preference of his own theory of what ought to be true,over the homely reality of actual fact. In all the qualities ofa first-rate historian, Hallam is far superior to Robertson,with the exception, perhaps, of a certain attractive ease andwinning flow of style, (mere style in distinction from themanner of treating a subject, ) by which you are borne alongin the pages of the illustrious Scotsman, whose great advantage lies in the interest of his subjects. Mr. Hallam modestlyreplies, that he had more in view the instruction of the youngthan the improvement of mature readers. " I dare not, ” sayshe, " appeal with confidence to the tribunal of those superiorjudges who, having bestowed a more undivided attention onthe particular objects that have interested them, may justlydeem such general sketches imperfect and superficial; but mylabors will not have proved fruitless, if they shall conduce tostimulate the reflection, to guide the researches, to correctthe prejudices, and to animate the liberal and virtuous sentiments of INQUISITIVE YOUTH. " Mr. Hallam's History of theMiddle Ages immediately assumed and has ever maintainedthe character of a classical work.After an interval of nine years, "The ConstitutionalHistory of England from the beginning of the reign of Henrythe Seventh to the close of the reign of George the Second,"was published. This too is a work of standard excellence.Discussing questions which, at that time more than now,divided opinion in England, Mr. Hallam's opinions did not inall points command universal assent. By the Tory journalsand the Tory politicians it was characterized as the work of a" decided partisan." But this was itself mere partisan disparagement. Mr. Hallam himself says, with a noble consciousness of impartiality, that no one will suspect him ofbeing a "blind zealot." The adverse judgment just quotedhas not been confirmed by the verdict of the generation which280 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.has filled the stage since his work appeared. It has, on thecontrary approved itself more and more as a fair, unprejudicedTreatise. Such in all probability will be the verdict of aftertime; such is the light in which it is, and no doubt alwayswill be, regarded in this country, where the ConstitutionalHistory of England will always be studied with nearly asmuch interest as our own. In America Mr. Hallam's workwill no doubt always be regarded as founded on those trueprinciples of Constitutional law, which are common to allrepresentative governments. Mr. Hallam's work afforded,what was greatly wanted, a corrective of the political theoriesof Hume. It is owing, I am confident, in no small degree, tothe gradually increasing influence of Mr. Hallam's " Constitutional History," that the theoretical Toryism of former times,and which was still vigorous under George the Third, hasalmost wholly disappeared in England. His work, I am inclined to think, is generally accepted as an accurate deductionof the history and a fair statement of the principles of theBritish Government. It has often been said, and never to myknowledge contradicted, that it was from this work, under theguidance of the late Lord Melbourne, that the present Sovereign of England received her education in the Constitutionof the Kingdom, of which she was one day, with a rare unionof manly vigor and female gentleness, to wield the sceptre.Mr. Hallam's third great work, " Introduction to the Literature of Europe for the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenthCenturies " was published twelve or thirteen years later, andwhen he was now about sixty years of age. This, with theexception of a supplementary volume of notes to his Historyof the Middle Ages, was his last work. It was preparedunder a cloud of sorrow, which gathered over his house, inconsequence of the untimely decease of his eldest and muchloved son. It is a work of vast erudition, but, from itsencyclopedic character, of unequal execution. There is however no quackery in it. When he has occasion to speak of anTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 281Author whom he has not read, he tells you so; and when hepronounces a judgment as his own, you know that it is hisown, the fruit of his own inquiry and reflection. It is notlike so many similar works, a compilation without acknowledgment from former writers. On the contrary, it is a workof original research, and that too not seldom in unfamiliarquarters. Thus he first pointed out the similarity of thoughtbetween the celebrated passage on the Universality of Law,at the close ofthe first book of Hooker's Ecclesiastical polity,with a passage in the now nearly forgotten work of theJesuit Suarez, (de Legibus et Deo Legislatore) of Laws andGod the Lawgiver." Impartiality, good sense, pure taste,freedom from extravagance, and a clear and expressive thoughrather elaborate style, characterize this, as they do all hisworks.6Of personal history there is but little to record in the lifeof Mr. Hallam. He was educated to the law, but neverengaged in its practice. He, however, attached great importance to his legal studies, as one of his qualifications for writing the Constitutional History of England. He speaks withemphasis of Hume's deficiency in this respect, though hetreats his great predecessor with commendable impartiality,considering the antagonism of their political views. In hisfamily relations, he was at once the happiest and the unhappiest of men; -the happiest in being the father of two sonsof rare endowments and brightest promise; the unhappiestin being called to part with them in the morning of theirdays. Arthur died at the age of twenty-two; his memoryhas been embalmed in the crystal tears of Tennyson. Henry,on whom Mr. Hallam's affection had centred with twofold tenderness after the loss of his brother, died at the age oftwenty- six,leaving his father broken-hearted, but for the hope of a reunion in a better world. I had the pleasure occasionally tosee the last named of the brothers at their father's table; andin 1843 it was my good fortune to meet him at the rooms of282 THE MOUNT VERNON young friend, Mr. Charles Bristed, in Trinity College,Cambridge. An interesting memoir of this most amiableand hopeful young man, from the pen of Mr. Bristed, hasbeen reprinted in England. -One trait of generous feelingand honest filial pride has been related to me of him by acommon friend. When Sir Robert Peel tendered to Mr.Hallam the hereditary title of Baronet, -the highest title ofhonor ever bestowed in England on a man of letters, till LordMacaulay was raised to the peerage, -Mr. Hallam said hewould be governed by his son's wishes. Henry on being consulted, answered that as far as his feelings were concerned, hewas content to be known as the son of Henry Hallam, a nameto which no title should give added dignity.Mr. Hallam, like all the distinguished authors in England,was, in proportion to our population, more extensively read inthis country than at home. This arises from the greatercheapness of the American Editions, and the more extensivediffusion of education throughout all classes of the community. I reflect with pleasure, that, on my proposal, he received in 1848 the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws fromHarvard College, and not till the same year, from his ownOxford. The following letter, acknowledging his degree,though it has been published before, will I think be generallyinteresting to my readers; but few of whom I suppose haveseen it."CLIFTON, 26 Oct. , 1848."MY DEAR MR. EVERETT .-It has given me the greatest satisfaction toreceive the Diploma of the Senate of Harvard College conferring on methe high honor of Doctor of Laws, an honor even enhanced by the eulogywhich, through the medium of a very classical Latinity, that distinguishedbody has been pleased to bestow upon my several publications.I have already in the present year received a similar honor from myown University, that of Oxford. It will be my pride for the remainderof my days, to reflect that not only at home, where I might better expect it, but in a land which it has not been permitted me to visit, mylabors in the field of literature , deficient as I feel them to be, and perhapsTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 283unequal to what I had once hoped to have been their extent, have obtained a reward of public approbation, so ample and so honorable, ashas been allotted to them. The admiration of literary merit, ( and Imust not now be understood as referring to myself, ) has become of lateyears very characteristic of America. It displays itself with a noble, andwe may say juvenile enthusiasm, which we are far from equalling in Europe.Nothing is more likely to maintain that natural affection between thosewho spring from common ancestors and speak a common language,which every wise and good man on each side of the ocean desires to see.I request you to return my most sincere thanks to the Fellows ofHarvard College. To yourself I need not say that I am peculiarly indebted, not only for the share you have had in conferring this honorupon me, but for many testimonials of your friendship, during the tooshort period of your residence in Great Britain.Believe me, my dear Mr. Everett, very faithfully yours,HENRY HALLAM. "NUMBER THIRTY- ONE.THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD OF 1859-PRESCOTT, BOND, HALLAM,VON HUMBOLDT.The year 1769 famous for the birth of great men-The memory of Humboldt asso- ciated with America-His unsuccessful plans before coming to this continent-Hisgreat reputation founded on his American works-His place at the head of the men of Science of the day-Great age to which his literary labors were protracted- Accustomed to sleep but four hours in the twenty-four-His social disposition- Acquaintance of the writer with Mr. von Humboldt in 1818-His liberal appreci- ation of others-Sits to Mr. Wight of Boston for his portrait-Remarks on the assertion that he was an Atheist.LAST of the Illustrious dead of the year in order, first inrenown, stands the great name of Alexander von Humboldt,who, at the close of a life prolonged to fourscore years andten, and passed in studious activity to the last, was placed bygeneral consent at the head of the Philosophers of the Age.The year in which he was born, 1769, is distinguished forthe birth of more great men than have been born, perhaps, inany other year; Napoleon, Wellington, Cuvier, von Humboldt. Schiller and Canning have been added to the list; butSchiller was born in 1759 and Canning in 1770. The currentyear will, in all human probability, be long remembered inhistory for military and political events of extreme importance; it will certainly be long remembered for the deceaseof the four great men whose names stand at the head of thisarticle, (and who knows what names the remaining monthsmay add to the solemn list? * ) but it cannot fail to be spoken

  • Washington Irving and Lord Macaulay died after this was written.

THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 285of, in after times, as the year in which Humboldt died. It isgood to pause upon such an event, and to hold up a name likehis to reverent contemplation. The ancient Egyptians sat injudgment on their dead Pharaohs. The historian does nottell us how the tribunal was composed, or the impartialityof its sentences secured. The enlightened Public opinion ofthe world is the great Tribunal to which the mighty of theearth are amenable; and who would not prize the bloodlesswreath decreed at that bar to Cuvier, and Humboldt, beforethe golden crown or the blood-stained laurels of monarchs orconquerors? The career of men so illustrious as Humboldtcannot be expected, in many points, to furnish examples forthe mass of mankind;-and yet with all the superiority ofnative talent, which makes him an exception to the ordinaryconditions of humanity, there is much in his life and characterwith which all men sympathize, -which all may emulate asall admire.We at least in America should neglect no act of appropriate homage to his great name. The foundations of hisfame were laid on this continent. Here the most laboriousyears ofhis life were passed; for his expedition to Siberia inafter life , less laborious even while it lasted, was accomplishedin less than a twelvemonth. It seemed indeed as if a Providential interposition guided him to the new world; for it wasonly after three other projects had been baffled, that the pathwas unexpectedly opened to America. Having educated himself as a scientific traveller, he first conceived the plan oftravelling in Egypt, but the French expedition made it necessary to abandon that design. He next thought of attachinghimself to the voyage of circumnavigation, which the FrenchThe war government was preparing under Admiral Baudin.with Austria broke out, and diverted the funds assigned bythe Directory to this expedition. " Cruelly deceived, " sayshe, "in my hopes, and beholding the plans which I had been.forming for several years of my life destroyed in a day, IWE 1ངས་ ངན་71ST IIVA TEMA. ITNi jethis . 20Cunning & 174 The centedly embered inwing farme impergive lethe tense Pans Sau the hellof thisTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 285of, in after times, as the year in which Humboldt died. It isgood to pause upon such an event, and to hold up a name likehis to reverent contemplation. The ancient Egyptians sat injudgment on their dead Pharaohs. The historian does nottell us how the tribunal was composed, or the impartialityof its sentences secured. The enlightened Public opinion ofthe world is the great Tribunal to which the mighty of theearth are amenable; and who would not prize the bloodlesswreath decreed at that bar to Cuvier, and Humboldt, beforethe golden crown or the blood-stained laurels of monarchs orconquerors? The career of men so illustrious as Humboldtcannot be expected, in many points, to furnish examples forthe mass of mankind; -and yet with all the superiority ofnative talent, which makes him an exception to the ordinaryconditions of humanity, there is much in his life and characterwith which all men sympathize,-which all may emulate as all admire.We at least in America should neglect no act of appropriate homage to his great name. The foundations of hisfame were laid on this continent. Here the most laboriousyears of his life were passed; for his expedition to Siberia inafter life, less laborious even while it lasted, was accomplishedin less than a twelvemonth. It seemed indeed as if a Providential interposition guided him to the new world; for it wasonly after three other projects had been baffled, that the pathwas unexpectedly opened to America. Having educated himself as a scientific traveller, he first conceived the plan oftravelling in Egypt, but the expedition made itsary to abandon that des xt thought ofhimselfto the voyagegovernment was prewith Austria brthe Directhe.gation, whichAdmiral Baudierted the fundn. " Cruelly ysing the plans beenf my life des lay, I286 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sought, as at a venture, the most expeditious manner of quitting Europe, and plunging into some enterprise which mightconsole me for what I suffered. " With these feelings, andhaving made at Paris the acquaintance of Mr. Skiöldebrand,the Swedish consul at Algiers, he formed a plan for exploringthe Alpine region of Central America. The Swedish frigate,which was to transport the Consul, Mr. von Humboldt, andhis friend and companion M. de Bonpland, had not arrived atMarseilles. For two months they expected her in vain, andthen learned that she had suffered severely in a storm, and,having put into Cadiz to refit, could not be expected at Marseilles till the Spring. They engaged their passage in a Ragusan sloop for Tunis; war broke out between the Tunisianregency and the French Republic, which made it unsafe toproceed by that conveyance, and they passed into Spain, hoping to find there the means of transit to America. The Minister of Saxony at Madrid procured for his countryman, thenthirty years old, a favorable introduction to the President ofthe Council of the Indies, which resulted in full permission toexplore the dominions of Spain in America and the East.This permission was not withdrawn on the fall of M. deUrquijo from power. " During the five years," says Mr. vonHumboldt, " that we traversed the new Continent, we perceived not the least appearance of distrust; and it is gratefulto me here to recollect, that, in the midst of the most afflicting privations, and struggling against the obstacles whicharise from the savage state ofthe country, we have never hadto complain of the injustice of man. " Thus it was only afterthe thrice experienced disappointment of previous projects,that Mr. von Humboldt entered on the great work of exploring the central regions of this Continent; an enterprise mostagreeable to his taste and the most likely to reward his investigations, but which, owing to the jealousy of the Spanishgovernment, he had not in the outset ventured to contemplate.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 287It will not, I think, be denied that the great reputation ofMr. von Humboldt was built upon his American expedition,and the scientific, historical, statistical and miscellaneous worksfor which it furnished the materials. No one, of course, wouldclaim for that remarkable series of publications, that it standson a par, as a Philosophical treatise or a digest of naturalscience, with the " Cosmos. " The want of systematic unityalone would oppose such a claim; but it will be agreed, Ithink, by the students of Mr. von Humboldt's writings, thatbut for the voyage to America, and the researches connectedwith it, the observations in every department of natural history which he had made during the progress of the voyage,and the subsequent studies required for the preparation of thenumerous works in which the results are given to the world,and which occupied him for twenty years after his return,"Cosmos " would hardly have been composed. Even theremarkable work written in later life, Examen critique del'histoire de la Geographie du nouveau continent (critical Examination ofthe History of the Geography of the new Continent) was the natural fruit of this American expedition.It is admitted that Mr. von Humboldt stood at the headofthe men of science not only of his own age, but I think wemay add, with the diffidence which belongs to such a judgment, of any age. He takes this rank not only in virtue ofwhat he was, but in spite of what he was not. Like Baconhe owes his position in the intellectual world to his grasp ofthe whole domain of science, and the majestic range of hisgeneralizations. Amongthe contemporaries of his long life arenames that take precedence of his, in almost every department, such as Cuvier, La Place, Sir Humphry Davy, Gauss;I omit the living, which will readily occur to the reader. Asthere was no one speciality, to which he exclusively gave himself, so there is no disparagement in saying, that in almostevery branch of science, there were individuals, who hadpushed their researches beyond his. But it belonged to288 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Humboldt to take an imperial survey of the whole field ofScience, and to mould the mass of materials, derived fromthe individual researches of others, into one grand system; —himself an Intellectual Cosmos, combining the Geographer,the Antiquary, the Geologist, the Chemist, in short everyseparate title in his own person, akin to the scientific " Cosmos " of his own formation.Nothing is more characteristic of his career as a philosopher, than the length of time during which his labors, both asan investigator and a writer, were carried on; the continuance of his physical and intellectual activity, long after attaining the age at which the majority of men, weary of toil,satisfied with success, or reconciled to the want of it, sink intorepose. He was sixty years old, when, at the often repeatedrequest of the Russian Government, he undertook with Gustavus Rose and Ehrenberg, that expedition to the Oural andAltai mountains of which the fruits are recorded in his AsiaCentrale; Recherches sur les chaines de montagnes et la climatologie comparée. "Researches on the mountain chains andcomparative climatology of Central Asia." He tells us, inthe preface to the first published portion of " Cosmos," thatwith the exception of the first forty pages of the work, it waswholly written and for the first time, in the years 1843 and1844, and consequently when he was seventy- four years ofage. A fifth volume has been finished within the past year.But this length of days, however remarkable, is not theonly measure of his astonishing vigor of body and mind. Itmay concern at least those who are not so far advanced inlife as to have their habits hopelessly fixed, to know anotherof the facts, which account for the vast amount of intellectuallabor which he was able to perform. Living within a fewmonths to the age of ninety, he lived for all purposes ofscientific research and literary labor, another life of forty orfifty years, in consequence of having accustomed himself, fromthe time he grew up to manhood, to little more than fourTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 289hours' sleep in the twenty four. I think I can state this onhis own authority, for I heard it asserted in his presence, andlistened to by him with an assenting smile. If then we consider four hours of daily study, as a pretty good day's work,at least for one whose time must have been so much brokenin upon, and who worked to so much purpose, we may compute that, in contenting himself with four hours' sleep, in lieuof the seven or eight required by most men, he really addedforty or fifty working years to his four score years and ten.Whether this was the result of the excellence of his constitution, abstinence from the great causes of weariness and exhaustion, cheerful temper, or in some degree of all combined,I cannot say; probably the latter.At any rate, his disposition was eminently genial. Myacquaintance with him began in the winter of 1817-1818 atParis, where I frequently met him in society. His companyof course was eagerly sought, and no individual of eminencewas more frequently seen, as far as my means of observationextended, at the dinner table and in the salons of Paris. Hewas then apparently engaged in those geographical researches,of which the results are given in the work above named, onthe history of the Geography of this continent. I passedmany happy and instructive hours with him at the Institutein looking over the early maps of this country. He was goodenough to give me, on leaving Paris, letters to his brotherWilliam, at that time the Prussian Minister in London, withwhom it was my happiness in that way to become intimatelyacquainted. In the year 1842 Baron Alexander von Humboldt came to London, (in the suite of the King of Prussia,who visited England to attend the Christening of the Princeof Wales, ) and I had the pleasure of renewing my acquaintance with him during his brief stay. It is scarcely necessaryto say that, at a time when London was more than usuallythronged with the celebrities of Europe, he was the centreof the greatest attraction.13290 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Enjoying his world-wide fame, his feelings were proportionably catholic. Nothing more characterizes his worksthan the total absence of the spirit of invidious criticism- thecanker which eats so deeply into our modern literature.When other authors are named, (and howfew are the contemporary writers of solid scientific merit, not named in some partof the long series of his works?) the amplest justice isalways done them. He was wholly free from that carpingdisposition, which can see nothing in a work of science, literature, or art, but its defects; and from that hateful temper,which seeks to build its own reputation or that of a favoriteon the ruins of the reputation of a competitor.I reflect with pleasure that it was in my power, throughthe medium of my much valued friend Mr. D. D. Barnard,then our Minister at Berlin, to aid a meritorious young artist,Mr. M. Wight, in procuring an opportunity to paint the portrait of Baron Humboldt. This of course was a favor notlikely to be asked of a person of such eminence, whose timewas so precious, and whom so many artists were eager to paintand to model. Mr. Wight, however, succeeded so well in aportrait of Mr. Barnard, who enjoyed the intimacy of BaronHumboldt, that, on seeing it, he consented to give our youngcountryman four long sittings. In this way he was able tomake an admirable likeness of the Illustrious Philosopher,which has been well engraved in this country.I was not without hope of seeing him again in the courseof the present season . Disappointed in this, it is a subject.of pleasing, though sad reflection to me, that the same kindfeelings, of which he gave me many valued proofs and assurances in my younger days, were manifested to my children,while on a visit to Berlin last August. "With the scarcelegible hand of the old man of eighty-nine," he addresseswords of friendly salutation to them and of kindly remembrance to me, from " the traveller of the Cordilleras and theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 291Steppes of Siberia,"-the joint character in which he wishedto be known in after times.The strange assertion has lately been made, that " Cosmos " is a system of philosophical Atheism, slightly veiled,from motives of prudence, and that even the name of Goddoes not occur in it. This last statement is notoriously inaccurate, and for the first assertion there is not, as far as Iknow, the slightest foundation. Humboldt, in this as in hisother works, proposes to treat only the phenomena revealedto the senses; but he recognizes the reality of spiritual andmoral relations, though justly considering them above theprovince of demonstrative science. Between him and hisbrother, William, undeniably a man of the deepest religiousconvictions, there prevailed an entire sympathy, and he citeswith approval from the works of the latter, passages whichrecognize the truth of the Christian religion. On the appearance ofthe Chevalier Bunsen's " Signs of the Times " in 1855,Humboldt rose from its perusal, and on the same day addressed a letter of two sheets to the Author, expressive of hissympathy and approval. In his " Cosmos " he refers to theHebrew Scriptures with respect, and even bestows on theHundred and fourth Psalm that much honored name of " Cosmos," which he had appropriated to the crowning work ofhisliterary life. He distinctly recognizes the purifying influenceof the new faith, in contrast with the decaying paganism ofthe Ancient world. So far is it from being true, that he" knows nothing of a God in Creation," that he asserts interms, that it was the tendency of the Christian mind toprove, from the order of the Universe and the beauty of nature, the greatness and goodness of the Creator; " and hetraces the growing taste for natural description observablein the writers of the new faith, to the tendency " to glorify theDeity in his works."In denying the imputed Atheism of Humboldt, (on whichI may speak more at length on a future occasion, ) I build292 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.nothing on the occurrence of the name of the Supreme Beingin his publications. No writers more freely use the greatand sacred name than those of the Pantheistic or, what is thesame thing, Atheistic School, meaning, however, not the Allwise All- powerful BEING, who created and who rules withsovereign intelligence the Heavens and the earth, but theaggregate of existing things; making men and beasts, andtrees and stones, and dust and ashes, part and parcel of whatthey call God.NUMBER THIRTY- TWO.ITALIAN NATIONALITY.Reasons of State and Public opinion mingled in the present struggle-Growth of liberal views in Italy-How far the feelings of the masses will affect the result ofthe contest-The different views of the different parties-Elements of nationalitypossessed by the Italians-A compact geographical position-A fusion of the original races-One language-A common faith-In all these respects their claimto an independent nationality equal to that of any of the great powers of Europe -To what is the want of it owing?-By no means to the degeneracy of the population.THE eyes of the civilized world are now turned to Italy.To whatever quarter of the globe the descendants of aEuropean stock are scattered, or European languages spokenin the old world or the new, the arrival of every mail iswatched for news from Italy. The steamers are too slow;the electric telegraph itself is too slow, to satisfy the intenseand universal desire for Italian news. To speculate on theprobable course of events, in a struggle like this, is as idle asit would be to speculate on the cast of the dice; particularlywhen your anticipations are to be recorded in papers, which,like these, are not to be read till a month after they arewritten. Let us resign the eventful future to the sole arbiterof its mysteries-Time-and dwell for a moment upon the renowned and beautiful field of the mighty contest. Haply we,too, separated by the world-dividing ocean from the conflict,-may derive a salutary lesson from the contemplation.Two elements totally different mingle in this Titanicstruggle, the policy of the Monarchs who conduct it and294 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.public opinion. There is so much of personal motiveand feeling, so much secret and partially disclosed diplomacy,so much local history which never can be known at a distance,comprehended in all questions of State policy, that they canrarely be judged of with entire accuracy by contemporaries.On questions of this kind appearances at times mislead, deceive, betray; the Truth is told by Events, and by them onlyin a continuous series, brought up to a decisive result.The other element, and more efficient with every year ofmodern progress, is the spirit and feeling of the masses of thecommunity, of the People. This has always of course, inthe long run, had a vast influence in determining the marchof public affairs, especially in all cases where religious convictions are appealed too. But in casting the eye over the pagesof Italian History for the last three centuries, it will not beeasy to find one great political and territorial arrangement,which has been decided by any thing but State Policy; therival interests and power of the Emperor of Germany, andthe Kings of France, Spain, Sardinia, and Naples.This state of things has certainly been changing within thelast hundred years. Nowhere was there a quicker or akeener sympathy felt within the American Revolution than inItaly. One of the very best histories of the revolutionarywar is the work of an Italian. The Grand Duke Leopoldof Tuscany was a liberal and enlightened, though eccentricprince, and encouraged the diffusion of liberal ideas. TheItalian publicists of the last century, Beccaria, Galiani, Filangieri, were men of enlarged and generous views. All thesubstantial conquests gained for rational Liberty, through theinfluence of the French Revolution, were gained as much forItaly as for France. Her modern popular literature; -thewriters who have won the hearts of the Italian race, howeverpolitically or territorially divided, Alfieri, Foscolo, Niccolini,Manzoni and Silvio Pellico, in their best days, and their associates, are all eminently popular. In this way and throughTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 295these agencies, rendered more powerful and sometimes misdirected by the various secret revolutionary societies, a verypowerful public opinion has been formed in favor of politicalreform, free institutions of government, independence of thestranger, and Italian Nationality. The real strength of thisopinion remains to be seen, and with reference to the sentiment of Italian Nationality particularly, time only can showhow far it will overcome the previously existing repulsionsthat have existed between the minor nationalities, so to callthem, into which Italy in the lapse of time has been brokenup. Thus far, this recently created element of popularstrength has disclosed a power and vitality for which, as weapprehend, few persons were prepared. Without firing agun or shedding a drop of bood, it has won for the allies thegreatest territorial acquisition which up to this time ( 22dof June) they have gained; it has given them the beautifulGrand Duchy of Tuscany and Lucca, the most important andsignificant occurrence which has yet taken place.How far this Italian feeling may operate in Lombardyis, at this moment, a question not less important than thestrength of Verona and the depth of the Adige. Rivers andfortresses will prove frail bulwarks to the Austrian armiesin Lombardy if the masses of her population, rallied by Garibaldi, sustained as they will be by the advancing armies of Sardinia and France, shall rise against them.-And if Tuscany,Parma, Modena, and Lombardy revolt- swept away fromAustrian control by popular feeling-how long will the reigning dynasty in Naples be able to resist the torrent? ThePapal power alone, from its mixed secular and ecclesiasticalcharacter, the latter of which must be respected , perhaps protected by the Emperor of the French, stands upon a somewhatdifferent footing. With respect to all the other Italian States,the embarrassing question already is , not how the Allies shallgain them, but what they shall do with them; not how they296 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.shall be rescued from the dominion or the influence of Austria,but under whose dominion and influence they shall fall .Shall there be a great Italian Republic, coextensive withthe Peninsula? Such is the programme of Mazzini and ofthose whom he represents. These extremists are not a smallor feeble handful; on the contrary, it is by him and them , inthe present generation, that much of the Italian enthusiasm.has been kindled. As usually happens in such cases, theyhave labored, and more politic and less unselfish reformershave entered into their labors. An Italian Republic is certainly not the programme of the King of Sardinia, nor ofCount Cavour, although an Italian Kingdom, coextensive withthe Peninsula, may be. But this again surely is not the programme of Sardinia's all-powerful Ally. He is not leadingarmies into Italy, sevenfold as large as those with which hisuncle conquered it, in order that the royalties and the viceroyalties, which the great chieftain won for himself and hisfamily, may be tossed in a heap into the lap of Victor Emmanuel. What the programme of the great " neutral " powersof Europe may be, in reference to Italy, in case it should allbe won from the Austrian dominion and influence, is a question wrapped in still greater mystery. The popular voice inEngland undoubtedly is " Italy for the Italians," and the government of England, into whatever hands it may fall, mustrespect this unanimous voice. The policy of England willhave a great influence over that of Prussia; and if Englandand Prussia do not interfere, certainly Russia will not. Butin all these considerations we see how fearfully the two elements of State policy and popular will are combined in thesolution of the great problem.66' Italy for the Italians." What is Italy and who are theItalians, that there should be any doubt or difficulty on thesubject; why are they not, -why have they not always been,—a great integral self- sustained member of the national familyof Europe? No part of the European Continent seems to beTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 297so favorably situated, —at least none more favorably situated,ifwe except England, —for an independent power. Surroundedby the ocean for more than half the circuit of its coasts, separated by the Alps on the North and on the West, from itspowerful neighbors, Nature would seem to have given to Italyin an eminent degree, the first requisite of an Independent Nationality, a compact and defensible geographical position, safefrom foreign violence, and possessing within itself every facilityfor intercommunication between its different parts. In all othermaterial circumstances which nourish the pride of Nationality,a delightful though various climate; -a soil productive ofeverything for the food of man from wheat and rice and Indian cornto the olive, the grape, the fig, and the sweet orange; —portsonce crowded with the commerce of the world, Genoa, Leghorn,Naples, Palermo, Venice;-mines of iron and copper, -quarries of marble,-broad, navigable lakes, -one noble river andmany ofthe second class,-magnificent forests, -fertile plains,-what is there to be further desired, as far as natural advantages go, toward a liberal patriotism?The next basis of national unity is a common originand kindred blood; and here the Italians present as stronga claim to an independent national existence as any oftheir neighbors. It is true one may, following back theirannals, come to the times when invading barbarians broke inupon the unity of the Latin race; nay, one may go back tothe Italia avanti i Romani, the " Italy before the Romans,"when a dozen different races, indigenous and foreign, occupiedthe Ausonian territory. But as these primitive races, whichflourished before the period of authentic history, —(of whichno memorial now exists, but ruined specimens of giganticmasonry, a few unintelligible inscriptions, and tombs filledwith pictured vases, weapons, and golden ornaments, mutewitnesses of a buried world of refinement and power) , -werefused into the Italians of the Roman age; so the intruders oflater periods, Gauls and Ostrogoths and Lombards, have,13**298 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.from the origin of the political organization of ModernEurope, been fused into the Italian People. This ItalianPeople as we know it, has under various local names, indifferent portions of the Peninsula, and with various politicalfortunes, occupied the country for twelve centuries; as theirpredecessors did for twelve centuries before them. On thescore of common origin, the inhabitants of Italy at the presentday, have a much stronger claim to be considered a nationthan the subjects of the Austrian Empire, in which at leastfour great races are comprehended, —the Italian, the Germanthe Sclavonian and the Magyar, to say nothing of numeroussub-races, of radically different stock and speaking languagesutterly unintelligible to each other.This brings us to the next great bond of nationality, acommon language. From that intellectual chaos, —that secondBabel, into which the civilized world fell, after the downfallof the Roman Empire, the extinction of its language as aspoken tongue, and the establishment of the barbarous racesin its conquered provinces and in Italy itself, she was the firstof all the newly organized peoples to emerge with a newnational language and literature. The English language, aswritten in the time of Dante, is almost as unintelligible at thepresent day to all but the English antiquary as a foreign tongue.This Italian language thus early formed, -softened and mellowed in the lapse of five hundred years, but not become obsolete, spoken by the masses with great dialectical differences inthe different parts of the Peninsula, but perhaps not greater thanthose of the English language as spoken in Somersetshire andthe lowlands of Scotland, is still the language of Italy. -Danteand Petrarch and Bocnaccio and Ariosto and Tasso, and all thenoble line of their successors are read with equal delight byall who read any thing, from Milan to Syracuse and fromGenoa to Venice.Last there is the great bond of a common form of faith,and that from peculiar local causes, operating with a force notTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 299There is nothing likeEngland has six orIreland, besides theknown in any country. The Roman Catholic religion isestablished in every part of Italy as the religion of the State,and with the exception of the protestants of the mountain ofSavoy, now tolerated throughout Sardinia, and of the protestant chapels attached to foreign legations in the Italian residences, no other form of Christian worship is known. -Theacknowledged head of the Roman Catholic faith throughoutthe world is established in Central Italy, and the devoutItalian Catholic regards his country as charged, in a peculiarsense, with the custody of his church.this in most of the States of millions of Catholic subjects indivision of her Protestant subjects between the establishmentand the various dissenting communions. A similar state ofthings exists in Prussia; and Catholic France and Austriahave a considerable Protestant population. Under constitutional governments like that of England, this diversity of communion, taken in connection with an established church, is thesource of manifold embarrassment. It is the great root ofbitterness in Ireland, and has caused vast trouble in Prussia.When the contending churches, instead of being branches ofthe common Faith of Christendom, stand opposed to eachother like Christianity and Mahometanism, in the Turkish Empire, they make a genuine and prosperous nationality impossible. They admit no relation, at least as far as modern historical experience goes, but that of dominant and subject races.On all these grounds, then, of geographical position, race,language, and religion, the Italians might fairly claim to standas an independent State, in the great family of Nations.There is really no other people in Europe which unites, inthe same degree, the four great elements of a prosperousnationality; not either of the great contending powers whosearmies now cover her soil; nor England, Prussia, or Russia,who, with hands on their swords, are anxiously watching theprogress of the struggle. What, then, is wanting to the300 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Nationality of the Italians; and how does it happen that thePeople, whose forefathers gave law to the world, have for centuries taken the law from France, from Spain, and from Germany?I shall attempt an answer to this important question inanother paper; in the mean time, I will only observe, in a fewwords, that the cause of this unhappy state of things is not tobe sought as is perhaps generally supposed in the degeneracyof the People. Trusting to the hasty generalizations of tourists, who pass a few weeks in the large towns and see the outside of Italian life and manners-the general poverty of thepeasantry-the indolence of the Lazzaroni-the swarms ofbeggars and of monks, in some portions of the country-whosee something and hear more of the dissoluteness of mannersin high life-and the want of occupation which must existwhere there is but little commerce, few manufactures, andno political career, and almost all the springs of industry feelthe pressure of arbitrary government, we hastily agree withthem, that the people themselves must be degenerate. This,however, is far from being the case. The physical developmentof the population in Italy, male and female, is, in the aggregate,as far as my observation has extended, quite equal to that ofthe population of any other part of Europe. Nowhere arefiner forms or faces to be seen in places of public or privateresort. The Italians are a temperate people, and the climateallows them to live much in the open air; and this in thelarge towns leads to social and companionable habits, and iseverywhere favorable to health. In intellect they are surelynot a degenerate race. Their universities still boast accomplished men of science and distinguished scholars in all thefaculties; and though the provision for popular education isin none of the Italian States to be compared with that whichis made in Prussia, England, and this country, it is respectable in Tuscany, Sardinia, and even Lombardy; and aboutequal in the other portions of the Peninsula to what it is inTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 301most parts of Europe. I attended the meetings of the Association for the Promotion of Science in Italy, which was heldat Florence in 1841. About a thousand persons were presentand it appeared to me that the discussions and the memoirscompared fairly with those of similar bodies, at which I havebeen present in England and this country. At the close of itsmeetings the entire Association was invited to dine by theGrand Duke, and conveyed in carriages at his expense to thehalls where the entertainment was served. Each memberalso received a present of a bronze medal of Galileo, with acopy in quarto of a new volume of his experiments.Every branch of Letters, except those which can exist onlyunder free constitutions, flourishes and has always flourishedin Italy. Some of the most eminent writers scientific andliterary of the present day, astronomers, physiologists, antiquaries, publicists, historians, poets, and authors of popular fiction, are Italians. Their museums and libraries are unsurpassed in Europe. Italy is still the land of Art. In thehighest walks of painting and sculpture she is excelled by foreigners, but here is an atmosphere of artistic culture,which still draws the foreign artist to her soil. Most ofthedistinguished German, English, French, and American Artistshave studied their art in Italy. In music she still reigns supreme, or divides the empire with Germany alone. Surely itis the extreme of arrogance or igorance to speak of such apeople as degenerate.NUMBER THIRTY - THREE.ITALIAN NATIONALITY.It has failed to exist for want of a comprehensive patriotic sentiment-Difficulties in the way of the formation of such a sentiment arising from the multiplication of local governments-Benefits and evils of this multiplication- Probable consequen- ces of the present struggle-Will not result in a republican confederacy-Norprobably in the immediate establishment of an Italian monarchy-But may pre- pare the way for such an event in future-Lessons to be drawn from Italianhistory-All other circumstances favorable to an Independent nationality unavailing without a comprehensive patriotism.I ATTEMPTED in the last paper to show that Italy possessesthe great elements of an Independent Nationality, -a compactgeographical position, a population fused for twelve centuriesinto a homogeneous mass, a common language, and a uniformfaith; and I urged that whatever else might be the cause whyshe never has attained an Independent Nationality, it was notthe degeneracy of the People. What, then, is wanting? IfIwere to answer this question, in the words of Washington'sFarewell Address, and say that she wanted " Unity of Government," I should be thought merely to say the same thingin other words, affirming that the Italians are not one people, because they are not one people. But the answerwould be more significant than it seems. When GeneralWashington said to his fellow citizens, " The Unity of Government which constitutes you one People, is justly dear toyou," he gave utterance, not to a policitcal truism, but to oneof the most important lessons that ever fell from the lips ofTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 30366Patriot or Sage. Italy, since the Roman Empire broke up,has wanted " Unity of Government," which alone could enableher to stand in the family of Nations as one People; " onein power, one in counsel, one in patriotism; and she haswanted this Unity of Government, because, to use the simplephrase whose venerable homeliness carries with it a sort ofScriptural solemnity, —because such a unity was not " dear toher." Her populations, in no period of their modern history,had deduced from the various elements of nationality, to whichI have alluded, an Italian Patriotism and a National Love.I admit the enormous difficulties that lay in the way ofthe formation of such a sentiment. The disintegration of theRoman power in Italy, which held the population together bya Unity of Government, which if not " dear " was strong,took place gradually. Had it passed away in one struggle,like the British power in the Anglo- American colonies, or theSpanish power in the Seven United Provinces, some otherUnity of Government might, by the wisdom of man and theexigencies of events, have been substituted in its place. Butit was broken up piece by piece. The removal of the seat ofGovernment to Constantinople struck the whole peninsulawith a heart-sickness, and changed it, from the seat of Empireinto an exposed province. Barbarians and semi-barbarians ofevery race and from the four quarters of the globe, fell uponher; the Ostrogoths, the Lombards, the Franks, the Saracens,the Normans, each fastening upon the tempting or the assailable side, and then the great secular struggle of the Emperorsand the Popes rending her vitals. In the mean time, and inthe darkness of the Middle Ages, various local governments,some extensive like Venice, some confined to a few cities ora single city like Florence, and Pisa, and Genoa, sprang up,and became in some cases powerful principalities; Venice andGenoa by their commerce and maritime resources assumingthe port and wielding the power of great sovereignties; carrying on war, making foreign conquests, and founding colonies.304 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Three flagstaffs stood and still stand, or did a few years ago,in the place of St. Mark at Venice, which once bore the banners of her three foreign tributary kingdoms. The peninsulawas covered with these independent governments, some powerful, many weak, all jealous of each other, and the most ofthem engaged in hereditary feuds and eternal wars.Two consequences resulted from this state of things —one aprodigious quickening of the faculties of men, under the influence of popular institutions in the free cities and little independent republics. A species of municipal liberty was enjoyed, under which the civilization of the modern world grewup in Italy long before it dawned on the West of Europe.The merchants of Florence were the bankers of Europe; thetraders of Venice pushed their commercial relations to thefurthest East; the mariners of Genoa discovered hidden Continents, before the intelligence of the countries, that now bearsway over fallen Italy, was thoroughly awakened. Nor werelearning, and the arts, and the reviving study of antiquitybehind her material development. This was the bright side ofthat multiplication of governments, which kindled a generousemulation and kept aloof the paralyzing effects of a despoticcentrality.But liberal emulation degenerated into bitter feuds andlocal wars. Duchy was arrayed against duchy; city againstcity; Milan and Piedmont; Florence and Pisa; Venice andthe Ecclesiastical State; in short, at one time or another almost every little principality was at war with some other;or, rather, at no time was there general peace. This state ofthings cut off all free communication between the differentparts of the country. There were probably generations ofmen in Florence, of whom not an individual ever saw Pistola,except in arms; generations of Neapolitans, of whom not anindividual could go in safety to Rome or Venice. In additionto the controversies, that were strictly local and personal intheir origin and causes, the great war of Guelf and Ghibelline,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 305the Emperor and the Pope, filled all minds with bitternessand prevented the very thought of " Unity of Government "from being practically conceived for ages. There were several strong principalities, of limited extent indeed, but possessing a vigorous organization , such as the Republic of Venice,the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan, the Republic ofFlorence, and above all the Ecclesiastical State; but theywere without sympathy with each other, and upon the wholeafforded no basis for a Unity of Government. There was nopolitical arrangement, which could have been conceived andproposed, that would have been “" dear " to the populations ofthese various States, and which would have been embraced bythem with patriotic affection.66And so they remained rivals and enemies of each other,and by necessary consequence were obliged to throw themselves into the bloody game of foreign politics; invaded byoverwhelming armies with every vibration of the balance ofpower between Germany, France, and Spain; to say nothingof remoter complications. The successive wars, expeditions,conquests, treaties, and transfers are known to the reader ofmodern history from the time of Charles VIII. to the Congress of Vienna; a dark and tedious tale.Another chapter is now commenced in this eventful history. Armies such as never entered Italy before are now inLombardy; transported by railroads, with a rapidity notdreamed of in former wars; provided with means of destruction, which in range and efficiency transcend those of the oldordnance, almost as much as fire arms exceed bows and arrows; put in motion by orders which fly with electric speed;and certainly sustained by a popular sentiment on the part ofthe Italians themselves, such as has never accompanied invading armies before. Will this mighty contest, urged withthese overwhelming forces, result in any " Unity of Government " for Italy?That it is not likely to result in a republican government,306 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.either simple or confederate, or in the establishment of anyform of polity like the United States, may be considered ascertain. A preliminary step would be necessary to that result which cannot possibly be taken, viz. , the conversion ofthe existing monarchies into republics; the existing monarchies I say, for whatever the names of the Italian States (except San Marino, ) they are all monarchies, and, with theexception of Sardinia, all absolute monarchies. That there isa probability that any of these absolute governments great orsmall, will become a republic, no person will say who is at allacquainted with the country. There can consequently be no"United States " in one sense of the word, because there willbe no States, if by that is meant republican States, to unite.Will the contest now waged result in establishing a" Unity of Government " of another kind; a monarchicalGovernment, embracing all Italy? As an immediate con.sequence of the movements now in progress, this event is asmuch out of the question as the other. The ulterior objectsof the war are hidden in the deep recesses of Louis Napoleon'smind. He has revealed a portion of his thoughts, a smallportion; which is to drive the Austrians from Italy, and hehas disclaimed all designs of personal aggrandizement. If,therefore, he succeeds, as in all human probability he will; ifno chance shot from a Tyrolese rifle, no malarious fever inthe marshes of the Po arrest his career,-(for these arehuman possibilities) -it is as certain as any thing dependingon the vicissitudes of war, that the Austrian rule over Lombardy and Venetia will terminate with this or the next campaign. To all appearance Lombardy at least, if not Venice,will be annexed to Sardinia, a very considerable augmentationof power for the aspiring, energetic, and liberal Sovereign ofthat kingdom. Parma and Modena, with Tuscany alreadyrevolutionized, will follow the fate of the Lombardo-Venetianterritory, as far as their late rulers are concerned. Essentially Austrian in their personal and political relations, theyTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 307can never come back unless some new turn of the wheel offortune shall cause such a general reaction, as, having oncehappened within the present generation, may by possibilityhappen again. With this qualification, we may set down thethree principalities just named as lost to Austrian control, andto their hereditary princes. Will they too be annexed toSardinia? This may well be doubted. A Sardinian Commissioner appeared at Florence and took possession of theabdicated government of Tuscany; but the cousin of theEmperor has followed upon his heels with a French army,and is installed in the Crocetta. -This may be nothing but ameasure of precaution to hold Tuscany for the Allies, or itmay be a measure of preparation for the establishment of thecousin of Louis Napoleon, with his Sardinian bride, in a newkingdom of Etruria.With these stirring events in Northern and Central Italy,tending however not to any " Unity of Government," but tothe aggrandizement of Sardinia and the establishment of aprince of the Napoleonic dynasty in the heart of the Peninsula, will Naples and the Ecclesiastical State remain unshaken?In Naples the elements of disaffection are widely diffused .An odious Sovereign has gone to his account; that his mountain-load of unpopularity is buried in his grave is not so clear.If the new king as is reported, should wisely turn from hisbrother's evil ways, -throw open the prisons, lighten the burden of taxation, and reform the traditionary abuses of theState, he may maintain himself on his precarious throne.-But if it should enter into the Imperial plan to realize theIdées Napoleoniennes, in Southern Italy; and if the new Kingshall pursue the line of his government which earned for hisfather the hatred and contempt of his people and of Europe,the chosen instrument of redress is at hand in the person ofPrince Murat.These are the territorial changes most likely to be made,and to which, arguing from the present premonitions, the308 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.minds of men involuntarily turn. They may possibly bemade by popular choice. Some great changes must be made,to meet the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, and thesenow indicated seem to be more probable than that Sardiniawill be allowed to monopolize the harvest of the war, whichis the alternative possibility. But in these changes, it isscarcely necessary to say, there is no near approach to aUnity of Government, " none to an Independent Italian Nationality, comprehending the entire Peninsula.But though these events constitute no near approach tosuch a Unity, they seem to be a first step in the right direction . It is much to throw off the foreign yoke from the fairestportions of Northern and Central Italy. Sardinia by extension in that quarter will have been built up into a very considerable Power; and in the lapse of time, by the sameprocess by which the present Monarchy of Spain was consolidated by Ferdinand and Isabella, and the Kingdom of Francegrew by the successive annexation of Burgundy, Navarre, andthe other feudal dependencies, and Prussia has been elevated ina century and a half from a feeble electorate into one of theleading powers of Europe, the Sardinian Monarchy may gradually draw to itself the other Italian States and form at lastone powerful Italian Government. This will hardly be thework of one generation.In the mean time, the state of Italy and the march ofevents are replete with instruction for us. The history ofthis beautiful country for ages and its present condition teachus, that the strongest inducements to " Unity of Government,"-geographical position, ties of common origin, language, andreligion, capacity to do each other unbounded good or evil,-strength if they hold together, -weakness and subjection toforeign powers if the body politic is broken into fragments;-are all of no avail, without some deeper principle of Union.It would be idle at this time; -for the last thousand years itwould have been idle; -to say to the Italians, broken up intoTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 309ten or twelve governments, " it is folly and madness for youto continue thus disunited . " Men as individuals and as communities will often do foolish and mad things, and the exampleof Italy shows that they will persist in doing them throughlong ages of subjection and suffering.Again, if before the disintegration of the Roman power inItaly commenced, men had said to themselves " this finecountry will never be so unwise as to allow itself to bebroken up;-this intelligent people will surely hold togetherforever; Nature has thrown the circling seas around theircoasts, has piled up this great Alpine wall on the frontier, haspoured out a noble river through her Northern valley to bindtogether the States which line its banks; and, in the diversity of natural products, has made each section essential tothe prosperity of every other, while internal dissension willbe the ruin of all; -they never can, they never will breakup," if he had said this, he would have uttered words ofwisdom, but alas, as the event has proved, not words ofprophecy.The example then of Italy teaches us, in characters writtenin tears and in blood, that it is not natural advantages, norcapacities for mutual good and harm;-not the material benefits of Union, not the certain woes of separation,—whichcreate and preserve a Unity of Government, though they addstrength to the tie when it exists; but it is a generous sentiment pervading the population, a comprehensive patriotism,a reciprocal respect for local interests and feelings, fusingnatural elements, however dissimilar and remote, into a wellcompacted whole. It is by these alone that a people can beformed, and an independent Nationality asserted.NUMBER THIRTY- FOUR.THE LIGHT-HOUSE.The greatest dangers of the sea are in nearing the land-To obviate some of these light-houses have been erected-The Colossus of Rhodes-The Pharos of Alexandria-Great improvements in modern times-Fresnel-Feelings in contemplating a light-house-The Fitzmaurice light-Number of light- houses in England,France, and the United States-Dangers sometimes of their multiplication-Anec- dote of a narrow escape- Minot's Ledge described-Destruction of the ironscrew-pile light- house in April, 1851 -The violence of the gale described -A newlight-house of solid masonry in progress of erection under Capt. AlexanderProgress of the work-An eclipsing light a beautiful object-Via Crucis, via Lucis.Most persons who navigate the ocean have found out thatthe greatest dangers of the sea are near the land. In midocean, in a good staunch ship, the skilful sailor feels comparatively safe. There are of course perils even with full searoom. There are dangers even there, from lightning, andhurricanes which no strength of timbers can resist, icebergs,collision with other vessels, and fire; but all these may beequally encountered on nearing land, with the additionalperils of a lee shore. These last are always great, howeverwell aware the navigator may be of his precise situation . Hemay be driven by a force of winds and currents, which nohuman skill can withstand, upon frightful rocks or treacherous sands, well knowing beforehand that he is speeding tocertain destruction . But it happens not seldom on nearingland after a long voyage, especially in the night, and stillmore in weather so thick as to prevent taking the sun, thatthe wretched vessel, ignorant of her position, goes withoutwarning to her doom,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 311To obviate this danger, as far as it can be done by humanart, it has been the practice of the civilized nations to markthe approach to their sea-ports, and the position of dangerouspoints on the shore, and of sunken ledges and shoals, withlight-houses. This practice began in antiquity. Some persons have supposed that the Colossus of Rhodes was a lighthouse; but the Pharos of Alexandria, which, in the Frenchlanguage, has given its name to structures of this kind, andwhich was built by one of the Ptolemies in the fourth centurybefore our Saviour, is the oldest of which we have any authentic accounts.It would be out of place, in a paper of this kind, to attempt a minute description of the great improvements whichhave been made in light-houses in modern times. As far astheir illumination goes, the most important of these improvements may be traced to the elder Fresnel in France, whosesystem has been adopted in our own, and most, if not all,other countries. It has earned for him the distinction ofbeing " classed with the greatest of those inventive minds,which extend the boundaries of human knowledge, and he willthus at the same time receive a place among those benefactors of the species, who have consecrated their genius to thecommon good of mankind, and wherever maritime intercourseprevails, the solid advantages which his labors have procuredwill be felt and acknowledged. "I confess I never behold one of these noble buildings without emotion, I had almost said without reverence, especiallywhen guided by it in safety along an iron-bound coast orbetween sunken ledges, to the desired haven. Piloted by itstrusty beams, streaming over the midnight waters, the skilfulnavigator shoots boldly along within a hundred rods of somegrey promontory, on which the storms of fifty centuries haveroared and burst. He has not perhaps for a week had anobservation of the sun, but that friendly light in making landmore than supplies its place. Unlike most other works of312 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.public utility, it is not built for the exclusive benefit of thecountry at whose expense it is erected. Its light is kindledfor all mankind, like the sun which rises on the evil and onthe good. In storm and in calm, in summer and in winter,for friend and enemy, citizen and alien, a land-mark by day,and a beacon by night, it stands and shines a beauty and ablessing.There is nothing I read about with greater pleasure thanlight-houses, the difficulty of building them on sunken rocks,such as the Eddystone, Bellrock, Skerryvore, and our ownMinot's Ledge; the triumphs of the engineer over the tidesand the tempest; and the modes of lighting them, which havebeen so much improved in modern times, by means of lenses,mirrors, newly invented and powerful illuminating substances,revolving and colored lights, and other arrangements for identifying and discriminating light-houses, and preventing theirbeing confounded with each other. It has been said that anarrow and dangerous passage, like the Bosphorus, might, atmoderate expense, and by the application of the Fitzmauricelight, be made as light as day, all the way up from the Dardanelles to the Black Sea. Light, I fear, of a different kind,must stream into the Divan at Constantinople, before anything like this can be expected.I suppose there is no country in the world that maintainsso many light-houses as the United States. In the seventhedition of the Edinburgh Encyclopædia it is stated, that thenumber of lights in England is 71 , in Scotland 51 , in Ireland44; in all one hundred and sixty-six. The number of Frenchlights is given in the same work at upwards of one hundred.By the statement in the report on the Finances for 1857-8,the last which I have seen, the number of light-houses, lightboats, and beacons, on the Atlantic, Gulf, Lake, and Pacificcoasts, corrected to 1st of January, 1858, is four hundred andninety, including those built and building. The average annual cost of each light-house and light-vessel is stated in theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 313same document to be $ 1,286; or about $643,000 per annum;a sum larger than the entire appropriation for the support ofGovernment, in the first year of President Washington'sadministration. Whoever will carefully read that list oflight-houses, with the marginal notes, will get an idea, noteasily to be derived from any other source, of the vast coastwise reach of this country, and the extent of its maritimeresources. I think he will also get some new views of thebeneficent operations of that United Government, which embraces it all in one jurisdiction, and which moves along thecoasts of either ocean, of the Mexican Gulf, and the great inland seas, studding their headlands, and marking their shoalsand reefs, with these beneficent structures.As there is scarce any such thing as unmixed good, eventhe multiplication of light-houses has its dangers. They maysometimes be confounded with each other, and so betray avessel into the very danger they were intended to point out.I once heard a pilot say there were too many light-houses onLong Island Sound. He probably would have found it diffi.cult to name any one which he would wish to take away;certainly not if he had occasion to make the port or incur therisk, on account of which it was built. The resources ofmodern art have been very successfully applied in contrivingarrangements by which light-houses may readily be discriminated, and, if the expectations which have been formed of theFitzmaurice light should not be disappointed, an artificial daymay yet be produced along the whole extent of the coast ofLong Island Sound.I was, on one occasion, the near witness and almost thevictim of the dangers attending the confounding of light-housesas you near the land. On my first visit to Europe, in thespring of 1815, in a sailing vessel of three hundred and fiftytons, which was thought a sizeable ship in those days, we werein greater danger from the time we approached the Irish andWelsh coast, than in any other part of the voyage. The14314 THE MOUNT VERNON was so thick that we could not see the ship's lengthbefore us, and the wind blew us strongly on a lee shore, whichwe did not at first know to be such, having had no observation for a day or two. The first land we made was an island,with a light-house upon it. When the light-house was firstdescried through the haze, we took it for a vessel, and steereddirectly for it. It was apparently not above two miles off.Presently the man at the mast-head cried out, with a frightfulvoice, " A Light-house. Breakers! " Our captain was ledby his reckoning to think it was Waterford light, and supposed that we were driving on the Irish coast. The ship wasimmediately forced to starboard, to weather the supposedpoint on the coast of Ireland. In a moment the Captain criedwith a yell and an oath, which I have never forgotten, " It'sSmall's, ”—a light-house on the Welsh coast. We were driving head-on toward the breakers. The ship, which in anothermoment would have struck, was put about; we passed thelight-house on the right in safety, but at a very short distance,and within full sight and hearing of the awful breakers wehad so narrowly escaped!Minot's Ledge or Minot's Rocks, form one of the mostdangerous points on our north-eastern coast. They lie offCohasset, in the State of Massachusetts, seventeen miles southeast from Boston. Within thirty years and principally withinfifteen years prior to 1848, ten ships, fourteen brigs, sixteenschooners, and three sloops struck on these dangerous rocks,and of these forty-three vessels, twenty-seven were totallosses. The outer rock is forty-eight feet long and thirty-sixfeet broad, at mean low-water level. It being deemed imposible to construct at a moderate cost a light-house of solidmasonry on such a rock, exposed to the full sweep of the Atlantic, it was determined to erect a screw-pile iron light-house,on a plan which had been successfully adopted on other pointsof our coast, and in Europe. This was done at small expenseand under a skilful engineer between 1847 and 1849. Either,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 315however, from some suspicion of want of solidity in the rock,into which the iron piles were bolted, or the impossibility ofresisting a column of water, driven with such tremendousleverage under the floor of the lantern, it soon began to bedoubted whether the structure would stand. A letter writtenat the light-house by the keeper, after the gale of December1850, gives a fearful description of its effect upon the building." At intervals, " says he, " an appalling stillness prevails, creating aninconceivable dread, each gazing with breathless emotion on the other;but the next moment the deep roar of another roller is heard, seemingas if it would tear up the very rocks beneath, as it burst upon us. Thelight-house quivering and trembling to its very centre, recovers itselfjust in time to breast the fnry of another and another wave, as they rollin upon us with resistless force."The same letter says, "the Northern part of the foundation is split, and the light-house rocks at least two feet eachway."On the 16th April, 1851, a terrible storm swept thecoast of New England. In the afternoon the light- house onMinot's Ledge was last seen from the shore; at eleveno'clock at night the fog-bell was heard between the fearfulpauses of the tempest; no light was seen in it that night;and in the morning its broken fragments, scattered on theshore, proclaimed the fate of the ill-starred structure, and ofthe two unfortunate keepers, Joseph Wilson and JosephAntonio, who were lost in it. The iron piles had remainedfirm in their beds, but had been bent and snapped about sixfeet from the rock; and the lantern, after having fallen to aninclination of about twenty degrees, thus presenting its flooring to the rushing waves, seemed to have been driven forwardwith a force that tore the piles asunder.After the disastrous result of the experiment of the screw.pile light-house, nothing remained but to build a tower ofsolid masonry, at whatever cost. The work was projected316 THE MOUNT VERNON General Totten, the accomplished head of the Departmentof Engineers, and its execution confided to Captain B. S.Alexander, who had already given satisfactory proofs of hisability as a constructing engineer. The tower is now inprogress of successful erection, a cone thirty feet in diameterat the base, to be seventeen feet and a half at top; ninety feethigh, the lower forty feet to be solid . The greatest difficultyhas been in forming the foundation- pit in the rock, which wasto be cut down two or three levels, and the whole circle ofthirty feet finely hammered. To give greater solidity to thework the levels are fastened to each other by galvanized ironbolts, and the solid masses of hewn granite dovetailed andcemented together. " On Tuesday morning, the first day ofJuly, 1855," said Capt. Alexander last October, "just as thesun tipped the wings of the seagull, as it took its flight overthe wave, we struck our first blow on the Minot. The firstyear we worked upon it 130 hours; in 1856, 157 hours; in1857, 130 hours and 21 minutes; in 1858, to September 30th208 hours, -in all 625 hours 21 minutes." As the work advances in height above the level of the tide, it will of courseadmit of a full day's work; and Captain Alexander expressedthe opinion last October, that if no unforeseen cause of delayoccurred, it might be finished in two years. It will whencompleted take rank with the Eddystone and Skerryvore as apiece of fearless engineering.Among the ingenious devices for distinguishing lighthouses from each other, where there is any danger of confusion, are the arrangements, to which I have already alluded,for revolving, eclipsing, flashing, and intermittent lights,which, with the addition of white and red color, are capableof almost indefinite variety. A more pleasing spectacle isnot to be seen on earth than a revolving or intermittent light,which disappears for a few seconds; then sparkles white orred; beams out gradually to its full illumination; wanes anddisappears but to return; seen of a moonless night upon4LTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 317some lonely promontory which rears its grim buttresses fromthe moaning waters, and enabling the homeward bound vesselto thread its way to its destined port through narrow channelsand roaring breakers, regardless of the tempest ready to burstfrom the overhanging cloud. Such an eclipsing light, seenduring the contemplative watches of a sleepless night on the8th ofJuly, 1855, suggested the following lines:THE ANTITHESIS OF LIFE:Via Crucis, Via Lucis.It goes in and comes out, now it fades, now is bright,And it guides by its darkness, as well as its light.So a word fitly spoken is potent to teach,But silence sometimes talketh better than speech.Force winneth the battle, force driveth the throng,But patient endurance, through weakness, is strong.A gay sparkling glance is right joyous to see,But a deep thoughtful eye hath more witchery for me.The king rules his realm by a word, by a whim,But the babe that can't speak, * from his cradle, rules him.So the pride of this life treads the path of renown,But the way of the Cross is the way of the Crown.

  • Written shortly after the birth of the Prince Imperial of France.

NUMBER THIRTY- FIVE.PRINCE METTERNICH.Should he be classed with the Illustrious dead of 1859?-His success civil not military-Not cruel nor bloodthirsty-His government mild for an absolute despo- tism-Is Lombardy an exception?-Anecdote of Silvio Pellico and the other conductors of the Conciliatore-Metternich's first service at the Congress of Rastadt-The four coalitions-His conduct as the Austrian minister in FranceAnecdote from Capefigue of doubtful authenticity-Was he the projector of the marriage of Napoleon I. with Marie Louise?-Rules Austria in peace for thirty- three years-Sinks at last in 1848-His exile, return, and the close of his career as a private man.I HAVE in some late Numbers of this series spoken of theILLUSTRIOUS dead of 1859, Prescott, Bond, Hallam, and Humboldt; all surely entitled to that designation. Since thosepapers appeared, another name has been added to the list ofthedistinguished dead of this year, to which the epithet " illustrious " must with greater hesitation be applied. If talent inhis peculiar vocation, rank, power, and-during a long courseof years-success, make a man justly " illustrious," then wasPrince Metternich entitled to that appellation. He belongedto the privileged class of his native country; he possessed bynature all the personal endowments which, in the old world,most promote success in life. He received a thorough German education for a public career; he married in his youth adaughter of the prime minister, and rose from step to step inpositions of trust, responsibility and power, till he became,under a feeble and confiding sovereign, the real ruler of theoldest and one of the most powerful monarchies of Europe.This position he filled for forty years, in the most difficultTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 319times, in a period of general political disorganization , and indirect collision with the great military genius of the age, ofwhom more and longer than any other individual he was thedirect antagonist . All this, in the ordinary estimate of humanendowment and performance, must be admitted to make aman illustrious; and yet I should be ashamed to class himwith the great intellectual princes who have enlarged thebounds of human knowledge; who have traced the pathwaysof Providence in the fortunes of nations; who have discovered new worlds in the depths of the heavens; or like Humboldt have ruled with serene mastery over the whole empireof science.Some things, however, may be said to the honor of Metternich's genius and career, although his character is one withwhich I have no sympathy. In an age when every thingbowed to the supremacy ofthe sword, and single battles.decided the fate of Empires; -when men rose from the ranksand shook the world; -Metternich attained the elevationwhich I have described, without the prestige of military reputation. I am not aware that he ever held any rank in thearmy; he certainly never served. He rose with fair but notcommanding advantages of birth, under the most intenselyaristocratic government in Europe, by the force of talent,education, manners, untiring industry, and a resolute purpose.I do not deny that first and last he had many adventitiousaids, as he had some drawbacks; but, in an age in which, inalmost every country, England not excepted, the greatestsoldier was the greatest man, Metternich's undisputed ascendancy was earned not in the field but in the cabinet.It may also be said to the credit of Metternich, that,though his principles of government were those of unmitigated despotism,-the exercise of sheer power, -there doesnot seem to have been any thing tyrannical and still less anything blood-thirsty in his nature. He started with the principle of the Right Divine. He interpreted Dei Gratia lite-320 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.rally; —he was a strict constructionist of the straitest sect inthat school. But having laid down this theory of government,and practically placed his administration on this platform,he studied the good of the subject. He would not, it is true,allow him to study his own good, by any intermeddling withpublic affairs. He enforced a severe censorship over thepress; he annihilated political journalism; he shut out allforeign literature, which he deemed dangerous to Church orState, with greater jealousy than he did the plague, —for youcould enter Austria from Smyrna or Alexandria after a reasonable quarantine, but there was no quarantine for a pestilential volume. But the highways, as I know from experience,were safe in the loneliest passes of the Carpathians, -privatejustice, when no reasons of State interfered, and although alittle apt to get buried under a cartload of written pleadings,(but that is the fault not of the government but of the code, )was faithfully, if not promptly, administered; common schoolswere encouraged, scientific institutions and scientific researchespatronized, and, in a word, the material well-being of the people was cared for.-In his person, Prince Metternich was a man of courteousmanners, and temperate and industrious habits, a hardworker, a patron of art, a collector of books, paintings, andstatuary, a lover of music, a hospitable and genial host.With every thing to turn his head and harden his heart, hewas, individually, what may be called an unaffected, honorable, and amiable man. Wielding for forty years absolutepower under weak princes, --reminding you of the Mayors ofthe palace in the early French Monarchy, under the reign ofthe insensati (silly) Kings, there are probably few rulers towhose door less wanton cruelty can be laid, -at any rate lessshedding of blood.His government of Lombardy and Venice may be thoughtto furnish an exception to this remark; it was no doubt aniron rule, but this only in one respect, viz .: that all politicalTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 321action and word were forbidden under the severest penalties,enforced by a military police and an unrelenting criminalcode. Regarding the Austrian power not as established andaccepted, but simply as encamped in Lombardy, every thingthat looked like the manifestation of disaffection, or even openopposition to the government was regarded, not merely as dangerous, but as treasonable, and as such repressed. But therewas some show of moderation even here. Men were nottaken out of their beds and shot, nor blown away from themouth of cannons; but they were sent to the Piombi ofVenice and to the Spielberg in Moravia.Pellico at Milan inThey were just.comI made the acquaintance of Silvio1819, and of some of his liberal friends.mencing the publication of a political journal , which theycalled the " Conciliatore," which means in Italian pretty muchwhat it means in English. To an American it seemed aremarkably milk- and-water concern. It had the fault, happily almost unknown in this country, of discussing politicalquestions with good temper, and confuting your adversary -without calling him hard names. In short, it might be calledtame. In the few numbers which had come out at that time,I did not see the Italian equivalents of the expressive epithetsof " hypocrite," " coward," " swindler," or " liar " applied toa single official from the throne to the police station . TheEmperor was not even called a " fool," nor the vice-regalArchduke a " tyrant." It is plain that poor Silvio and hisassociates had very little idea of the beauty of a free press;and they suffered accordingly. Like all " conciliators " between the extremes of opinion, they pleased the ultraists ofneither party. Those who sought the emancipation of Italy atthe point of the dagger, disdained their moderation; while thePublic Prosecutor looked upon it as a mere pretext to insinuate the treason which they dared not openly teach. Ideemed it an act of kindness to intimate these views to theconductors of the Conciliatore, and half in jest told Silvio,14*322 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.that I should hear of him and his associates in the Spielbergin three months. The prophecy proved true with a little difference of time; and this was under the government ofPrince Metternich.The London " Times " has given us a sketch of the careerof the great statesman, -principally borrowed from Vapereau's Dictionnaire des Contemporains, or from some commonsource, which has been generally copied, and need not behere repeated. He figured in Imperial ceremonials, while yeta youth of seventeen, at the coronation of the Emperor Leopold, but he commenced the business of life at the Congressof Rastadt. This was a diplomatic meeting, called to makethe territorial arrangements, required to carry into effect thesecret articles of the treaty of Campo Formio, concluded between Austria and France in 1797. Metternich attended onbehalf of the Westphalian Princes; and the fruitless negotiations of this body protracted to the year 1799, ended at lastin an event, the assassination of the French ministers andthe seizure of their papers, -which, the historian tells us, atthe time " excited the utmost indignation and horror throughout Europe; " but which now—-so full has Europe supped ofhorrors, in the sixty years which have elapsed-will be wordswithout meaning to the most of my readers.Ofthe great coalitions in Europe, by which the four otherleading powers strove to arrest the progress and shatter thesystem of Napoleon, Metternich was incontestably the contriver and the head. Their vitality and strength were due tohis energy and tact, and to British subsidies. No one, I suppose, of any party, will now blame an Austrian Minister forseeking to stop the march of Napoleon the First to UniversalEmpire. Granting his ulterior objects to be as beneficent asthey are represented in the Idées Napoleoniennes, it could notbe expected that the dynasties, whose extinction was the condition of his success, should acquiesce without a struggle intheir doom. Had Metternich been as liberal in his generalTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 32329 principles of administration, and as regardful of the " nationalities as Kossuth himself, it could not be expected of anAustrian Minister to lie down in the dust before the chariotwheels of a foreign conqueror. That he should, as the Austrian representative to the French Imperial Court, endeavorto mislead Napoleon as to his own feelings and the policy ofhis government, is certainly not to be justified by the rules ofa severe morality, which makes the truth on all occasions thefirst duty of governments and of men. But it could hardlybe expected of the envoy of the weaker and the menacedgovernment, pitted against the most consummate diplomaticfinesse, backed by the most overwhelming military power inmodern history, to practice upon the rules of Roman orChristian virtue. There is a proverb which need not be repeated, relative to the length of the spoon, which it is convenient to use, when you sup with a personage who shall benameless. A similar precaution will not be severely blamedby the charitable, on the part of the foreign minister, compelled to cope with M. de Talleyrand.An anecdote is related by Alison, on the authority ofCapefigue, of which the authenticity may be doubted. It isto this effect, that when M. de Metternich was at first accredited to the French Court, Napoleon remarked to him,"you are very young to represent so powerful a monarchy."His reply is said to have been, " Your Majesty was not olderat Austerlitz." As Napoleon himself was at the moment butthirty-seven, and had been for several years at the head of theFrench government, it does not seem probable that he shouldhave thought thirty-three very young for an Austrian Minister. The reply ascribed to Metternich is still less likely tohave been made. Such an allusion to a battle, in which thearmies of his country were defeated, and the Sovereign herepresented was humiliated, never passed the lips of a patriotor a gentleman, and Metternich was both. It is one of the324 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.epigrams, which sensation writers put into the mouths of thegreat personages they attempt to describe.After Wagram, despairing of further resistance to Napoleon, and intent upon building up Austria, from the ruins offour vast wars, which she had fought, though unsuccessfully,in thirteen years, Prince Metternich, being placed at the headof her government, on the retirement of Count Stadion, cameto the conclusion , that a durable peace and intimate relationswith France were absolutely necessary to the successful promotion of this policy. With this in view, acting upon thetraditions of the House of Austria, * which had passed into aproverb three centuries before, he determined to promote amarriage between Napoleon and an Austrian archduchess.Alison appears to represent Metternich himself as havingstated to the late Lord Londonderry, that it was his first care,on acceding to power, " to arrange and bring about the marriage. " The common account gives the credit of this “"arrangement " to Fouché. A more probable opinion is, that itwas the conception of Napoleon himself; -not a man to havematches made for him by his own ministers or those of anyother government. By whomsoever conceived, it was an inauspicious thought; but one which might well catch the imagination of an Austrian Minister, weighing sacraments, andduties, and affections in the scale of a worldly ambition. Itwas one of the great mistakes of Napoleon the First. Napoleon the Third did a wiser and a worthier thing, when, disdaining to engraft his dynasty on the reluctant royalties ofEurope, he raised a " parvenue " partner, to use his own exThe following celebrated epigram is ascribed to Mathias Corvinus, King ofHungary:Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria, nube,Nam quæ Mars aliis dat tibi regna Venus:which may be imperfectly rendered,"Let others war, thou, Austria, wed the throne,Mars gives them crowns, by Venus thine are won. "THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 325pression, selected for her amiable personal qualities, to hisimperial throne.From the downfall of Napoleon, Metternich ruled Austriaunder her nominal Sovereigns, for thirty- three years. He itwas who, availing himself of the religious mysticism whichhad taken possession of the Emperor Alexander of Russia,projected, with that monarch, the Holy Alliance. At thegreat European Congresses which were held under its auspices at Aix la Chapelle, Laybach, and Verona, he was thegreat representative of the political system of the three absolute governments of the North and East of Europe. Hetook to himself the credit of having, mainly by his skill andfirmness, staid the advances of what he called revolutionaryideas, but what the enlightened masses of the civilized worldregard as progress and reform. He had some reason to lookupon the fruit of his labors with complacency, for to all appearance they had been successful. Every revolutionary.movement in Italy, from Lago Maggiore to Calabria, hadbeen crushed; and though France and Spain had adoptedliberal institutions, those powers were neither of them in acondition to set on foot a dangerous propagandism in foreign.States. In Russia, Prussia, and his own Austria his system.reigned. The territorial arrangements of the Great Captain,with whom he had waged so fearful a struggle had, for themost part, proved transitory, and while every Sovereign whohad ruled when the Congress of Vienna was in session, andalmost all his colleagues and associates had disappeared fromthe stage, he was still in the possession of his faculties, hispower, and his honors. He is said, however, to have feltthat the ground beneath his feet was hollow. He had chainedthe tempest but he heard it roaring in its caverns. It is constantly told of him, that he was accustomed to say thingswill last as long as I do, but after me the deluge. " Thedeluge burst before he expected it. The rains descended, andthe floods came, and the winds blew. They prostrated his66326 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.government, his system, and his fortunes. He reluctantlyyielded up the seals of office to his imperial master, who cowered before the rising storm; and while the rabble of Viennawas sacking his princely residence, and madly scatteringgilded furniture and priceless works of art in fragments overhis trampled lawns, he fled for his life to England. Thedeluge subsided, and he returned to his estates and his honors,but never more to the possession of power. He enjoyed,however, some years of tranquil retirement, consulted by hissuccessors and happy in his children, and died before his agedeyes were again pained by the sight, with which they hadso often been sadly familiar, the inauguration of another tremendous era of Austrian Calamity.NUMBER THIRTY- SIX.SEVEN CRITICAL OCCASIONS AND INCIDENTS IN THE LIFEOF WASHINGTON.Instances of an overruling Providence in the lives of distinguished men, and signally in the life of Washington-His brother Lawrence an officer in the expedition un- der Admiral Vernon against Carthagena-Plan for placing George in the BritishNavy, and a midshipman's warrant procured-His mother opposes the plan, and it is abandoned-Accompanies his brother to Barbadoes at the age of nineteen and takes the small- pox-Terrific nature of that disease before the discovery of Vaccination-Appears in the American Army in 1775 and afterwards-Great dangers to which Washington was exposed on his mission to Venango-Hazards of an ex- cursion at that time in the districts occupied by the Indians-Their crueltiesNarrow escape of Washington on the return-Concluding reflection.In the biographies of distinguished persons, we sometimesread the account of very narrow escapes from great dangers,or of incidents not seemingly very important at the time, buton which it appears in the sequel that the whole course ofafter life depended. Such escapes and such incidents irresistibly lead the mind to acknowledge a controlling Power, whichwatches over great and precious lives, and shapes the courseof otherwise unimportant events to the accomplishment ofmomentous results. Modern Philosophy, I am aware, disdains these inferences, and prefers to see in these, as in allelse that happens in the world, nothing but a blind fate or amechanical necessity; as if that system did not present equaldifficulties as a philosophical theory, while it extinguishes thelight of an overruling Providence in the world; withoutwhich our life is a weary and cheerless pilgrimage.I know no person in whose life these narrow escapes and328 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.、these critical occurrences are more numerous and strikingthan they are in that of Washington; and as his services inpeace and war, and his whole public career and characterstand, in many respects, without a parallel in human history,I find it impossible not to trace the hand of a protecting,guiding, and overruling Power on occasions which, in the lifeof an ordinary man would have passed without notice.One of the events, in which these remarks find their application, was the project formed by the relatives and friends ofWashington, when he was but fourteen years old, to placehim in the Navy of Great Britain. He possessed by naturethe military turn, which had been manifested by several members of his family, not only from their first arrival in thiscountry, but before the emigration from England. His elderbrother, Lawrence, belonged to one of the battalions ofAmerican troops, which sailed from America to reinforce thearmy under General Wentworth and Admiral Vernon, in theunsuccessful expedition against Carthagena in 1740. Severalother Virginians were in the same expedition . Among themMr. William Fairfax and Captain Dandridge, a relation, Ipresume, of the lady who afterwards became General Washington's wife. Captain Lawrence Washington and CaptainMurray are named as the commanders of a battalion of twohundred Americans, who, on the 19th of March, 1740, aidedin the assault, " with wonderful resolution and success," of abattery which commanded the entrance into the harbor ofCarthagena. This is the only occasion on which I find hisname in Rolt's history of the war; but his conduct is known tohave been such as to win for him the respect of his superiors.Heformed an intimate personal acquaintance with the Admiral,who fortunately escaped from that most disastrous expeditionagainst Carthagena, without loss of the credit acquired by thecapture of Porto Bello. On the return of Captain LawrenceWashington to America, at the close of the war, he gave to hisnewly erected mansion at Hunting Creek, the ever memorable!|THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 329name of MOUNT VERNON, in honor of the popular naval herounder whom he had served.It was natural that these circumstances should make thenaval service of Great Britain a familiar subject of conversation in the family circle; and that George, then a boy underfourteen, being a frequent resident at Mount Vernon, shouldhave his juvenile imagination kindled with the tales of navalprowess and glory, which were so often repeated in his presence. It is not known whether the idea of entering upon thatcareer originated with himself or was suggested by his brotherand other friends. At all events a Midshipman's warrantwas obtained for him, and it is even said, that his clotheswere packed to go on board ship. His mother alone nevercordially approved the plan, and her misgivings increased asthe time for putting it in execution drew near. Mr. Sparksquotes a letter from Mr. Jackson, a friend of the family, apparently written from Fredericksburg to Captain LawrenceWashington at Mount Vernon, in which he says:" I am afraid Mrs. Washington will not keep up to her first resolution.She seems to dislike George's going to sea, and says several persons havetold her it was a bad scheme. She offers several trifling objections, suchas fond, unthinking mothers habitually suggest; and I find that one wordagainst his going has more weight than ten for it. "She persevered in her opposition, and the project wasabandoned. Had Washington at the age of fourteen enteredthe navy of Great Britain, then engaged in the war of 1744with France, as soon afterwards in that of 1756, one of twothings would unquestionably have happened. He wouldeither have fallen a victim to the hardships and exposures ofthe service, or he would have lived and grown up an officer-no doubt a gallant and distinguished one-in the BritishNavy. I cannot therefore but regard the abandonment ofthisplan, when it was on the point of being consummated, and inconsequence of the mother's opposition, as an occurrence in330 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Washington's life well worthy to be ascribed to an overrulingProvidence.The second event, in reference to which, though of an entirely different character, I am disposed to make a similarreflection, occurred on occasion of his voyage to Barbadoes afew years later. This was the only occasion on which Washington ever left the American continent. His brother, Captain Lawrence, whose constitution, naturally feeble, had beenimpaired on the fatal expedition against Carthagena, by theeffect of the climate, fell into a decline, and was ordered tothe West Indies; his much loved brother, George, was selectedto accompany him. They sailed for Barbadoes in the monthof September, 1751 , and arrived there in five weeks, Georgebeing then nineteen years of age. He had scarcely been afortnight in the island, when he was attacked with small poxin " the natural way." The attack was severe, but skilfulmedical attendance and the assiduities of his brother andfriends were successful. He recovered in about three weeks,but he showed slight marks of the disease the rest of his life.The reader of the life of Washington, perhaps, passesover this incident as one of comparatively little consequence.Contrasted with the stirring events of his military and political career, it hardly attracts notice. But it may be doubtedwhether in any of his battles he was in equal danger. Thesmall pox, a century ago, when vaccination was unknown andinoculation not universally practised, was a name of terror.Ofall the shocks that flesh is heir to, few transcended this loathsome disease, in the havoc which it caused and the dismaywhich it inspired. Wherever it appeared, all the moveablepopulation fled in consternation . By the young and the fairit was dreaded worse than death: to survive it with features,once beautiful, but ploughed into ridges, was a life- long sorrow. It carried off one fourth-part of those whom it attacked, and of the survivors many who lived, disfigured forlife, were left with enfeebled frames and morbid predisposi-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 331tions. If it entered an army, it was a foe more to be dreadedthan embattled hosts; if it broke out in a populous city,those who could not fly were decimated. So frightfully contagious was it, that no attendance could be procured for thesufferer, except from those who had passed the ordeal.But fearful as this malady was, in the extent of its ravages,it belongs to that class of diseases of which, by a mysteriouslaw of our nature, our frames are, generally speaking, susceptible but once. Ofthose who survived it, it has been calculated that the proportion to whom a second attack provedfatal, was, under the most favorable circumstances, but onein seventy-five. This reduced it far below the level of manyother diseases as an object of alarm; and in diminishing itsterrors, diminished in the same proportion one of its mostdisastrous effects .Thus it came to pass that, in the morning of his days, bya visitation which was at the time of the most alarming character, Washington became (humanly speaking) safe from allfuture danger from this most formidable disease. The warof the Revolution had hardly begun before the importance ofthis circumstance was apparent. The small pox broke outamong the British soldiery in Boston, in the autumn of 1775;and reports were brought to General Washington, (which hecharitably discredited, ) that it was intended by the enemy tocommunicate it, by means of those who left the city, to theAmerican Army. It did make its appearance outside the linesof circumvallation, and as a measure of precaution, the soldiersof the besieging army were inoculated. At this time, however, that practice was still viewed by many with dislike;and the fear of the disease, either by natural or artificial contagion, was one great cause which discouraged enlistments.It prevailed in the army in Canada, (where Major- GeneralThomas, of Massachusetts, died of it the next spring; ) at Ticonderoga; and in 1777, at Morristown. On this last occasion of its appearance, Washington remarked in a letter to332 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia, where inoculationwas forbidden by law:"You will pardon my observations on Small Pox, because I know itis more destructive to the army, in the natural way, than the enimies'sword, and because I shudder whenever I reflect upon the difficulties ofkeeping it out! "Such was the fearful character of the danger from whichWashington was protected from the age of nineteen. Theloathsome pestilence, which in 1751 menaced the life of theyouthful Virginian traveller in Barbadoes, was in reality acharm which rendered the Beloved Commander of the American Armies in 1775, and in the following years of the contest, all but invulnerable, in the presence of a foe " moredestructive than the enemy's sword." If to refer this to anoverruling Providence be a superstition, I desire to be accounted superstitious.On the memorable expedition of Major Washington tothe post of the French military Governor at Venango in 1753-his first entrance into active public duty of that kind-hewas exposed to dangers from which his escape was all butmiraculous. The journey of five or six hundred miles wasmade in the winter season, through a country as yet unsettled, and a considerable part of it still traversed by the nativesof the continent, many of whom were under French influence.Perils of no ordinary kind attended him every step of theway. Few persons, probably, at the present day have anadequate idea of the danger, which at that time attended anyexcursion from the settled portions of the country into thedistricts still occupied by the native tribes. Frontier wareven among civilized races is ever unrelenting; the collisionsof the civilized and barbarous races in the mutual reactionsofprovocation and vengeance, have in all times been deplorably merciless. In 1753 a new element was added to thebitterness of border warfare, by the efforts of the ProvincialTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 333governments both of France and England to secure the cooperation of the natives in the approaching struggle. It isscarcely necessary to say to those who are familiar with thedark accounts and traditions of Indian warfare, what this cooperation implied. The native races, not yet broken by thepower nor enervated by the contact of the dominant races,still practised those revolting cruelties on their prisoners,which cannot be read without sickening horror. After Braddock's defeat-two years later than General Washington'sjourney to Venango, the English soldiers who surrenderedthemselves as prisoners, were, within sight and hearing ofFort Duquesne, made to undergo at the stake for hours, themost exquisite tortures which the human frame could support, or savage ingenuity inflict. Such were the perils towhich Washington was exposed, in voluntarily undertakingthis dangerous expedition . Traders from the Anglo- Americansettlements had already been made prisoners, in some casessent to France, in some, it was said, put to death in the wilderness, where a life more or less, even in time of peace, wasof little account.Having fulfilled his mission, and fearing that sinister influences might be exerted over the Indians on his return, hewas compelled to accelerate his departure. As he traversedthe woods with his pack on his back, attended by a singlecompanion, their treacherous savage guide at night-fall turned,and at a distance of fifteen paces, fired but without result, atWashington and his companion. Escaped from this imminent peril, but well knowing that the Indians were on theirtrail, they pursued their journey foot-sore for the whole of aDecember night, till they reached the Alleghany river thenfilled with drift ice. It could be crossed only on a raft whichthey labored all day with " one poor hatchet " to construct.In attempting to cross the river on this raft, Washingtonwhile using the setting pole, was thrown with violence intothe water where it was ten feet deep, and saved his life only334 THE MOUNT VERNON clinging to a log. Unable to force the raft to either shorethey passed the night, in garments which froze to their bodies,upon an island in the middle of the stream. Had the morning found them there, unable to reach the left bank, the tomahawk and the scalping knife would, in all human probability,have been their fate. But the cold which was so intense,that Washington's companion-hardy woodman as he was,froze his feet-froze the river between the Island, where theyhad passed the night, and the left bank of the Alleghany, andat dawn they crossed in safety.I have no metaphysics to bandy with those who can reflecton the career which was in reserve for Washington, and whocan see nothing in his escape from the rifle of his guide, fromcapture from the pursuing savages, from imminent danger ofdrowning, and from his unsheltered exposure in frozen garments for a livelong December night, but the ordinary adventures of a bold young man on the wilderness frontier. Isee rather in these perils and in these escapes, the hand ofProvidence;-and hear in them a voice, which in the languageof the devout poet, announced the high purpose:-"To exercise him in the Wilderness:There shall be first lay down the rudimentsOf his great warfare, ere I send him forthTo conquer. "NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN.SEVEN CRITICAL OCCASIONS AND INCIDENTS IN THE LIFEOF WASHINGTON.Braddock's expedition in 1755-Washington a volunteer aid-Falls ill on the way and sent back to the reserve-Joins the army the day before the engagement- Beautiful scene of war on the morning of the battle-Surprise and total defeat ofGeneral Braddock's army-Gallant conduct of Colonel Washington throughout the engagement-Great danger to which he was exposed-Interview with an In- dian Chieftain on the Kanawha in 1770-Prediction in 1755 of his future careerReflection by Mr. Sparks-Washington's visit to New York in 1756, where he isthe guest ofBeverley Robinson -Makes the acquaintance of Mary Philipse-Sho marries Captain Orme and adheres with her family to the royal cause.THE next instance of a Providential interposition in thelife of Washington, to which I shall allude, took place twoyears later. The mission to Venango, which I mentioned inmy last Number, was undertaken by direction of the Governor of Virginia, for the purpose of ascertaining the strengthof the French on the north-western frontier, and their probable designs in that quarter. The following year, ( 1754,)though the war was not declared in Europe till 1756, a smallmilitary force was sent in that direction, under ColonelWashington, which after some partial success, was forced bythe greatly superior strength of the enemy to a disastrousretreat. It is mentioned by the historians as a striking coincidence, that he was compelled, under capitulation, to evacuate"Fort Necessity," (so called to indicate the straits to whichhe had been reduced, ) on the 4th of July 1754; —the day tobe afterwards rendered, and in no small degree by his inestimable services, forever memorable in the annals of America.336 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Such were the courage, skill , and energy displayed by theyouthful commander in these trying scenes, that he came outof the campaign not only without reproach but with enhancedreputation.TheThe following year a great effort was made by the mothercountry to repair the disasters of 1754, and to secure an ascendency on the banks of the Ohio; for this was the limit ofAnglo-American ambition before the seven years' war.wildest imagination had not yet grasped the mighty domainwhich stretches westward to the peaceful ocean and the setting sun. Early in the spring of 1755, two regiments of regular British troops, commanded by General Braddock, a braveand experienced officer, but arrogant, passionate, and selfwilled, arrived in Virginia, and were moved westward towardthe passes through the Alleghanies. Colonel Washington hadretired from the army, disgusted by the regulations, whichgave precedence to officers holding under the royal commission over their seniors of the same rank in the provincialservice, thus placing him under those whom he had commanded in the former campaign. Influenced, however, bystrong attraction toward military life, and animated by fervent patriotic zeal, he accepted the invitation of GeneralBraddock, (to whom he had been made known by reputation,as the officer of the greatest experience and ability in the provincial service, ) to join his military family as a volunteer aid.On the passage through the mountains Colonel Washingtonwas attacked by a fever, with such violence that the surgeonwas alarmed for his life, and the General required him to fallback upon the reserve, which was proceeding slowly with thebaggage and heavy artillery. To this Washington consented,only on condition that he should be allowed to join the mainbody before an engagement. Placed under the care of thesurgeon in a wagon, reduced by disease, and suffering fromthe uneasy motion of the vehicle, he remained with the reserve two weeks, and was only able to return to Head Quar-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 337ters on the 8th of July, the eve of the battle of the Monongahela, a day disastrous beyond all others in the annals ofAmerica.Weak and exhausted, but strong in the spirit, Washingtonmounted his horse the following day. He was often heard tosay in after life—"That the most beautiful spectacle he had ever beheld was the display of the British troops on this eventful morning. Every man wasneatly dressed in full uniform, the soldiers were arranged in columns,and marched in exact order, —the sun gleamed from their burnished arms,the river flowed tranquilly on their right, and the deep forest overshadowed them with solemn grandeur on the left. " *The army was within less than fifteen miles of Fort Duquesne, (afterwards Pittsburg, ) and confidently expected toeffect its reduction in the course of the day.Washington, though but one night in camp, had in vainbesought General Braddock to accept the proffered aid of thefriendly Indians, and employ them in reconnoitering thebroken and wooded region through which the army was topass, on the way to its destination. The advice was disdainfully rejected by the General, who placed full reliance on thediscipline and steadiness of King's troops. Unhappily heknew the game of war only as it was practised in those daysby rules of art, with the regularity of a chess board. Theterrific tactics of the wilderness; the crack of the rifle fromthe invisible foe; the fearful war-whoop; the stealthy savagecreeping on his belly through the thicket up to the saddle.girths of his startled enemy; the gleaming scalping-knife;and the effect of these unexperienced terrors on the imaginations of European troops were unknown to him. -His army,

  • This beautiful description is taken from Mr. Sparks' life of Washington, in the first volume of his edition of Washington's writings. Since the appearance of this

invaluable work, no one has had occasion to write or to speak of Washington, with- out feeling himself under the highest obligations to Mr. Sparks. A very interestingmonograph on Braddock's expedition by Winthrop Sargent, Esq. appears among the publications of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.15338 THE MOUNT VERNON magnificent array and in order of battle, had in the courseof the morning crossed the winding stream twice without accident, and the advance under Colonel Gage, (afterwards thelast Colonial Governor of Massachusetts, ) was ascending thefirst elevation above the meadow, when a sharp volley froman unseen enemy in the woods was heard. Presently a heavydischarge followed in front and on the flanks; the advancedparty in dismay fell back on the main body hastening upto their relief;- a force of two hundred French and six hundred Indians (numbers far inferior to those of the Britisharmy) rushed from the thicket; the dismayed regulars firedat random on friend and foe; and after a wild and murderousconflict of three hours, fled panic stricken from the field ofslaughter.Washington was in the thickest of this murderous action,conducting himself, according to the testimony of a brotherofficer, with "the greatest courage and resolution." Hisfellow aids, Captains Orme and Morris, were disabled by theirwounds, and he only remained to convey the orders of hisunfortunate chief. " I expected every moment," said Dr.Craik, his friend and physician, " to see him fall. " Of eightysix officers in the engagement twenty-six were killed, andthirty- seven wounded; and of the privates, about twelve hundred in number, the killed and wounded amounted to sevenhundred and fourteen. If these numbers, augmented in proportion to the size of the armies, are applied to the lossessustained in the recent engagements in Lombardy, it will beimmediately perceived that, in the number of the killed andwounded, the battles of Magenta and Solferino do not compare with the ever memorable battle of the Monongahela.Washington was not merely exposed to what may be calledthe ordinary and unavoidable dangers of such a day, but to arisk, (as afterwards appeared in a very extraordinary manner,)most imminent and peculiar. In the year 1770, in companywith his friend, Dr. Craik, he descended the Ohio on a tourTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 339of observation as far as the great Kanhawa, and there theincident occurred, avouched by Dr. Craik, which I give in thelanguage of Mr. Irving:-"Here Washington was visited by an old Sachem, who approachedhim with great reverence, at the head of several of his tribe, and addressedhim through Nicholson, the interpreter. He had heard, he said, of hisbeing in that part of the country, and had come from a great distanceto see him. On further discourse, the Sachem made known, that he wasone of the warriors in the service of the French, who lay in ambush onthe banks of the Monongahela, and wrought such havoc in Braddock'sarmy. He declared that he and his young men had singled out Washington, as he made himself conspicuous, riding about the field of battlewith the general's orders, and fired at him repeatedly, but without success; whence they concluded that he was under the protection of theGreat Spirit, that he had a charmed life, and could not be slain in bat- tle."Washington himself, at the time, was not unaware of thedanger to which he was exposed, nor of the Power by whichit was averted. In a letter to his brother, he 66 says, Bytheall- powerful dispensations of Providence, I have been protected beyond all human probability and expectation; for Ihad four bullets through my coat, and two horses shot underme, yet I escaped unhurt, although death was levelling mycompanions on every side." His remarkable preservation,through the dangers of this dreadful day, attracted generalnotice, and Dr. Daveis, of Virginia, afterwards President ofPrinceton College, in a discourse a few weeks afterwards, before a volunteer company of Hanover county, alluded to “ thatheroic youth Col. Washington, whom I cannot but hope Providence has hitherto preserved in so signal a manner for someimportant service to his country. " It is doubtful if a merehuman prediction, inspired by early promise, was ever soremarkably fulfilled in after life. It is one of those strikingcases where the foresight of a wise man becomes prophecy.The expedition under Braddock was the most formidable340 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.which had ever been, at that time, undertaken in BritishAmerica, and its result spread dismay throughout the contiIt furnishes a most signal illustration of the paralyzingpower of Panic, to which I have alluded in a former numberof these papers; and it brought down upon the ill-fated Commander's grave the bitterest reproaches of his Governmentand the country. Washington alone, of all in conspicuousstations, came out of the havoc of the day, not only with untarnished, but with enhanced honor; and a reverent anticipation, as we have seen, of some momentous connection betweenhis career, and the fortunes of the country, took possession ofthe public mind. It is impossible to withhold assent from thereflections of Mr. Sparks:Contrary to his will, ” says this judicious writer, “ and in spite of hisefforts, he had gathered laurels from the defeat and ruin of others. Hadthe expedition been successful, these laurels would have adorned thebrow of his superiors. It might have been said of him, that he had donehis duty, and acquitted himself honorably, but he could not have beenthe prominent and single object of public regard; nor could he by a longseries of common events, have risen to so high an eminence, or acquiredin so wide a sphere, the admiration and confidence of the people. Forhimself, for his country and mankind, therefore, this catastrophe, in appearance so calamitous and so deeply deplored at the time, should unquestionably be considered as a WISE AND BENEFICENT DISPENSATION OF PROVIDENCE. "In a career like Washington's, there is scarce any thing,that can be called private life; his domestic relations evenconnect themselves with the public interests. The year afterBraddock's defeat, Colonel Washington went to Boston withtwo brother officers, from his post on the Virginia and Maryland frontier, to take the decision of Governor Shirley, therecently appointed Commander-in- Chief of all the royal forceson the Continent, on the questions of precedence between theCrown and Provincial officers, which continually embarrassedthe service. Going and returning, he was the guest at NewTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 341York of an early friend and school-mate, Beverley Robinson,son of Colonel John Robinson, the Speaker of the House ofBurgesses of Virginia, whose happy compliment to Washington's modesty is so well known. Mr. Beverley Robinson hadlately married one of the nieces and heiresses of Mr. AdolphusPhilipse, a great landholder, whose manor-house is still to beseen on the banks of the Hudson. In the family circle ofMr. and Mrs. Robinson, Washington formed the acquaintanceof her sister, Mary Philipse, a young lady " whose personalattractions, " according to Mr. Irving, " are said to have equalledher reputed wealth. *** That he was an open admirer ofthis lady, is an historical fact; that he sought her hand andwas refused, is traditional and not very probable. " Hispublic duties hastened his return southward, and CaptainMorris, his brother aid-de-camp in the battle of the Monongahela, became his successful rival. These facts are usuallymentioned only as a personal anecdote of no great importance in the life of Washington; but it would not be extravagant to ascribe to them an important, not to say decisive connection, with his subsequent career. At that time no thoughtof the future wrongs of America and of her conflicts withthe Mother Country had entered the minds of men. Washington had been the associate and was the friend of manyofficers in the royal service; he desired and sought employment in it himself. In no part of the British dominions wasthe sentiment of loyalty more warmly cherished than in thesetransatlantic colonies. If then at the age of twenty- five, withthese predispositions, if he had formed a matrimonial connection, such as that in question, with a lady of great personal attractions and wealth, already connected by marriage with a friendof his youth, is it a reproach to his memory to say, that hetoo like his successful rival, might have adhered to the royalcause and have been lost to America? That like him whenthe appeal was made to arms he might have gone " home " to342 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.England? There the lady, I believe, died as late as 1825,having lived to see the young officer, her admirer in youth,become the great leader of the American Revolution, the firstPresident of the United States, and to survive him twenty-fiveyears.NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT.SEVERAL CRITICAL OCCASIONS AND INCIDENTS IN THE LIFEOF WASHINGTONWashington desires in early life a commission in the Royal Army-Exclusion of Colonists from promotion in the Royal establishments-His taste for military life- His distinguished services in the seven years' war attract no notice " at home "-At its close, having no hope of advancement, he retires from military life -After an interval of seventeen years, re-appears commander-in- chief of the armies ofUnited America- At the battle of Princeton, Washington, in his own opinion, ranthe greatest risk of his life, being between the fire of both parties-Colonel Trum- bull's picture -Reputation acquired by Washington abroad by the surprise of the Hessians and the battle at Princeton-Testimony of the historian Botta.THE circumstances which decide the course of events inafter life generally date from early years, and not obtainingnotoriety at the time, are afterwards, even in the case of veryeminent men, liable to be forgotten. It has already beenseen by how narrow a chance Washington was in his boyhood prevented from becoming a British naval officer, andthus entering a career which would have withdrawn himinfallibly from the scene of his subsequent service and glory.Probably without reference to any thing but the removal of alad of fourteen years from home, and to the necessary discomforts and dangers of the service, his mother opposed this arrangement, and in so doing gave to the country the great leaderof the Revolution, and the first President of the United States.In like manner, a strong desire and a fixed purpose of hisown, formed at a period of life when men become (as far as344 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.that is ever the case) the masters of their own destiny, ledWashington to seek a commission in the Royal army. Thisobject, so long as he remained in active service under theprovincial government, during the old French war, he soughtto effect in every way in which a young man of merit andhonor can seek his own advancement. Ifhe had succeeded, hewould have followed the fortunes, as he must have shared thedangers, of military service; have fallen in action on somehard fought field in America, Europe, or the East, or haverisen to distinction in the Britsh army; and thus, when thewar of American Independence broke out, have been found,not at the head of its newly mustered armies, but in theranks of its veteran enemies.Less attention, perhaps, than they merit has been givento these early views of Washington, and the steps taken byhim to carry them into effect. Accustomed as we are to anIndependent government, and to all the consequences whichflow from it, we do not form a lively conception of the stateof things which existed when the seat of power and the fountain of honor were on the other side of the Atlantic; and whenthe only ordinary channel through which advancement could besought or obtained in the Colonies, was that of the Royalfavorites who were sent out to govern them. This, in fact, isone of the great vices of Colonial rule, which unfits it for amature stage of national growth. It was unquestionably anactive though not an avowed, perhaps not a consciouslyadmitted, cause of the disaffection to the mother country,which prevailed on this side of the Atlantic, and which terminated in the separation. The cause of the colonies was, fromthe supposed necessity ofthe case, argued on narrow grounds.The right of the Imperial Parliament to tax America wasdenied, while an unlimited right of commercial regulation wasadmitted, under which the trade and navigation of the Colonies were subjected to the most oppressive restrictions, andmanufacturing industry placed under the ban. The sameTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 345great and liberal minister, (Lord Chatham, ) who rejoiced thatAmerica resisted the acts of Parliament, which laid a triflingduty on tea, would not allow the Colonies to manufacture " ahobnail," and was willing that a water-wheel should beabated as a nuisance. The loyal metaphysics of the " Sonsof Liberty " found a constitutional argument against the taxon Colonial imports, but admitted the right, and hardly murmured against the policy of prohibiting Colonial manufactures, and restricting the navigation of the Colonies to themother country. But it no doubt was a grievance equallyfelt, if not openly resented, that the paths of promotion, generally speaking, were shut upon the children of the country.It was only in exceptional, almost accidental cases, that anative could rise in the Royal army or navy, or in the Civiladministration of the Colonies. Advancement in the Imperial government was out of the question, on any other condition than that of expatriation . All lucrative and honorableplaces in these Colonies, as in all Colonies, then as now,except so far as wisdom has been learned from experience,constituted the appanage of younger sons and the prey ofneedy courtiers. Posts of trust and emolument were appropriated, not for the purpose of rewarding merit or employingtalent in the field of service, but to gratify the caprice or toconsummate the bargains of the minister and his friends. Itis unhappily but too easy for bad men to get into office, evenwhen they are chosen by those who suffer, if they chooseamiss; but this penalty furnishes some protection against aninjudicious or corrupt choice. To impose by a sheer act ofpower an incompetent or a worthless magistrate, on a remotecommunity, is at once a wrong and an insult. But this is,and almost by necessary operation, the genius of metropolitan rule over distant colonies. The insolence to the natives,of the young men sent out to govern Hindostan, is said tohave been an active cause of the revolt, which has but justbeen suppressed at such hideous sacrifice of treasure and life.15*346 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Washington's taste, as I have said, was for the army; heinherited and early manifested a fondness for military life.He had, in an eminent degree, the spirit of subordination andcommand, the physical and moral courage, the energy, thesystem, the resource, the fortitude that never fainted, thewariness never surprised, and, above all, the ascendency overhis associates, which make the consummate chief. That hegained few brilliant victories proves nothing to the contrarytill it can be shown that, with the materials at his command,and with the odds to which he was opposed, it was possibleto gain them. The common sense of mankind is a farsounder judge in this respect than the astute strategist. Thechieftain, whose reputation rises in the midst of disasters, likeWashington's in his youth, after the calamitous campaigns of1754 and 1755, and who retains the confidence of a bleedingcountry, through years of exhaustion and despondency, maywell afford to dispense with the glory which accrues fromfortunate encounters. The entire series of Napoleon's victories does not reflect greater credit upon his skill as acommander, than the retreat from Moscow, which completedthe loss of the largest and finest army which had ever beenmustered in Europe.With this hereditary aptitude for military service, Washington embraced with eagerness every opening for its pursuit,which Colonial life afforded; but this could only raise him tothe humbler posts. He accepted, and that before he was ofage, every opportunity of service within the gift of the Colonial government of Virginia; and at the age of twenty-oneundertook a most dangerous mission in the winter, which, ashe truly says himself, no other person could be found toaccept, and which at the most imminent peril of his life,could, if it succeeded, gain him little but the credit of afaithful messenger. It so happened, that in performing thehumble errand, he had the opportunity of displaying highmilitary qualities. His modest diary showed a young manTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 347of the brightest promise. It was published in London; thegrowing interest attached to the movements of the French onthe banks of the Ohio gave an unexpected importance to themission and to its narrative; and it would undoubtedly havemade the professional fortune of any youthful officer in theroyal army. It did not earn a compliment for the VirginiaMajor. His prudence and fortitude, early ripe, won for himthe following year, notwithstanding its disasters, the unbounded confidence of the Colonial government, but theyattracted no notice " at home." Braddock came, the mostself- sufficient of men, and gave his undivided confidence toWashington; a confidence well repaid on the terrible ninthof July. It is evident that the unfortunate general had perceived the claims of such a man to promotion, on the score ofpolicy, if not of justice. Governor Dinwiddie, in a letter tothe minister, spoke of him as " a man of great merit andresolution," and added, " I am confident that if General Braddock had survived, he would have recommended him to theroyal favor, which I beg your interest in recommending."But the only notice earned by his bravery and conduct onthat fatal day, was a good-natured rebuke from George II.and an ill-natured sneer from Horace Walpole. -For threesucceeding years of fruitless application to Lord Loudon andhis successor, he endeavored to obtain a royal commission.They asked his advice, followed his counsels, or lived or diedto lament their rejection of it; -applied to him, -a provincialcolonel ,-for plans of march and of battle; yielded to himthe post of danger when responsibility was to be assumed orperil braved; and left him, where they found him, in theColonial service. Perceiving that all hopes of promotion inthe British army were vain, and satisfied with the attainmentof the great object of the war in the middle colonies, by thecapture of Fort Duquesne and the expulsion of the Frenchfrom the Ohio, he retired from the field, after five years ofarduous and faithful service; the youthful idol of his country-348 THE MOUNT VERNON, but without so much as a civil word from the fountainof honor. And so, when, after seventeen years of privatelife, he next appeared in arms, it was as the " Commander inchief ofthe army of the United Colonies, and of all the forcesnow raised, or to be raised, by them. " Such was the policyby which the Horse Guards occasionally saved a major'scommission for a fourth son of a Duke; by which the Crownlost a Continent; and the people of the United States gaineda place in the family of nations! The voice of history criesaloud to powerful governments, in the administration of theircolonies, " Discite justitiam moniti. "*I have thus mentioned six occasions in the early life ofWashington, of great personal danger, or on which his entirefuture career seemed to be suspended on a very narrowchance of events, which would have given it a totally differentcomplexion. A few years elapse, and he is brought to theall-important position for which, through all these perils andby all these preparations, he had been trained by Providence.It would be a highly instructive and not a difficult task topoint out the parallelism of the two wars, and to show inspecific instances, how the one served as a school of preparation for the other. This would be aside from my presentpurpose, and I close the list of the imminent dangers towhich the life of Washington was at different times exposed,by one which, in his own estimate, was greater than anyother.The year 1775 was taken up by the organization of thearmy in Massachusetts; a work, like much which Washington had to perform, of boundless importance and difficulty,but of no éclat. The year 1776 opened with the grand operation of expelling the royal forces from Boston, without aconflict, which Washington however intended, if necessary, tohazard. This great success was followed by the unfortunatebattle of Long Island , the loss of New York, the retreatTake warning, and learn to be just.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 349through New Jersey. At these great reverses, the confidentbegan to doubt, the disaffected to exult, and the timid todespair. It was then that Washington planned the surprizeof the three regiments of Hessians at Trenton; a veteranforce, commanded by a skilful officer, and trained in the bestmilitary school of Europe.-This was not certainly an expedition which any punctilio of military honor required theCommander-in-Chief to lead in person; it was an affair of detachments, which might with propriety have been left tosubordinates. But the crisis was too momentous for anyother guidance than his own. On the night of the 25th ofDecember, he threw his little army of twenty-four hundredmen and twenty small field-pieces across the Delaware, thenrunning with drift ice, (thrice as wide as the Mincio in anypart of its course, where it flows between banks, from theLago di Garda to the Po, ) under a storm all the way of snow,rain, and hail, and with the weather so cold that two of hismen froze to death on the march, and taking the enemy completely by surprise, captured a thousand men. The inabilityof the two other detachments to cross the Delaware preventeda similar surprise of those portions of the enemy's forcewhich escaped from Trenton, or were stationed lower down.Having recrossed the river with his prisoners, he speedily returned to New Jersey to follow up his success, and dexterously eluding the greatly superior army of Lord Cornwallis, who had been sent from New York to check his progress,and who boasted on the evening of the 2d "that he wouldbag the fox in the morning," Washington made a night marchon Princeton, and there on the 3d of January, engaged anddestroyed one regiment, and captured and put to flight twoothers. It was in this engagement, which forms the subjectof Trumbull's noble picture, that for a while he was exposed,as he himself told Colonel Trumbull while painting it, togreater danger of his life than even at Braddock's defeat. Inthe heat of the action, the hostile forces were for a short time350 THE MOUNT VERNON close conflict, and he between them, within the rear rangeofthe fire of both.66 "His Aid de- Camp, Colonel Fitzgerald, " says Mr. Irving, a youngand ardent Irishman, losing sight of him in the heat of the fight, whenenveloped in dust and smoke, dropped the bridle on the neck of hishorse and drew his hat over his eyes, giving him up for lost. When hesaw him, however, emerging from the cloud, waving his hat, and beheldthe enemy giving way, he spurred up to his side. ' Thank God, ' cried he,' your Excellency is safe.' ' Away, my dear Colonel, and bring up thetroops, ' was Washington's reply, ' the day is our own! ' "The action was unusually bloody; of the enemy a hundred were killed, three hundred wounded, and large numberstaken prisoners. The gallant Mercer and other brave officersfell on the American side, but Washington escaped unhurt!Colonel Trumbull represents him as standing by hisfavorite white charger on that momentous day. As themarch from the bank of the Assanpink, the action, and thepursuit, lasted thirty-six hours, during which he scarcely leftthe saddle, there is no doubt that Washington must haveridden two or three horses in the course of the day. I havebeen informed, however, at second hand, from one who wasin his body guard, that when the seventeenth British regimentbroke, General Washington, then mounted on a favorite roanhunter, leaped the stone wall that crossed the eminence, andperceiving the enemy in full retreat, gave the view halloo,and, in unconscious response to the boast of Lord Cornwallisthe night before, exclaimed to the officers about him, " It isa regular fox chase! "Well might he exult in the event of the day, for it wasthe last of a series of bold and skilful manœuvres and successful actions, by which, in three weeks, he had rescuedPhiladelphia, driven the enemy from the banks of the Delaware, recovered the State of New Jersey, and, at the close ofa disastrous campaign, restored hope and confidence to thecountry " achievements so astonishing," says the Italian his-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 351torian Botta,* “ gained for the American Commander a verygreat reputation, and were regarded with wonder by allnations, as well as by the Americans. Every one applaudedthe prudence, the firmness, and the daring of General Washington. All declared him the Saviour of his country; allproclaimed him equal to the most renowned commanders ofantiquity, and especially distinguished him by the name oftheAMERICAN FABIUS."Cited by Mr. Sparks, Vol. I. , p. 234.NUMBER THIRTY-NINE.FONTAINEBLEAU, BURGUNDY, AUTUN, TALLEYRAND.Leave Paris en route for Italy-Passports-Couriers-Fontainebleau and its historical recollections-Appearance of a wine- growing region-The Côte d'or-Autun,its antiquity and architectural remains-Epigram about the two Bishops of Au- tun-Character of Talleyrand-His emigration to America, and intention to be- come a citizen of the United States- Anecdote of Benedict Arnold-Talleyrand's course in this country-His friendship for General Hamilton-Curious anecdote of Aaron Burr, related by Talleyrand-Miniature of General Hamilton-Talley- rand's character as a statesman-The Duke of Magenta born at Autun-Another anecdote of Benedict Arnold.On the 3d of September, 1818, after the then usualamount of delay and extortion, in procuring the requisitecountersign to our passports at the foreign office and four orfive legations, and the usual annoyance of finding, at the last,that several things had been neglected that ought to havebeen attended to, I started with my companion for Italy,intending, however, to make a hasty circuit in Switzerland bythe way. There are few things, not less serious in themselves which more annoy American travellers in Europe,than the regulations about passports, which are in truth attimes a source of unreasonable delay and vexation. Thepassport system, however, serves one valuable purpose, ofwhich Americans, when occasion requires, derive the fullbenefit; but of the importance of which we are not dulysensible; and that is the aid which it affords to the pursuitand arrest of criminals fleeing from justice. It happened tome several times, in the course of official duty abroad, toTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 353have occasion to render aid to the parties interested who hadcome from the United States, in pursuit of embezzlers andother offenders fleeing from America. In all these cases, thenecessity of having the passport countersigned in every newjurisdiction furnished important assistance in tracing and detaining the fugitive. In a region like the European Continent, divided among numerous Governments, wholly independent of each other, it will be readily seen, that the means ofescape to a foreign territory must be much greater than inthe United States, where so vast a territory is comprehendedin one federal jurisdiction. Of course, however, the passportsystem is subject to great abuses for political purposes.Some of those have been brought upon bond fide Americantravellers, by the officials of the United States, who have insome cases undertaken to give American passports, ( whichare in terms certificates of citizenship, ) to persons not entitledto them, either by birth or naturalization. This abuse hasdiminished the unhesitating respect which in former timeswas paid to the starry vignette.Our travelling party consisted only of our two selves anda courier, one of those extraordinary persons, whose servicesevery American travelling in Europe has found so important;-an attendant who knows a little, -sometimes a good deal,-of four or five languages; is conversant with the mannersand customs of all countries; familiar with all routes in alldirections;-acquainted, probably to some extent in league,-with landlords in all the towns where you are to stop.Our courier was a Neapolitan, who had conducted manyAmericans through Europe, and who was attached to anofficer of the French army, in the terrible retreat from MosCOW. On that dreadful flight, he resolutely maintained,though a man of veracity for his calling , that he rarely drewoff his master's boots at night without bringing away one ofthe extremities of the feet which they covered. I retain amost kindly recollection of Francisco, whose fidelity was354 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.beyond suspicion, and who was one of the most indulgentpersons to his employer that I ever knew. He would frequently let us have our own way. He amassed a handsomefortune in his vocation, and I renewed my acquaintance withhim, after an interval of twenty-three years, at Naples, wherehe was living in 1841 as a respectable property holder.There is something at almost every step of the way fromParis to Switzerland (as indeed there is in every part ofEurope) to engage and reward the attention of the traveller;-the memory of some great battle, from the time of JuliusCæsar to that of Napoleon; some noble mediæval pile, orstill more impressive architectural ruin; some venerablemonastic establishment; the birth-place of some great man;some delightful landscape; some important institution; butall these objects have become too familiar from the guidebooks and the professed tourists, to bear a description' fromthe wayfarer who travels post through the country. Welingered awhile at Fontainebleau, which had not then recovered somewhat of its original magnificence under the restoring hand of Louis Philippe. Its immense extent, disproportioned to its height, its weather- stained brick corridors andfaded splendors, at the time we saw it, produced rather adisappointing effect; but a little effort of the imaginationsufficed to people it with the most stirring recollections.Louis the Seventh, in the twelfth century, laid its foundations,after his return from the second crusade, while Thomas àBecket was bidding defiance to Henry in England, and theNorthmen were creeping down from Greenland to the coastsof Labrador and Newfoundland in America; and from "theCourt of the White Horse," to which Catherine de Medicigave its name, Napoleon took his affecting leave of the remnants of the Old Guard on his departure for Elba. What arange for the imagination between those extremes! The FacSimile of Napoleon's abdication, the little round table uponwhich it was written, and what purported to be the pen withTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 355which the sad words were traced, were exhibited in the roomwhere the paper was signed; but have since, I believe, disappeared. Every intervening century and sovereign, from thefounder of the old castle in the twelfth century to the presentday, has left some recollection at Fontainebleau; -and itsgreen moss-grown courts and silent halls remind you ofmarriages, murders, and abdications;-recall the names, besides native sovereigns, of the Emperor Charles V., QueenChristina, Pope Pius VII.; of Diana of Poitiers, Madame deMaintenon, and Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I.; andpresent you with specimens of the architecture and the arts,from their infancy in the fourteenth century to their secondbloom in our own day. -The noble forest of Fontainebleau,equal in extent to two townhips of public land in the UnitedStates, exhibits no doubt a portion of the original growth ofthe country, preserved from the time when, within its darkrecesses, the Druids burned their sacrificial victims in wickercages. Our guide, as he approached " La Croix du grandveneur," where a spectral huntsman in black appeared toHenri IV. not long before his murder, repeated the legendwith a solemn air of belief. I had seen but a few days before,in the museum at Paris, the dagger which the maniac Ravaillac, climbing up the carriage wheels of the gracious monarch,as he drove slowly through the streets of Paris, plunged to his heart.The first entrance into a wine-growing region, at least inFrance and Germany, disappoints the traveller, who hasformed his ideas of a vineyard from the descriptions of thepoets. There is nothing luxuriant in its appearance, as it isseen at a moderate distance from the road-side. The vinesare pruned down to the height of a few feet, and planted instraight rows, which do not compare in richness and beautyto a field of Indian Corn in the tassel, undoubtedly the most" The Cross of the great Huntsman, " an obelisk at the intersection of two main roads through the forest.356 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.graceful and pompous robe in which bountiful nature arraysherself this side of the tropics. Seen, however, sufficiently nearto disclose its opening clusters, purple or yellow, bursting orready to burst with their nectarous juice, the aspect of a vineyard realizes the warmest images of Anacreon or Hafiz. Wewere about five weeks before the vintage was to commence, butthe golden slopes of the Côte d'or, as we passed them, wereclothed with its promise.-The Saône wound through themeadows on the left, and on the right vineyard above vineyard, and terrace above terrace, covered with plants bendingbeneath their melting clusters, rose to the very summit ofthehills. It is on these hillsides alone, that the richest grapescan be matured, for it is necessary to combine protectionfrom the winds of the north (that dreadful bise at which thereaders of Madame de Sevigné have shivered for two centuries, whether they have felt it or not, which, though fullydeveloped only in the south of France, begins in Burgundyto assume its character, and, under a cloudless sky and brilliant sun, sweeps over the earth day after day, with a dry,steady, withering chill, ) with a degree of heat which can onlybe had in an exposure to the sun, under an angle of fromthirty to sixty degrees. The promise of the vintage this year(1818) exceeded that of any season since the famous Cometyear of 1811 , and wherever we entered into conversationon the road we heard the language of joy and confidence.On our way to Lyons, we passed through Autun, but sawit to some disadvantage, at least as far as comfort and accommodation are concerned, in consequence of the crowd andconfusion incident to the great September fair. Few placesexceed it in historical interest. It was an important city ofthe ancient Gauls, before the invasion of Julius Cæsar, atleast if, as antiquaries suppose, it was the Bibracte of theÆdui. The name of Autun is abbreviated from that (Augustodunum) by which the Romans indicated its importance.For nearly two centuries after it was honored with this appel-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 357lation, it was a seat of refinement and art, to which the youngmen of Gaul were sent for their education. Considerablemasses of the Roman walls still exist, showing the extent ofthe ancient city; and architectural remains of a highly interesting character, though not of the purest age of art,-especially two Roman gates,-attract the notice of the traveller.Some portions of the Cathedral, particularly the spire, arealso greatly admired by the student of medieval architecture.The Cathedral of Autun reminds one by natural association of its prelates. Two of them have obtained, in verydifferent ways, what may be called a classical celebrity,recorded in the following epigram:ROQUETTE, dans son tems,TALLEYRAND, dans le notre,Furent evêques d'Autun;-Tartuffe fut le surnom d'un,Ah! si Moliere eût connu l'autre!which may be poorly translated as follows: -Two bishops have adorned Autun,Roquette and this his modern brother;—Tartuffe preserves the name of one,Oh! had Moliere but known the other!It may seem the height of romance for an American evento say a civil word in favor of the last named of these celebrated bishops of Autun, but the French Revolution broughta good many men into power much worse than M. de Talleyrand. He belonged to the most ancient noblesse of France;but having, in consequence of his lameness, been placed in theChurch, he early, like Lafayette, Mirabeau, and many othersof the French aristocracy felt, as Louis XV. had felt and saidbefore them, that the old French Monarchy could last nolonger; that it was rotten at heart. He therefore adoptedthe revolution, but fled disgusted and horror-struck from itsbloody excesses. He came to this country, and took the358 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.preliminary steps to become a citizen of the United States.I saw in Peale's museum, many years ago, the official noticeof this intention, signed by himself, and it afterwards passedinto the possession of the late Mr. Edward D. Ingraham, ofPhiladelphia.M. de Talleyrand, having been ordered by the Britishgovernment, (under the influence of the panic with referenceto everything French which had seized them, ) to leave England, took passage for the United States at Plymouth, wherehe happened to find himself in the same inn with BenedictArnold. Not being particularly acquainted with the relationsin which this wretched man might still stand with America,Talleyrand offered to take letters for him to the UnitedStates. This civility Arnold declined, saying, " I am theonly man in the world that does not dare write to his nativecountry." The little volume of " Recollections " of Mr.Rogers, lately published, contains a most remarkable counterpart to this anecdote, given on the authority of the Duke ofWellington. "When Lord Londonderry attacked Talleyrand in Parliament and I defended him, saying, in everythingas far as I had observed, he had always been fair and honest,Talleyrand burst into tears, saying, ' He is the only man thatever said anything good of me! ""Arrived in the United States, M. de Talleyrand was farfrom imitating the unwise conduct of his countrymen inAmerica, who threw themselves into the political controversies of this country, and allowed themselves to be made useof, to embarrass the administration of General Washington.He of course entered into no personal relations with the President, but he formed an intimate acquaintance and contracteda warm friendship with General Hamilton, whom he considered, and in after life often spoke of, as the most sagaciousand best informed of American Statesmen, especially in reference to European politics. He carried with him, on hisreturn to France, a miniature of General Hamilton, paintedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 359at his request. When Aaron Burr was in Paris, and requested an interview with M. de Talleyrand, then Minister ofForeign Affairs, the latter added this clause to the cold officialnote appointing a time for the reception: " The Minister forForeign Affairs thinks proper to inform Mr. Burr, that aportrait of General Hamilton is hanging in his office; " anintimation which of course prevented the visit . This miniature, or a copy of it, with a little receptacle on the back containing obituary notices of General Hamilton, cut from theAmerican newspapers, was after his decease sent by M. deTalleyrand to the family in the United States. The curiousanecdote just given was related by M. de Talleyrand himselfto the son and grandson of General Hamilton, on a visit madeby invitation to Vallençay, a few years before his death, onwhich occasion his distinguished attentions showed the honorin which he held the memory oftheir illustrious and lamentedrelative.In reference to the political course of M. de Talleyrand asa French Statesman, it cannot be denied that he was a politician ofthe same school with the celebrated Austrian Minister,whose character formed the subject of the thirty-fifth paper ofthis series. But still more than Metternich, he is entitled tothe credit of having studied, sometimes no doubt from a falsepoint of view, the interests of the country of which he was acitizen, and of the government which he served. To this hesacrificed the favor of his all-powerful master, whose Spanishpolicy, the great and fatal error of his reign, -was adoptedand pursued in direct opposition to the counsels of M. de Talleyrand.Before leaving Autun, it may be remarked that it is thebirth-place of General M'Mahon, who was created a marshalof France by Louis Napoleon, on the battle-field of Magenta,for having " saved the army." As the name indicates, hisfamily is of Irish extraction, and is one of those which, with360 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.self- sacrificing chivalry, followed the fortunes of James II.The new-made duke of Magenta was born at Autun, in 1807.Having mentioned Benedict Arnold in the foregoingpaper, I cannot refrain from repeating another anecdote ofhim, related by Mr. Sabine, which throws a dismal light onthe repute in which he was held in a community where itmight have been expected, if anywhere, that he would havebeen kindly viewed. After the revolutionary war, he established himself in some sort of business at St. John's, NewBrunswick, which was principally settled by American loyalists. His warehouse and the merchandize in it, being fullyinsured, were destroyed by fire, and Arnold was charged in anewspaper with having himself set fire to the building, inorder to get the insurance, which was largely beyond thevalue of the property. He prosecuted the publisher of thepaper for a libel, laid the damages at thousands, and recovered, by the verdict of the jury, two and six pence! Suchwas the estimate formed by a St. John's jury of his probity.NUMBER FORTY.LYONS.Hotel de l'Europe at Lyons-The hill of Fourvières-Description of the Panorama seen from its top-Distant view of Mont Blanc-Pilgrimages to the shrine of ourLady of Fourvières- Resort of beggars and almsgiving on the part of the Pilgrims-Anecdote of a professed Scottish beggar-The bronze tablets containing the speech ofthe Emperor Cladius-Martyrdom of Saint Irenæus and Blandina-ThePersecutions of the early Christians as recorded in ecclesiastical history com- pared with the cruelties practised at Lyons in the French revolution . - Wholesale massacre in the Brotteaux-Escape and career of Jacquard, the inventor of the celebrated loom that bears his name-saying of Napoleon I. about him-His epitaph.WE passed a few days at Lyons, a city which I have, inthe course of my wanderings, visited three times, and everwith undiminished satisfaction . To begin with our lodgings,there is a gloomy grandeur about the Hotel de l'Europe,which I do not dislike in an old European city. It resemblesa princely palace, and in fact probably was one. Its roomsare of vast height; the ceilings painted, and that not contemptibly, in fresco; the walls hung with old family portraits ofLouis Quatorze and the Regency; the floors tiled or inlaidwith woods once bright and particolored; the chimneys ofcolossal length, depth, and height; everything, in a word, ona grand scale, not excepting, I must own, the dirt, -whichone must take in these old continental hotels, together withthe grandeurs. In the fare there was nothing to complain of;nor in 1818 in the bill. All this may have changed since Iwas last there in 1841.This first visit to Lyons was made before the halcyon16362 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.days of Murray. That trusty guide, after giving with someminuteness, a local description of the city, says with italicizedemphasis, "these dry topographical details will be best understood when the traveller has scaled the height of Fourvières, which he should do the first thing after his arrival, on account of the view it commands. " Whether at the instigation of some older Murray or some discreet valet de place, orled by our own sagacity, I do not recollect, but our firstcare was to ascend the hill of Fourvières, which we could perceive from below must command a glorious panorama ofLyons and its environs. The approach would seem artistically contrived to heighten, by contrast, the magnificence ofthe prospect. It is in the rear of an extensive but confusedpile of building, now occupied as an asylum for the insane,and a hospital for incurables of the most wretched description, who are attended, however, with exemplary self-sacrifice,by the brothers and sisters of charity. This sad retreat ofsuffering humanity, (such are the vicissitudes of human fortune in men and things,) occupies the site of a palace, inwhich, some seventeen centuries ago, two Roman Emperors,Claudius and Caracalla were born! After emerging from thislocality you begin to ascend the hill through steep and narrowlanes, sometimes by steps apparently cut in the native rock,winding through vineyards, and olive gardens, and groves offig trees, (such at least was the case forty years ago,) andyou reach at last the summit called Fourvières, which is supposed by the antiquaries at Lyons, to be the modern Frenchform of the Latin Forum vetus, "ancient Forum. " Thescene is certainly one of transcendent natural beauty as wellas uncommon historical interest. It cannot have escaped theprofessed tourists; but I do not remember to have seen itparticularly described .Through the defiles of Mount Cindre on the north, youcatch a glimpse, it is but a glimpse,-of the golden slopesof Burgundy. The lofty and serrated ridges of Auvergne,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 363within whose secret laboratories, heated by concealed volcanoes, nature distils some of her most salubrious mineralwaters, bound the prospect on the west. The misty hillsand genial valleys of Dauphiny and Languedoc stretch faraway to the south in dreamy luxuriance. On the east comesin the headlong turbid Rhone, swelled by the tributary floodsof the Lake of Geneva, of the Arve, and of the Arveiron; andthrough them, sharing with the Rhine, the Danube, and thePo, the waters that trickle from hundreds of Alpine Glaciers.You follow the line of the Jura with some distinctness on thenorth-east, and further in the east, especially with the aid of aglass, the eye, glancing from the Schreckhorn, the FinsterAar Horn, and the Jungfrau, unclimbed by the foot of mantill it was ascended by our own Agassiz, rests at length, atthe distance of a hundred miles, on imperial Mont Blanc itself, visible in a clear day even to the naked eye. There youbehold it swelling grandly to the sky, laden with the piledstorms of untold centuries; bright as the ocean of sunshinethat bathes its cold, unmelting sides; pure as the deep blueHeavens, which canopy its vestal snows; mysterious as theconscious stars which look down at midnight into its fathomless chasms; a vast eternal mountain of glittering crystal, -indescribable monument of Creative Power!When you turn at length from this all-glorious panoramaand look down upon the confluence of the Saone and Rhoneat your feet, the recollections of nearly three thousand yearscrowd upon the mind. Here in the remotest antiquity sixtyGallic nations assembled to celebrate the annual sacrifices ofthe primitive Celtic race. What interests, what policies,what controversies, agitated at these gatherings, lie buried inthe grave of ages! This was the focal point, from which thepower and the policy of Rome, overleaping the Alps, radiatedto the west and north, and, turning the flank of the eternalAlps, rushed north-eastwardly upon Germany. Here thegreat Dictator paused to meditate, as from some lofty watch-364 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.tower, with dilating thought, on the mighty career of conquestwhich was opening before him in Gallia, in Brittania, in Germania, and which is still felt in the language, the laws, the national divisions of modern Europe. This was the centralstation from which Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa laid out thefour great roads, pathways of empire, which traversed andtamed impatient Gaul. Here the subjugated races erected atemple to Agrippa's patron and father-in-law, the EmperorAugustus. Four columns of Egyptian granite, stolen perhaps originally from Memphis or Egyptian Thebes to supportthe canopy of the altar dedicated to Augustus, now sustainthe cross of the Abbey Church of Ainay, beneath whose pavement rest the ashes of some of the earliest martyrs of theChristian faith . In the same quarter Caligula established hisAthenæum, and instituted his prize declamations; crowningthe successful competitor with honors and rewards; chastizing the unsuccessful, and compelling them to wipe their orations from their tablets with their tongues. Happily formodern orators, this operation is now left to the impartialhand of time. Here, in fime, the liberal Trajan erected asplendid edifice for the markets, the fairs, and the courts.These monuments of ancient power and altars of ancientworship have passed away; mutilated statues, fragmentaryinscriptions transferred to the museum, and doubtful substructions buried deep beneath the modern level of the soil,are all that attest their former existence. The Church of ourLady of Fourvières, surmounted by a colossal figure of theVirgin in gilded bronze, looks down from the summit of thehill upon the scene and the ruins of all this ancient magnificence. The popular faith ascribes miraculous powers to theconsecrated image of the Virgin enshrined within the temple;the walls of which are hung thick with ex voto memorials ofthe dangers escaped and the cures performed by her intercession. The little shops, which line the lower part of the narrow lane by which you ascend the hill, contain articles of thisTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 365kind, ready prepared to be purchased by the pilgrims whocome to pay their devotions and make their acknowledgmentsat the shrine.We happened to visit Fourvières on the day of the greatannual resort for this purpose, when pilgrims in largenumbers and from considerable distances flock to the church.These pilgrimages are the great harvest of the beggars ofLyons and the whole neighboring region, who, in numbersquite equal to that of the devotees, assemble at the same timeand place. The two classes, contemplated together, present acurious spectacle. The pilgrims moving in single file, exceptwhen some feeble brother or sister requires the support of afriendly arm, occupy the middle of the pathway up the hill.The beggars line the sides, from the bottom to the top;singly for the most part, sometimes in families; standing,sitting, lying; the maimed, the halt, and the blind; thesturdy, business-like, and impudent; the humble, looking upwith pitiful deference; some clamorous, some trusting to themute eloquence of decrepitude and mutilation; of every ageand either sex; and suffering under every form of real orpretended distress. Long established usage sanctions theresort, on these particular occasions, and settles the amountof the expected bounty; a liard, which is, I believe, abouthalf a farthing, from every pilgrim, sometimes the poorerpersonage of the two, to every one of the beggars; some ofwhom are said to amass comparatively large sums of moneyin the course of years. So much a matter of business is itso little of delicacy or feeling is there on either side in thisconventional wholesale almsgiving, that we continually sawthe parties making change with each other. A sous, which, ifI mistake not, is worth three liards in the old French coinage,was handed by the pilgrim to the beggar. The beggar knewthat he was to retain only a part of this magnificent sum, andreturned two liards to the pilgrim, who was thus furnishedwith small change for those who stood next.366 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Sir Walter Scott, in his description of the professed beggars of his country, relates an anecdote of one AndrewGammels, who belonged to that privileged class, whichdiscloses a charitable thrift not unlike that practised atFourvières. Having asked alms of a gentleman, who regretted that he had no silver, as in that case he would havegiven Andrew a sixpence, the well-to-do beggar replied, " Ican gie ye change for a note, Laird. ”What a contrast upon the hill of Fourvières on occasion ofthese pilgrimages, between the charities of man and the charities of Heaven! Man making change with his brother manfor half farthings; and the dear GoD causing his rich bigclouds to rain down plenty on the just and the unjust; andhis noble rivers to flow from their secret urns in the eternalmountains; and his health-giving waters to sparkle from thesecret dispensaries of the earth; and the breezy wings of hismighty winds to fan the languid pulses of creation into cheeryvigor; and his wine and his oil to stream from every hillside; and the finest of his wheat to wave in yellow luxurianceover a thousand fields; and all his imperial heavens, fromtheir opening windows, to pour down every day upon theevil and the good one golden, genial deluge of morning light!There are a great many very curious relics of antiquity inthe Museum at Lyons. One of them, nearly if not quiteunique in its way, consists of the bronze tablets, containing aspeech made by the Emperor Claudius, in the Roman Senate,while he filled the office of Censor, in the 48 of our era, andrecommending that the inhabitants of Transalpine Gaul shouldbe admitted to the privileges of Roman Citizenship . Thesetablets probably preserve the very words of Claudius, andthe engraving is still perfectly distinct and legible. LadyMary Wortley Montague was so much struck with them, thatshe took the trouble to transcribe them in a letter to Pope,written from Lyons; probably, however, copying them fromsome printed description , though she does not say so.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 367Lyons is celebrated in Ecclesiastical History as the see ofSaint Irenæus, the second Bishop of the diocese, one of themost important of the early writers of the Church, who is saidto have suffered martyrdom, with eight thousand fellow-Christians, in the reign of Severus. This Emperor is supposed tohave treated the Christians of Lyons with especial rigor, inconsequence of some affront which he had received while living there; a tradition which strangely corresponds with theanecdote told of Collot d'Herbois,—that his inhuman crueltiestoward the inhabitants of this devoted city in the FrenchRevolution, were in revenge for having been hissed by them,when he appeared in their theatre as a fourth-rate actor. Aformer persecution under Marcus Aurelius is famous as thatin which the gentle Blandina, ( a name which has acquired ahappier and let us hope a not less permanent celebrity in ourown country and day, for a noble act of enlightened liberality,)* trod the thorny path of martyrdom.The skepticism of the last century, under the guidance ofGibbon, was disposed to view with distrust the accountstransmitted to us by the Historians of the Church, of thosewholesale butcheries, the famous ten Persecutions. It is notnecessary to contend too anxiously for this precise numericalarrangement of the sufferings inflicted upon the confessors ofthe new faith, under the reign of the predecessors of Constantine. But historical monuments of undoubted authenticity prove that the early Christians were subjected to themost cruel treatment, and often paid with their lives for theirrejection of the religion of the State. Whatever doubts mayhave existed as to the wholesale butcheries in question, astranscending in the number of their victims all crediblemeasures of brutal tyranny, have been but too sadly removed, by the atrocities practised, at this very city of Lyons,after its seige and capture by the army of the Convention in1793.The endowment of the Observatory at Albany, by Mrs. Blandina Dudley.368 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.There is nothing in the ten Persecutions which, either for thenumber of the sufferers or the diabolical rage and malignitywith which they were consigned to their fate, exceeds therecords of the revolutionary tribunals at Lyons, under Couthon, Fouché, and Collot d'Herbois. We have but to readthe account in the third volume of Alison, or what on thissubject may seem a safer authority, though they draw fromthe same sources, Lamartine's history of the Girondins. Icould scarcely believe, in traversing the Brotteaux in 1818,that twenty-five years only had elapsed, since it was the sceneof the unimagined horrors practised under those monsters.Finding the guillotine too slow to satiate their thirst forblood, they filled the square with the best citizens of Lyons,their hands tied behind them, to be swept down by grape shot,ranging along a cable to which they were secured, and thenbayonetted them at leisure, as they lay mutilated and gaspingon the reeking ground. Nothing in the legends of the church.need be disbelieved after reading that, in the last decade ofthe eighteenth century, the ruling power of France decreedthat the second city under their government should be razedfrom the face of the earth; its inhabitants exiled or put todeath; its name blotted from the catalogue of cities; and thatthree and a half millions of dollars should have been expendedin tearing down the houses that lined its finest streets andsquares!Among the heroic defenders of Lyons, who happily escaped these sanguinary horrors, and lived to reap in peacethe reward of his marvellous ingenuity, was the modest andpatient Jacquard. This wonderful man, the inventor of theloom which bears his name, and which has given a new character to the art of weaving in figured and raised patterns,throughout the world, was the son of a common weaver ofLyons. He was reduced so low, even in middle life, but behe had succeeded in bringing his loom into working conn, that he was compelled to support himself by aidingTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 369his wife in the preparation of the straw, which she braided forthe hats worn by the peasantry. Although, in consequenceof his invention, the number of weavers has been increased ahundred, not to say a thousand fold, they were so incensedagainst him, when his looms were first constructed, that henarrowly escaped being thrown by a mob into the Rhone!Napoleon, by an imperial decree at Berlin in 1806, grantedhim fifty francs (about ten dollars) on every loom constructedon his pattern. It was all he asked, and Napoleon , astonished athis moderation, exclaimed, as he put his name to the decree:" Here's a man who is content with a little! " If all theBerlin decrees had been as harmless in their purport, the warof 1812, between the United States and Great Britain, wouldnot have been fought. If Napoleon himself had been also" content with a little," Jacquard's epitaph might have been.written on his monument, " A man of virtue and genius, hedied at home. "27

  • Homme de bien et de génie, mort à Oullins, dans sa maison, 7 Août, 1834.

16*NUMBER FORTY- ONE.FROM LYONS TO GENEVA.Silk fabrics of Lyons-First glimpse of mountain scenery-Nantua-Bellegarde-In- genious smuggling-Pert du Rhone-Cæsar's description of the defile-AncientSwitzerland compared to Michigan and Wisconsin-First appearance of the Hel- vetii or ancient Swiss in history-Emigration of the entire people into FranceOvertaken and defeated with great loss by Cæsar, and the survivors compelled to return to Switzerland-A muster-roll in Greek characters discovered in theircamp which gives their numbers-Caesar's great career begins with the conquestof the Helvetii-beautiful prospects on the way from Fort l'Ecluse to Geneva.AFTER a sojourn of three days we left Lyons with regret,for it contains objects which might occupy the time of the observant traveller not unprofitably for weeks and months.The silk fabrics, especially, are well worthy attention; thecontrast between the brilliant colors, taseteful figures, andrich materials of the brocades and the dingy and dreary aspect of the rooms, machinery, and I may add, operativesemployed in their manufacture, was very striking. They arecarried through the loom and come out, without a spot orblemish, from apartments, through which it is not easy topass without getting your clothes soiled . We were told thatsome of the richest tissues were destined for the markets ofthe East. It shows the hopeless inferiority of the Asiatic civilization, that the luxury of those regions, where a species ofrefinement has existed for at least four thousand years, shouldbe tributary to the Celtic forests, or what were Celtic forests in the days of Xerxes and Darius, -for their richestadornments. In fabrics wholly wrought by hand, the East, itTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 371is true, still maintains her superiority. France has strivenin vain to rival the shawls and muslins of India; which is,however, but another proof at how low a price human laborand time can there be commanded, —itself an indication ofsocial and political wretchedness and degradation. The remarkable copies of Stuart's Washington, recently produced inthe looms of Lyons, and introduced into this country by Mr.Goodrich, resembling, at a very moderate distance, a fineengraving, show to what perfection the textile arts have beencarried in Lyons.There is nothing of much interest on the road from Lyonsto Geneva till you reach the Jura mountains. The Rhoneflows through an extensive plain unmarked by any attractivefeatures; but from the time you reach the region where itbursts through the mountains, till you have made the tour ofSwitzerland and have descended the Alps on the Italian side,all is picturesque beauty and wild sublimity. At Cerdon theroad begins to rise, and here most travellers from the Atlantic States of America or from England will get their first impressions of genuine mountain scenery. Though they mayhave seen greater elevations, they will probably not have seendetached summits ascending so abruptly and boldly and separated by such yawning chasms, or roads winding at suchalarming heights along their sides. The landscape as youbegin to ascend after passing Cerdon , is beautifully variegatedby the winding of the stream, by a tumbling cascade, andseveral ruined castles. Of these last I did not learn their history if they have any. They belong I suppose, to that periodin the annals of medieval Europe, when every commandingeminence or narrow defile was the site of a fortress, andevery robber count and petty baron went to war on hisown authority. Europe is full of the ruins of these strongholds, and they form the most striking point of contrast withAmerican scenery.We passed the night at Nantua, a quiet little place, em-372 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.bosomed in Jura. It is surrounded on three sides by barecliffs, rising hundreds of feet almost perpendicularly from theplain, and on the fourth side it lies open to a pretty lake,along the shores of which you approach the town. This contrast of the placid surface of the water, as we saw it in thedusk of the evening, with the dark woods and frowning cragsthat tower above, was remarkably pleasing. The Lake ofNantua and the little streams that feed it, are famous for theirtrout and fresh water shell-fish, and our well served table atnight bore witness that the fame was not unmerited; thoughit must be owned that young travellers, who have been onthe road since daybreak, without stopping to dine, are muchmore likely to appreciate the quantity than the quality of whatis placed before them at supper.We started early in the morning under a deluge of rainand a truly Egyptian darkness, which gave a sort of ghostlysolemnity to our passage through the mountains. Daydawned upon us through jagged chasms as destitute of vegetation as the rocks on which the ocean has beaten since thecreation of the world; while far below our feet the Rhonewound its devious way, and little farms, with their cottages,patches of vineyards even, and pastures lined its banks.While the sun was still low in the horizon, and shooting hisbeams aslant into these awful hillside recesses, which foot ofliving being never penetrated, some sudden turn of the roadwould carry us round into what seemed a sort of vast mountain prison, open but to the heavens, and lighted up only bythe cold gray dawn.Bellegarde is the frontier between France and Geneva.The rail roads in Europe have, I am told, forced upon theCustom-house officers a laudable promptitude in examining thebaggage of travellers. Unless there is something very suspicious in the appearance of the traveller or his trunks, thesearch is almost nominal; and when appearances are suspicious, the individual is detained and the train allowed to pro-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 373ceed. We were told of an amusing trick sometimes practisedhere, as elsewhere on the frontier, to elude the vigilance of theCustom-house. Powerful dogs are trained to cross the frontier by lonely paths through the mountains, little knownexcept to the smugglers. The poor animals are kept rathershort of food, till they arrive at their destination, where theyare liberally fed; and, what seems the hardest part of thediscipline, in order to make them particularly careful to givethe douane a good berth, they are soundly beaten, from timeto time, by persons wearing the uniform of Custom-house officers. Small cases, containing the movements of watches andmusical boxes, and some fine Swiss fabrics, are strapped aboutthe bodies of the dogs, and a considerable contraband tradethus carried on. At this frontier, the rigor of the Customhouse, if at all, would be felt on entering, not on leaving,France. At any rate, we were treated with great consideration, and neither there nor elsewhere had any thing to complain of, in the examination of our baggage.A short distance from the Inn at Bellegarde is the famousPert du Rhone, (Loss of the Rhone, ) the place where theriver, at a low stage of the water, wholly disappears, and findsan underground passage for more than a hundred yardsthrough the limestone rock, not a very uncommon circumstance in a calcareous formation. The river, when we saw it,was swollen by the heavy rain of the preceding night, and thevolume of water was too great to pass entirely through thesubterranean conduit. There was consequently nothing remarkable in the external appearance of things. The passageof the Rhone through the Jura is , however, under any circumstances, a striking object. The gorge is narrow, formed byprecipitous heights, and the river is contracted to about thetenth part of its width at the outlet of the Lake of Geneva.When swelled by heavy rains or the melting of the AlpineGlaciers, it roars with magnificent violence through the narrow defile. Cæsar describes the road that passes by its side374 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.with minute accuracy, although modern engineering has contrived to supersede the " angustum et difficile inter montemJuram et flumen Rhodanum [ iter] , vix qua singuli carri ducerentur," by a broad railroad track.Fort Ecluse stands at the extremity of the defile nearestFrance. The military position is naturally very strong; according to Cæsar ut facile perpauci prohibere possent, so that avery few persons could obstruct the passage. In addition tothis, it was fortified, I believe, in the reign of Louis XIV. , butthe fortress in some subsequent war has been destroyed.When we passed, there was said to be an intention to rebuildit.This passage has, in all time, been one of the main entrances into France on the Italian side, a highway trodden bymighty armies from the dawn of history. It was throughthis passage that the ancient Swiss (the Helvetii) emerged tothe notice of the world. They were unknown to the Greeksin the palmy days of their greatness; and even in the declineof Greece, her writers, to the amazement of M. Simond,"speak of the Rhone and the Lake of Geneva, much as Canadian hunters do of Lake Michigan and the Blue Fox River."" It is curious," he says, " to imagine such a country as Switzerland, in the state in which the interior of America is in ourday." M. Simond travelled in Switzerland in the same year( 1818) in which I did. At that time Lake Michigan and theBlue Fox River might be said to be in the remote interior ofAmerica, and the regions watered by them still comparativelyin a state of nature, and occupied by tribes somewhat lowerin the scale of civilization than the Helvetii before the time ofCæsar. Forty years only have passed away, and Lake Michigan and the Blue Fox River at the present day ( if that meanthe Fox River of Wisconsin) water a region many times aspopulous as Switzerland; containing rapidly multiplyingtowns and villages; with churches, schools, and colleges;traversed by railroads and electric telegraphs, and affordingTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 375in their rich wheat fields a bountiful home to the starvingthousands who emigrate from Europe,-in due proportionfrom Switzerland!The mind is stirred to busy thought on a spot like this.The Swiss, whose neutrality is now consecrated by the law ofnations, and who have for centuries been protected by it frombeing absorbed by their powerful neighbors, are first knownby one of the most extraordinary encroachments which history records. Not long after the Romans had reduced thesouth-eastern corner of Gaul to the condition of a Province, (ofwhich a memorial never to be effaced is stamped upon the verylanguage of the country, in the name of Provence, ) an armyof barbarians, of which the Helvetii formed a part, about alittle more than a hundred years before our era, defeated theRoman Consul near Marseilles; but in consequence of a diversion effected by another Roman army in their rear, wereobliged to return and defend their own country. The twoarmies met, it is supposed, not far from the spot where theRhone, descending from the Valais, is about to enter the Lakeof Geneva. The trained legions which had overrun Macedonia and all the conquests of " Macedonia's madman " inGreece, in Asia, and in Egypt, were broken by their barbarous enemies. Another and a larger Roman army soon metthe same fate; and then the tide of fortune, as so often beforein Roman history, was turned. The Helvetii and their confederates were defeated in two great battles at Aix, in Provence, by Marius, and soon after associated with the Cimbriand the Teutones, in their final attempt to force their wayinto Italy, they experienced a last overwhelming defeat bythe same fortunate chieftain. One cannot but feel that thereis " nothing new under the sun," when he reflects, that in theyear 101 , before our Saviour, the Germans of that day foughttheir battle of Solferino, in that very quadrilatère, withinwhich the fortunes of their race, as far as Italy is concerned,376 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.are now (23d July) trembling in the balance of a doubtfuldiplomacyThese foreign expeditions, however disastrous at the time,did not break the spirit of the Helvetii. That was anachievement reserved for a greater than Marius. They hadtasted the figs of Provence and " quaffed the pendent vintage "of Burgundy, and resolved to abandon the shores of the lakeof the " four sylvan cantons " and the cold sides of the Alpsand the Jura, for a milder region. In a word, they determined to transfer their entire population from Switzerland toGaul; from which we may infer that in those primitive days,the mystic attachment of the Swiss to his native mountainsdid not exist. After two years of secret preparations, inwhich stores were collected for the sustenance of an invadingnation, the great movement commenced, according to Cæsar,on the 28th of March, of the year 58 before our Saviour.The aged and infirm, the women and the children , were placedon wagons, drawn by oxen; determined never to return, theyburned their twelve Cantonal towns and four hundred villages; and moved forward an invading nation toward thecoveted plains of Burgundy. Cæsar, at that time, governedthe Province with pro-consular power, but seems to havebeen taken somewhat by surprise. The single legion, whichcomposed his whole force, could oppose but an ineffectual resistance to the advance of an entire people of hardy adventurers; and leaving Labienus to watch their progress, hehastened to Italy for new levies. The Helvetii, in the meantime, turned the wall, which Cæsar had constructed fromGeneva to the mountains, and, guided by the river, brokethrough Jura, where the Rhone does. There was no one tooppose them on the " lofty mountain," where " a very fewcould have stopped their way," and they rushed into Gaul.But they rushed to their fate. Cæsar, who construed thelaw of nations with great strictness against the " rest of mankind," and deemed it an outrage for anybody but the RomansTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 377to encroach upon his neighbors, overtook them with sixlegions before they had wholly passed the Saône; cut offtheir rear (one-fourth part consisting of the Zurichers, ) whilethey were passing the river; defeated the main body in ageneral action; hung upon the retreat of those that escaped;and after having destroyed three-fourths of their entire number, allowed the remainder, crushed and humbled, to returnto their native vallies, and rebuild their cabins at the foot ofthe glaciers. He found among the spoils of their camp aregister of their forces, kept in " Greek letters," and no doubtalso in the Greek language; though on that point the learnedare not agreed. It was unquestionably drawn up by some" Græculus esuriens " (hungry little Greek) an adventurerfrom Marseilles; for personages of that class, -adventurers ifnot renegades from civilized regions, -are invariably found inbarbarous and semi-civilized States, in offices of trust requiring literary attainments. Italians, Germans, and Polish Jewsare found, at the present day, in employments of that kind, atthe courts of the Turkish, Persian, and Tartar Emirs andViziers from Syria to India. By this Greck Register, it appeared that this invading force consisted of 263,000 Swiss and105,000 of their allies from the Jura, the Lake of Constance,the Grisons, and the Tyrol; amounting together to 368,000persons, of whom a fourth part, not a large proportion fortribes in that state of civilization, were fighting men. Nogreat reliance is to be placed on the geographical synonyms, by which the Helvetian allies enumerated by Cæsarare referred to modern localities; and numerical data arematters of great uncertainty in all ancient authors, owing totheir liability to error in the process of transcription. Theforegoing numbers, however, do not appear exaggerated. Ahalf a million is a moderate estimate for the entire populationof a region whose arms defeated those of Consular Rome atthe height of her power.After being compelled to return to their former homes,378 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the ancient Swiss remained in subjection to their conquerors,protected for a while from new swarms of invaders, morebarbarous than themselves, by the terror of the Roman name.Cæsar, meantime, in conquering them struck the first blowfor the conquest of his country and the world. The libertiesof Rome fell not so much when he crossed the Rubicon aswhen he crossed the Arar,* to attack the Swiss. That wasthe commencement of his unparalleled career.The road from Fort L'Ecluse to Geneva is beautiful; aricher prospect is rarely to be seen. The rain had washedthe dust from lawn and grove and thicket, and the verdure ofAutumn had sprung up and covered the stubble of harvest.Every thing looked fresh and bright. Jura running offto the north-east bounded the view on the left; the distant Alps in front and on the right; Mont Blanc in theextreme background, glittering in a meridian sun. Beforeyou, as you proceed, a beautiful plain descends gradually tothe Lake, and cultivation is pushed up to the roots of Jura.Farm-houses, villas, patches of wood, the Rhone hurrying toits struggle through the mountains, and bearing along with itthe sparkling tribute of a hundred silver brooks from thehighlands, give life and charm to the landscape. At noon wereached Geneva; it was a fast day; the gates of the city wereshut upon all egress, and the streets were still and sad.The ancient name of the Saône.NUMBER FORTY-TWO.EXCURSION FROM GENEVA TO CHAMOUNI, MONT BLANC.The various attractions in Geneva-The influence of Calvin-The road to Chamouniup the valley of the Arve-Remarkable scene beyond Bonneville-Nant d'Ar- pennaz-First view of Mont Blanc-Goitres, whether considered a beauty by the peasantry-Lac de Chede-Servoz-The Upper Arve-Entrance into the valley of Chamouni-The glaciers -Description of a glacier-Their motion-Investigation of the cause by Professor Agassiz-The valley of Chamouni first made knownto the travelling world by Pococke and Windham in 1741-Alpine scenery less fre- quently described by the poets than might have been expected.FEW places unite in the same degree as Geneva and itsvicinity, the attractions of natural beauty, historical association, and great names. Its lake, the deep blue waters anddivided current of its river, the confluence of the Rhone andthe Arve in the immediate neighborhood, Jura and MontBlanc, -which may be said to belong to Geneva, or ratherGeneva to them; its ancient memories, going back to thetime of Cæsar; its curious mediæval annals, and the fortunesof its independent municipality; the great characters which,beginning with the greatest of all, Calvin, have adorned it;the names which it has given to modern letters, Rousseau,Voltaire, Gibbon, de Stäel, which, if not native to the region,have been intimately connected with it; these are sufficientto establish its claims to an equal variety and pre- eminenceof interest. In the heraldry of the moral sentiments, theideas which, through the Pilgrim fathers, the English dissenters and Puritans, and the Scottish covenanters trace theirdescent from the government and ministry of Calvin, will be380 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.found to fill no second place in the spiritual and intellectualaristocracy of the world. I suppose there are more persons,belonging to the reading and thinking classes of society inEurope and America, whose opinions on the most important.subjects have been to some extent influenced, if not whollydetermined, by the Instructions given in the church of St.Peter in Geneva, three hundred years ago, than by those ofany other human teacher. Calvin's grave, without anymonument or memorial but the letters J. C. , attracts everyyear the visits of hundreds-perhaps thousands-of pilgrims;and his manuscripts in the public library (of which he wasthe founder) are examined with greater curiosity than anything else contained in it. By a somewhat curious coincidence, the same library contains a manuscript on papyrus, ofextreme antiquity and unique biographical value, of some ofthe discourses of St. Augustine, -the still greater Calvin ofhis age, at least as far as doctrine is concerned.Geneva was rapidly becoming a foreign, —almost an English city, -forty years ago; a process which has, as I understand, been steadily going on ever since, especially since theera of railroads. Its beautiful environs furnish, for the yearthrough, a more comfortable residence than those of theItalian cities, for the Russians and English, who in great numbers seek foreign homes. Many persons are attracted by thecharming villa scenery ofthe Lake; not a few of the youngerportion, by the opportunity of acquiring a tolerably goodFrench accent, at a cheaper residence than Paris; a considerable number of families by the schools, at which their children are educated in or near Geneva. The hospitable andhighly cultivated social circles of the city often tempt thetourist to prolong his sojourn far beyond its intended duration. My visit was too short to enable me to do much morethan to feel the constantly experienced drawback on the gratifications incident to travel, either abroad or at home,-I meanthe regret, often the sorrow, -of forming a brief acquaint-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 381ance with persons of highly cultivated minds and the mostestimable social qualities, whose society you enjoy for a fewdays, and from whom you part to meet no more on earth.But Mont Blanc is the object uppermost in the mind ofthe traveller on arriving at Geneva. After a few days spentin the city, we made our visit to Chamouni. The road, constantly ascending, lies for the greater part of the way alongthe banks of the Arve or through its valley. I never beforefelt so strongly the truth of Mr. Jefferson's remark, that it isthe rivers which have made the mountains passable and opened their gates to man. The process described in his famousaccount of the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah, atHarper's Ferry, is repeated all over the world. Everywherethe waters have burst or worn their way through the mountains; and thus opened a path not only for themselves butfor man and his highways.Nothing very striking presents itself on the way to Chamouni, till you have passed Bonneville, a small town abouthalfway on the first day's journey. After crossing the Arve,as you leave this place, you enter a stupendous scene. Thevalley is broad, but surrounded by rocky walls steeper thanthe goat can climb, -perpendicular in some places, nay, insome actually overhanging the road. They seemed to realizethe simple imagery of " touching the sky." In some places aswe passed, heavy clouds of mist hung half way upon theirsides, gilded by a flood of sunbeams pouring over their tops.As the valley makes several sudden turns, we found ourselvesmore than once, surrounded on every side by these eternalbarriers, whose contorted strata add not a little to the wildness of the scene. A person who should be conveyed whileasleep into one of these mountain prisons would perceive nooutlet nor inlet, and would think he must of necessity havefallen from the clouds. There is occasionally, however, aconsiderable space betwen the river and the foot of the precipice, which is clothed in all the beauty of a rich culture. The382 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.rays ofthe sun are condensed, as on a hot wall, and produce an almost tropical climate in the near neighborhood of Mont Blanc.Unmitigated adamantine barrenness and a luxuriant vegetationare thus brought into immediate contact with each other. Alittle beyond Maglan, you pass the Nant d'Arpennaz, a waterfall of great height and surpassing beauty, which, at someseasons of the year, after breaking into dust like the Staubbach,is condensed again into water, in the latter part of its course,and crossing the road under a bridge darts in foaming the Arve. The contorted stratification to which I have justalluded is very conspicuous in the limestone wall, over whichthe Nant d'Arpennaz plunges.We passed the night in a decent inn at St. Martin. Herewecaught the first fair full view of Mont Blanc, with all its snowsandglaciers gloriously illuminated by the setting sun. WhatI had seen at the distance of a hundred miles, from Fourvièresat Lyons, resembling a heavy white cloud in the horizon, nowtowered to the heavens, a mountain of purple light. Thetraveller should, by all means, if possible, arrive at St. Martin in season to enjoy this sunset view of Mont Blanc. In themorning it is seen under a different light, and loses somethingof its splendor. But whether seen in the morning or theevening, the first distinct near view of Mont Blanc is an erain a man's life. It is twelve or thirteen miles distant fromSt. Martin, but such is the pure transparence of the mountainair, that you feel as if the next step would bring you to itscrystal sides. Great, however, is the deception. The moderate distance which intervenes between you and the summit ofthe mountain is still sufficient to soften the savage outline,bounding what seems a smooth, glittering, inclined plane, -onwhich you might, to all appearance, walk gently up to heaven.It is not till you have contemplated the surrounding and nearerobjects, measured the valley of the Arve with your eye, as itranges up the course of the river, and surveyed the sides ofthe Col de Forclaz, dark with forests, its top not too high forTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 383Alpine pasturage,-(we fancied that we could hear the tinkling of the cowbells, but the distance was too great,)—andthen some of the outer buttresses of Mont Blanc which liebeyond, that the mind corrects the illusion of the sight, andforming a clearer idea of its distance, you more fully appreciate its majestic dimensions.At St. Martin we left our post-chaise, and took a char-ábanc, the light vehicle of the mountains, for Chamouni.Seated by the side of the driver, I endeavored to learn fromhim if there was any foundation in truth for the currentnotion, that the goitre, which begins to prevail as you penetrate the lofty Alpine vallies, is deemed a beauty by theirinhabitants. Anecdotes built on that supposition are foundin books of travels and novelettes in the Periodicals. "Whata beauty that Miladi would be, if she only had a goitre! " Awretched object in whom this deformity was very conspicuouspassed us, as we were toiling up the road before reachingChède. I repeated to the driver one of the anecdotes of thekind alluded to, and asked him whether the young men andwomen of that region really thought the goitre a beauty. Helooked at me somewhat reproachfully, and answered, “ Malheureux ceux qui en ont," woe to those who have it!The road is very steep at Chède. Here we turned asideto see a pretty cascade, the Nant de Chède, arched by a brilliant rainbow. Farther on we came to the Lac de Chède, inwhich Mont Blanc was reflected as in a mirror. The guidebook states that in 1837, it was filled up with stone and blackmud, in one of those debacles, or mountain freshets, which arecontinually changing the aspect of the vallies in the upperAlps. The road now passes over what was the Miroir deChède. The road constantly ascending crosses the bed of atorrent, probably the same which in some former inundation filled up the Miroir, and still often changes its track bythe chaotic accumulations brought down by every violentstorm. The considerable effect sometimes produced, in this384 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.way, in a few hours in the narrow vallies interposed betweenthese lofty mountains, teaches a significant lesson as to thevast results of great elemental forces acting for a successionof ages, ofmighty geological periods,-on the earth's surface.We breakfasted at the little village of Servoz, which liesabout half way between St. Martin and Chamouni, and herewe got the last view of the summit of Mont Blane beforeturning into the valley. Farther on it is hidden by intervening " Domes," as these vaulted mountain heights are expressively called in French. Not far from Servoz, you cross amountain torrent called the Diosà, and soon reach the PontPelissier, where the Arve whose turbid stream first attractedyour notice at its junction with the pure blue Rhone belowthe Lake of Geneva, and which has been coquetting with youall the way from the lake up to Chamouni, rushes out from amountain gorge, and gives a character to the valley. It still ,as you toil onward, keeps you company on the left, boundingfrom terrace to terrace; raving through the rocks, which ithas itself rent from the mountain sides, sometimes plunginginto depths, where the eye would seek in vain to follow it,but occasionally spreading out for a few yards into a smoothmountain pool. Mont Blanc now looms upon you in all itsgrandeur, although its summit is hidden by the Dome duGouté. You are now in the valley of Chamouni; you crossby another bridge to the right bank of the Arve, which runsparallel with the foot of the Breven and at a short distancefrom it, while on the opposite banks a succession of glaciers.stretch into the valley, at right angles to its course.A glacier of the largest dimensions is to the thoughtfulstudent of nature one of the most extraordinary phenomena onthe surface ofthe globe, while it is also one of those of which,without ocular inspection, it is most difficult to form an accurate idea. It is a vast mass of ice and melted snow, in somecases seven or eight hundred feet thick, and several mileswide and long, filling the space between two Alpine ridges, orTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 385the gorge which cuts deep into the face of a mountain. It is,therefore, a frozen sea, whose shores are composed of wildgranatic or calcareous cliffs, open on its lower end to the valley. The glacier is not homogeneous, but its lower strata consists of solid ice, while the upper portion is a mass which hasalternately melted and frozen, and is somewhat porous. Thesurface is rough and undulating, and broken by crevices, someof which are narrow and easily leapt over by the aid of theAlpine staff, shod with iron, which is placed in the traveller'shand; others are wide, deep, and impassable; a yawning,frozen grave to the hapless tourist, who should miss a stepupon the brink. A very striking case of a fatal accident ofthis kind is narrated, in the London Illustrated News for the27th of August, 1859. From the lower extremity of theglacier a stream of water issues, produced by the action ofthe sun on the exposed surfaces of the mass, and percolatingthrough the crevices, and the porous substance of the glacier,whose volume thus suffers a diminution in the summer, sometimes equal to its increase in the winter.But the most extraordinary fact in connection with theglaciers is their motion. It has long been known that themighty mass, which one would suppose must, independent ofits weight, be frozen immovably to the eternal rocks thatbound and underlie it, is nevertheless steadily ploughing itsway, with irresistible force, down the inclined surface onwhich it lies, grinding and throwing up vast furrows of granite,limestoneand gravel, called moraines, from the sides ofthegorge.This fact, I say, was noticed by the early observers, but muchdoubt rested on the cause of the motion. The researches of Professor Agassiz, carried on with unwearied diligence, wonderfulacuteness of observation, and sagacity of inference, have established the theory, now generally accepted, that this forward motion is caused by the action upon each other ofthe particles whichcompose the somewhat porous mass of the glacier, and whichare alternately expanded and contracted by change of tempcr17386 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.ature. This theory attracted great attention as first broughtto general notice by Professor Forbes, ( who speaks of theglaciers as " viscous " bodies, ) who passed some weeks withMr. Agassiz on the gigantic glacier of the Aar, where, forseveral successive seasons, this last-named illustrious Philosopher had been pursuing his investigations.It is not the least remarkable circumstance in connectionwith Mont Blanc and Chamouni that they remained so longunknown to the travelling world. The common accounts represent them as having been discovered by Dr. Richard Pococke (afterwards Bishop of Ossory) and his companionWindham, in 1741. Mr. Simond, one of the most intelligentof modern travellers, says, " Incredible as it may seem, thisvalley of Chamouni, till then unknown, was discovered in 1741by two Englishmen, the celebrated traveller Pococke and aMr. Windham." This, however, requires explanation. ThePriory, which still gives its name to the central village ofChamouni, and to the house of entertainment there, wasfounded toward the close of the eleventh century; a visitationof the Bishop of Geneva, in whose diocese it lay, is recordedin the fifteenth; and St. Francis de Sales visited it in theseventeenth century. I take these facts from Murray's handbook, where others to the same effect may be found; but thestatement also given there, that the Report of the excursionof Messrs. Pococke and Windham to Chamouni "is in theRoyal Society's transactions in 1741 " is erroneous. Thereis nothing of that kind in that volume, nor as far as the indexof Reuss can be trusted, any other volume of the Royal Society's transactions, unless it appears under some other name.There is no reason to suppose that the valley of Chamouni was"unknown," in any strict sense of the word, from the earliestantiquity, in any other way than all thinly inhabited and remote mountain regions were unknown, till a comparativelyrecent period, during which travelling for recreation andpleasure has become so much more frequent than it ever wasTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 387in former times. There must always have been a road,though not the most direct one, from Geneva, up the valleyof the Arve, through Chamouni, by the way of the Col deBalme, to Martigny, where a Roman legion was stationed byJulius Cæsar. It is, however, most true, that the visit ofMessrs. Pococke and Windham is the earliest that is knownto have been made by modern tourists, and seems to havefirst turned the attention of the world of travellers in thatdirection.It is somewhat noticeable that natural phenomena, so peculiar and extraordinary as the awful peaks and icy seas ofthe upper Alps, should not more frequently have furnishedthe poets with appropriate imagery. Even if we assume thatthe Mer de Glace and Mont Blanc were "discovered " in1741 , other portions of the Alpine chain were known fromtime immemorial. A continual intercourse for the purposesof trade as well as war has been kept up between Italy andthe regions west of it, at least from the time of the Romanconquests, and through the middle ages, down to the presentday. One might have expected that natural objects of a character so grandly marked and peculiar would, through the reports of intelligent travellers, have been reflected into theliterature, prose and poetry-both of the ancients and moderns. Cicero and Cæsar, Petrarch and Tasso crossed the Alps,as did Milton and Addison, Thomson and Gray. It wouldbe hazardous to say that, in the wide range of ancient andmodern poetry, there is no description of the scenery inquestion, till the last century, but I am inclined to think that,in poets of the first class, it does not go beyond general allusions. Milton speaks of " many a frozen Alp," Thomson.describes an Avalanche, Coleridge in a hymn, mainly borrowed, it is said, from the German,* chants the solemn gloriesofChamouni before sunrise, and Byron, who wrote his Man-

  • De Quincey's Literary Reminiscences, Vol. I., p. 156.

388 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.fred within sight of Mont Blanc, consecrates one majestieQuatrain to " the monarch of mountains." But I recollect nomaster passage (like the descriptions ofthe Eruption of Etnaby Eschylus and Pindar) of which you would say after reading it, that it was conceived by the side of an Alpine glacieror at the foot of an Alpine peak. Some splendid stanzas inChilde Harold may be deemed an exception to this remark.NUMBER FORTY-THREE.THE MONTANVERT, THE SEA OF ICE, AND THE GREENGARDEN.Excursion to the Jardin Vert-Ascent to the Montanvert-Prospect from it-Solita ry cabin-Beautiful midnight scene-Crossing the Mer de Glace, crevasses— Dangerous pass along the face of the mountain-- Reach the Jardin-Sublimity of the scene-Return to the Montanvert-Descent to the lower end of the Mer deGlace and the source of the Arveiron-Geological significance of the recent inquiries into the formation and movement of the Glaciers-Importance of these bodies in the economy of nature.DESIROUS of seeing a fair specimen of Alpine scenery, andnot having time to multiply excursions, we determined on visitingthe Jardin Vert, (the Green Garden , ) the highest point ofvegetation in Europe. This spot can only be reached by ascendingthe Montanvert, * and crossing the Mer de Glace, (Sea of Ice, )which is one ofthe noblest glaciers in the Alpine range. The excursion requires a day and a half from the valley of Chamouni,is very fatiguing, and at that time, as will presently be seen,was not unattended with danger. It was, therefore, not veryfrequently undertaken. Some improvement has, I believe,been made in the most difficult passes, by which the dangeris diminished; and excursions to the Jardin Vert are, in consequence more common than they were forty years ago.Having laid in a small stock of provisions, we startedfrom the Inn in the valley of Chamouni, at three o'clock inthe afternoon. The road for the first part of the way lies

  • This name is variously spelt. In the French motto to the highly interesting

chapter on Chamouni, in Beattie and Bartlett's Switzerland, Vol I. , it is written Mont Envers390 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.through the valley of the Arve, but begins to ascend rapidlyafter you strike into the pine woods that skirt the foot of themountain. There was in 1818 no beaten pathway throughthis patch of forest, and we suffered a good deal of fatigue infollowing our guides, as they led us over fallen trees, projecting roots, scattered boulders from the heights above, andacross the bed of torrents, which, after a heavy rain, camefoaming down the mountain sides. But the fine views thatcontinually open upon you as you ascend-the opposite summits of the Breven, the range of the valley, and presently themagnificent peak called the Aiguille de Dru-amply repayyou for the labor. The distance to the Montanvert, as wetravelled it, was about three leagues, which took us abouthalf a mile above the level of the valley. There was accordingly, in some of the steeper places, no little need of thelong staves, shod with iron, with which our guides had provided us.We reached the Montanvert about sunset, and there enjoyed a prospect of transcendent grandeur and beauty. Theelevation above the level of the sea is about equal to that ofMount Washington, in the White Mountains; it is nearlythe highest easily accessible point in the Alps. Light evening clouds were floating on the opposite sides of the Flegereand Breven, touched and gilded by the twilight of a mildSeptember evening. Directly before us and beneath thelevel of the Montanvert was the Sea of Ice, entering the valleyof Chamouni abruptly, nearly on a range with the spot wherewe stood, and stretching for miles backward and upward tothe right. This immense glacier is called the " Sea of Ice "from its magnitude, and because its rough, broken surfacelooks as we may suppose the sea would look, if it could besuddenly frozen solid at the height of a storm. All wassilent on the top of the mountain, except that a cow-boy wassinging his ranz des vaches, as he drove his four or five animals to their shed, and the Arveiron, in the stillness of theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 391evening, was heard with a hollow murmur, bursting out frombeneath the glacier below, and rushing to the Arve.A tolerably substantial cabin, consisting of one room, butwholly destitute of furniture, except two or three woodenbenches, was the only habitation for man on the Montanvertin 1818. A small inn with two or three bed-rooms has sincebeen erected for the accommodation of travellers. A cowherd and his boy were the only occupants of the lonely spotat that time, and milk and curds the only food to be obtainedthere. As we were to pass the night on the mountain, wehad provided ourselves more substantially, and made a heartymeal on dried goat- mutton. This done, we kindled an immense fire, drew two benches together, and with our feet tothe blazing logs, and our knapsacks for pillows, lay down tosleep. At midnight I was wakened by the moon, full ornearly so, pouring upon my face, through the window of thecabin. I did not hesitate to obey the summons, and went outto contemplate a scene at once the most lovely and awful thatmy eyes ever rested on. The light of the moon at this greatelevation, and in consequence of the purity of the air, had astrange metallic intensity. The supreme stillness of Natureon these lofty Alpine summits, unbroken by any thing butthe moan of the Arveiron, would have been dreary, had notan occasional tinkle of the cow-bell from the shed near usgiven a token of life . A sharp crack from the glacier fromtime to time also told that there was motion there.mildness and serenity of midnight in these frozen solitudeswere as pleasing to me as they were unexpected. I had beenanticipating benumbing cold and roaring winds, loaded withblinding particles of drift snow.TheWe were abroad at the earliest dawn. Below us was thefrozen sea, six or seven miles in length, and then branchingout into two other glaciers, running further back into the inmost recesses of the Alps. Directly in front of us was theAiguille de Dru, and further in the rear and on the right the392 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Aiguille du Moine, the mighty granitic steeples of Nature'stemple, rearing their ragged pinnacles to the heavens. Aboutmidway between the Dru and the Moine is the Aiguille Verte,which overtops both, and reaches the height of nearly thirteenthousand feet above the level of the sea; twice the elevationofthe Montanvert. The intervals between these peaks, whichare miles apart, are filled with numerous other needles (Aiguilles), as they are called, of various sizes and heights, whichunite to give an inexpressible savageness, if I may so call it ,to the scene. If the reader will fancy to himelf an immensemountain gorge, six miles long, branching into two others ofabout equal length, the whole forming something like a Y,the sides bounded by two or three parallel ridges of baregranite, from which at irregular intervals the above-mentionedpinnacles rise to the clouds; and will then conceive thisstrange enclosure to be filled with a stormy sea, which, at themoment when it was tossing most wildly, had been frozen tothe bottom, so that it should spread out a vast rigid mass,with all its icy billows and deep crystal chasms, and here andthere a stray boulder on its surface; he will have as correctan idea of the Mer de Glace, as seen from the Montanvert, ascan be formed without ocular inspection .Our day's work was to cross this frozen sea diagonally,and return before night. The distance to be traversed on theglacier might, in a straight line, be about three miles, but itwas considerably increased by following a serpentine course.We had screwed sharp iron points into the soles of our boots,and our long poles were armed with iron . With this preparation we started, each following his guide. The moraineswere first to be crossed, by a toilsome, and frequently difficult, and even dangerous path. The surface of the glacier wasin some places extremely rough and uneven, and broken bycrevices, some of which appeared, as we looked down, to beforty or fifty feet deep. Woe to the wretch who should fallinto one of them! Some of the deepest of these crevicesTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 393communicate with the currents that flow beneath the mass,and carry off the percolating waters. It is related that in1787, a shepherd, who was living sixty years afterwards, fellinto one of these deep crevices, ―crevasses, as they are morecommonly called by the French name,-which, happily forhim, communicated with the vaulted passage worn by thetrickling waters, through which he escaped to the light of daywith no worse injury than a broken arm.A little snow had fallen shortly before we crossed theglacier, and it was necessary to use great care, not to step onplaces where it had, by drifting, formed a frail and treacherous crust over one of these crevices . With all our care toplace our feet exactly in the footsteps of our guide, we weresometimes misled by the apparent solidity of the adjacentsurface, and slipped into holes three or four feet deep. Besides the smaller crevices which break the surface of the glacier, it is traversed by broader fissures, at right angles to themain direction of the mass, which often make it impossible toadvance in a straight line. Occasionally one of the hugeboulders just mentioned would afford the means of crossingthese fissures; sometimes they were bridged over by broadcakes of ice; and sometimes it was necessary to climb downon one side and up on the other, by the aid of the projectinginequalities in the icy wall. In this way we travelled by estimate about six miles in three hours, and found ourselveslanded at the foot of the opposite mountain, called the Couvercle. Here we rested for half an hour. The almost perpendicular face of this mountain was next to be climbed, andhere the danger seemed to me far greater than at " the Ponts,"which Murray's Hand-book calls the most difficult part of theexcursion, which " no one who has not a steady head shouldattempt to cross . ” It is probable that the constant downwardmarch of the glacier, ploughing its way towards the valleymay, in the course of forty years, have produced importantchanges in the moraines (the chaotic ridges) that bound it.17*394 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.In ascending the side of the mountain, it is necessary in oneplace to pass along its almost perpendicular face at a heightof five or six hundred feet from its base, with no other supportfor the feet but the cavities, an inch or two deep, some natural,some apparently artificial, by means of which, supportingyourself in the mean time with your hands, you sidle along.One of the guides introduced us to this passage, called theEgralets, by the tranquillizing exclamation: " Here take carehow you step, gentlemen, or you are lost! "After this formidable pass we had still to climb themountain, but by a safer ascent, for an hour and a half, andthen, having crossed the head of the glacier, we reached theJardin Vert, a small green spot, in the very heart of the Alps,more than nine thousand feet above the level of the sea. Itssize varies with the length of the preceding winter, or the heatof the season. It is sometimes seven or eight acres in extent, but it appeared to me less than two. It is the highestpoint of vegetation in Europe, and covered with a coarseAlpine grass. No description can do justice to the feelingswhich one experiences at this great elevation-the joint resultof sensation, thought, and emotion. You still see around youthe magnificent peaks already described, while other columnsand glaciers open upon you from the new point of view. Faraway as you are in these terrible mountain fastnesses, fromevery living being, the mind sinks under the fearful solitudeand overwhelming grandeur of the scene. There was not acloud in the sky; its tint was nearly black; the rays of thesun were condensed as in a vast concave mirror; and the heatso intense that our faces were too much blistered to use arazor with any comfort, for a week afterwards.return.After a hearty lunch and a short nap, we started on theThis we were able to accomplish in rather less timethan the ascent, partly because a considerable part of the waywas down hill; and in other places because we had our morning's pathway in the snow to guide us. The Egralets, how-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 395ever, appeared to me rather more formidable than they didin the morning. The snow that lodged in the excavationsabove-mentioned had partly melted and coated them with thinice. I have, in the course of my life, been a few times in whatseemed to me dangerous situations, but never in one wherethe peril appeared so great. We got back to the Montanvertat about four o'clock in the afternoon, having accomplishedthe difficult expedition, much to our satisfaction , in about tenhours from the time of starting, for nine of which we had beenin motion. Our guides told us that the Jardin was not oftenvisited; and they knew of but one lady who had made theexcursion; a daughter of the celebrated aëronaut Montgolfier.I took my leave of the Montanvert with a sorrowful feeling,that I should never probably revisit the scene of so muchsublime beauty. We descended by a different and steeperpath, in order to see the source of the Arveiron. A part ofthe way the inclination was too great to admit any use of thefeet, walking or running; we were obliged to resort to asimpler form of locomotion, which speedily brought us to thefoot of the mountain, and to the front of the glacier as it presents itself to the valley. This is what may be called the outlet of one ofthe three of the largest Alpine glaciers; for amongsix hundred which Escher estimates to be the entire number,that of Mont Blanc just described, of Monte Rosa, and ofthe Finster-Aar-Horn in the Bernese Alps, are the largest andmost important. The last-named has been explored with thegreatest care, and is that on which the observations of Mr.Agassiz were made, which have furnished the basis of the accepted theory of these extraordinary formations.The arched cavern in the middle of the face of the glacier,from which the Arveiron was pouring forth the entire drainage of the Mer de Glace, varies in dimensions in differentseasons. It appeared to me, at the outlet, about ninety feethigh, the entrance to a magnificent crystal grotto. In winter it is said wholly to disappear. It begins to be formed in396 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.spring, increases in height and width with the advance ofsummer; and sometimes the upper arch, sometimes the lateral buttresses become so much softened and melted away,that a considerable portion comes down with a mighty crash.Contrary to what might be expected, the water, which issuesfrom these mountains of ice and snow, is not remarkablyclear. It is generally turbid, sometimes charged with earthydeposits, the result no doubt of the grinding action of theglacier on its rocky bed and sides.This is not the place for a disquisition on the importantgeological inferences, which have been drawn from the moreaccurate study of the Swiss glaciers of late years. The surface of the globe, wherever it has been explored, presents appearances, which can be best referred to the action of thesemighty masses of ice, driven along, in some former conditionof our planet, by oceanic currents, like those which at thepresent day bring down the terrific icebergs of the North toour temperate latitudes. -At the present day, it is justly observed by the able editor of Murray's Hand-book of Switzerland, that " it is highly interesting to consider, how importanta service the glaciers perform in the economy of nature.These dead and chilly fields of ice, which prolong the reign ofwinter throughout the year, are, in reality the source of lifeand the springs of vegetation. They are the locked up reservoirs, the sealed fountains, from which the vast rivers, traversing the great continents of our globe, are sustained. Thesummer heat which dries up other sources of water, firstopens out their bountiful supplies. When the rivers of theplain begin to shrink and dwindle within their parched beds,the torrents of the Alps, fed by melting snow and glaciers,rush down from the mountains and supply the deficiency;and at that season (July and August) the rivers and lakes ofSwitzerland are the fullest. "NUMBER FORTY- FOUR.GENEVA, FERNEY, LAUSANNE.Rousseau's house-His manuscripts-Partial insanity the best apology for his conduct-Voltaire's Chateau at Ferney-Description of his room and list of portraits in it-Other memorials-Contrast of Ferney as it was during Voltaire's life -time and its present appearance -His life and works an entire failure-Coppet andMadame de Staël -Gouverneur Morris-Lausanne-Gibbon's house-its appearance in 1818 -Summer-house in the garden, where he was accustomed to study- Last lines of the Decline and Fall written there-Hume's striking remark in1767, on the stability and duration of the English language, in consequence of its prevalence in America.HAVING little time to spare, we made the return to Genevain one day, which was done with the greater ease, as the roadis generally on the descent, and with the greater willingness,as the prospects looking westward are far less magnificent.Our lodgings were at the Ecu de Genève, which commandedin the rear a most pleasing view of the River and the Lake.The former is perhaps a finer object than that portion of theLake which is seen from the terrace. The " arrowy " swiftness of the Rhone, the deep blue tint and purity of the water,as it hurries in its divided current through the city, are renowned in prose and in poetry. Every one has heard of theconfluence of the Rhone and the Arve, a short distance belowthe city, and the stately refusal of the former to mingle itslimpid current with the turbid waters of the latter stream .At the table d'hôte of the hotel there were persons (as we hadthe means of knowing) of eight different countries, speakingthat number of languages. There might have been still othersof different nations and tongues. Among the English was398 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Mr. Elmsley, whom I had the good fortune to know at Oxford, one of the best Greek scholars of his time, and then onhis way to examine the classical manuscripts in the Ambrosian library at Milan.The house in which Rousseau was born is on a streetwhich bears his name. Though of three stories in height,it has a mean appearance. Over the door are inscribed inplain letters the words Jean Jacques Rousseau, né ici xxviiiJuin, 1712, " John James Rousseau was born here on the 28thof June, 1712." A number of the original manuscripts ofRousseau, including that of his " Confessions," were preservedat Geneva, at the time of our visit, in the possession of theson of the friend to whom he bequeathed them. We werepromised an opportunity of inspecting them, but were accidentally prevented from availing ourselves of it. Rousseaudescribes his own mode of writing as extremely laborious, andspeaks of his manuscripts as being " full of erasures and blots,and undecipherable. " The manuscript of the Confessionswas represented to us, as being in his own hand, written withgreat neatness, and entirely free from erasures and blots. Itwas of course a fair copy, written out by himself. The directions given by him, that his autobiography should be published as written, without alteration or retrenchment, were,it seems, to some extent disobeyed, by the omission of passages too gross to see the light. It would have been well forhis good name if these scruples had been carried further.One apology, a wretched one, it is true-may be made forsome of the details of his book, in which the frailties of othersare meanly divulged in connection with his own. His intention was that the publication should not take place till 1800,and when he probably thought that all those whose nameswere introduced by him would have passed away. It appeared, however, the first part in 1781, three years after hisdeath, and the second in 1788. The injurious effects of itsdisclosures, or what purport to be such, on the characters of-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 399others were in a great degree neutralized by the generallyprevailing impression that no statement made by him is entitled to belief, which rests merely on his own authority. Ithas been shown in some cases that the whole truth was nottold by him, even in reference to breaches of morality confessed by himself, and where the frankness of the admissionmight seem to challenge belief.The best apology to be made for the life as for the writings of Rousseau is, that he was partially insane. Suchseems to have been the opinion of the most renowned of hisadmirers. In Byron's poetical apotheosis of Rousseau, hesays:-" But he was frenzied , -wherefore who may know?Since cause might be which skill could never find;But he was frenzied by disease or woe,To that worst pitch of all, that wears a reasoning show. "No other theory so well explains his character as a writerand as a man; and this I am aware is only saying in otherwords that they admit no rational explanation or defence. Itis doubtful whether the last century, so fertile in France ofpublications adapted to deprave the public taste and poisonthe minds of the young of both sexes, produced any thingworse than the writings of Rousseau. He had too much discernment, -if entitled to be called a rational being, to beunconscious himself that this was the character and tendencyof his writings; and yet when Voltaire, not yet his enemy, atthe time of the persecutions occasioned by the appearance ofEmile offered its author an Asylum at Ferney, Rousseau,with affected candor, replied , " I do not love you, you havecorrupted my republic in giving it a theatre." Such was theedifying anxiety of the author of the New Eloise for the morals of the young men and women of Geneva! On one occasion a person introduced himself in the following manner:"You see before you a father who has educated his son400 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.agreeably to the principles in your Emile." Rousseau's replywas " So much the worse for you and your son! "—It seemsto have been the design of Providence to furnish in the conduct and in the autobiography of Rousseau, an all-sufficientantidote for the poison of his writings.Voltaire's residence at Fernex, or Ferney, as it is usuallywritten, is about six miles from Geneva, and just within thelimits of France. After his quarrel with Frederic the Great,and a temporary residence at Lausanne and at Les Délices (avilla which still bears that name, and which you pass on theway from Geneva to Ferney) he established himself at thislast named place, where he lived en grand seigneur for twentyyears, till his triumphant return to Paris. There is but littlenatural beauty about it, though it enjoys a distant view ofthelake. Whatever must be said unfortunately of Voltaire's political or religious influence, he was a beneficent landlord, andbuilt up Ferney, which before his time was a small povertystricken hamlet, into a large and prosperous village. Themansion, Chateau, ( castle, ) as with some latitude of application it is usually called , is a large, and may have been inother times a somewhat imposing, residence; but it had in1818 a forlorn and dilapidated appearance. There was asmall chapel on the left as you enter the enclosure which issaid to have borne the inscription Deo erexit Voltaire, andsometimes given in French à Dieu Voltaire. * This inscription, if it ever existed , has long since disappeared. It is saidto have been obliterated during the French Revolution .We were shown Voltaire's bedroom, and told that we sawit as he left it. In size it may be eleven or twelve feet byfifteen or sixteen; it is on the ground floor, and was scantilyand meanly furnished. The chair coverings and curtains wereof silk, once blue, much faded, and greatly mutilated by travelling virtuosi, for whose benefit no doubt they are from timeErected by Voltaire in honor of God. "THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 401to time renewed. The bed is a single one of very ordinarymaterials and appearance. Directly over the bed insidehangs the portrait of the celebrated actor, Le Kain, the greatreformer of the French stage, to whom Voltaire felt underspecial obligations for having contributed to the success of hisplays, by the spirit and naturalness of his acting. On oneside of the bed is a likeness in crayon of Frederic the Great,and on the other of Voltaire himself. The indignities whichhe suffered from his royal patron did not make him wish tohave their friendly relations forgotten. On the side of theroom, as you enter, is a strange kind of monument erected tohim, in a sort of coarse porcelain, by his adopted daughter,Madame de Villette. It contained the heart of Voltaire, withthe inscription in French, " His spirit is everywhere, hisheart is here. " In the French Revolution the heart wasremoved to the Pantheon at Paris. Nothing can be in worsetaste than this memorial. On the same side of the room is aportrait of the Empress Catharine II . of Russia, wrought inneedle-work by herself and presented to Voltaire; an engraving of Pope Clement the XIV. , and of Voltaire's favoriteSavoyard servant. On the opposite side of the room is aportriat of Madame de Châtelet; and on the fourth, on oneside of the window, are engravings of the family of the unfortunate Calas, of Delille, under which is written, in Voltaire'shand-"Nulli flebilior quam tibi, Virgili,"of Diderot, Newton, and Franklin, ( these in one row, ) andunder them Racine, Milton, WASHINGTON, and Corneille; andon the other side of the window, in one row, Thomas, Leibnitz, Dortons de Maire, and d'Alembert, and under theseHelvetius and Marmontel, with an emblematic engraving ofthe monument of Voltaire, placed there after his death.These paintings and engravings are here enumerated as we"Lamented by no one more than by thee, O Virgil. "402 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.saw them in 1818. Other lists are given, and it is very likely that changes have been made in the course of the eightyone years which have elapsed since his death, during whichthe Chateau has been the property of several owners. In thegarden was a monument of wood, erected in honor of Voltaireby one of his admirers, covered with votive inscriptions; andin the gardener's house an album was shown us containing theseals of Voltaire's correspondents separated from the letters,with the names of the writers placed under them in Voltaire'shand. The aged gardener, who spoke with great respect ofthe memory of his illustrious employer, gave us some specimens of the seals and of Voltaire's writing, from this book.As the same favor was extended by a descendant of the gardener a few years ago to one of my children, and has been nodoubt to an entire intervening generation of travellers, thealbum and its contents may be supposed to be endowed withsome self- renewing property.It is, of course, impossible from its present desolateappearance, after moth and rust, and time and tourists, andinvading armies and revolutions have done their worst uponthe Chateau and its belongings, to form an idea of what Ferney may have been in Voltaire's time, when it was the seatof a profuse hospitality; of entertainments at which twohundred sat at table at once; when plays were performed inhis private theatre, in which he himself took part; and he, themost popular writer of the day, was the centre of attractionto a throng, in which the most distinguished persons of allcountries were eager to mingle. When Mr. Fox saw him,which was a " long time ago," he " lived in great elegance."Voltaire was immensely rich, and though methodical in themanagement of his property, scattered his income with a freehand. Beyond the circle of his immediate dependants, hewas not a favorite in the community. In Geneva, his infidelprinciples, and the profligacy of some of his poetical writings,combined with the aristocratic state which he kept up, toTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 403make him an object of universal dislike. He had succeededas little as Rousseau, in corrupting the simple manners anddepraving the austere morals of the miniature republic. Herepaid the aversion of his neighbors with sarcasms upon thelimited dimensions of their territory. " When I shake mywig," he was accustomed to say, " I powder the whole republic." The shabby magnificence and tawdry and faded splendors of Ferney are not out of keeping with their master'scareer; in which you know not which most to wonder at;the astonishing versatility and vigor of the natural endowments, or the miserably inconsequential and ephemeral results.It was the great and avowed aim of Voltaire's life and writingsto destroy the popular faith in the Christian Religion . Hisworks, constructed with that main object in view, and withthe utmost boldness of direct attack and skill of covert andadroit insinuation, attained a contemporary reputation, whichno other writings of the same description perhaps ever possessed. Besides this, his theories and speculations werereduced to practice, and his godless ribaldry turned intoghastly realities, by the only great political movement inthe world ever built on the negation of religious responsibility; and yet by the mysterious working together ofthings, in the disposal of an all-wise Providence, there perhaps never was a time since the primitive conversion ofFrance to Christianity, when it was more generally treatedthroughout that country with outward respect, than at thepresent day, and when, as far as we have a right to judge,it was more cordially embraced by the mass of the people,as a system, a rule, a comfort, and a hope.A short distance from Geneva, on the western side of theLake, lies Coppet, famous as the residence of M. and MadameNeckar, and their still more celebrated daughter, Madame deStaël. The room in which she is said to have writtenCorinne, her desk and inkstand, are shown to the traveller.The present generation can hardly form an adequate idea of404 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the celebrity of this lady as a writer and a politician . Herfather's reputation as a financier, at the outbreak of theFrench revolution, the popularity of the daughter's romances,especially Corinne, whose laurel wreath was supposed to havebeen woven with autobiographical sympathy, her proscriptionby Napoleon, her European fame as a conversationist, hercourage in undertaking, even with the intelligent guidance ofAugust Schlegel, an exhaustive survey of the philosophy andliterature of Germany, of which very little was known at thattime either in France or England, and the masculine shrewdness and eloquence of her speculations on the French revolution had earned for her a most brilliant name in England andin this country. I had letters to her from persons whom sheheld in great respect, whose names I record with melancholysatisfaction , Mr. Gouverneur Morris, Mr. Gallatin, and Mr.Clay; but her illustrious career was closed the year before Iwent to France. The letters procured me a most amiable reception, from the surviving members of her family, the BaronAugust de Staël, and from her son-in-law and daughter, theDuke and Duchess de Broglie, whose salons were the centreof the must refined and intellectual circles of Paris. Mr.Gouverneur Morris, as the American Minister at Paris in1792, was on terms of familiar intimacy at M. Neckar'shouse. Madame de Staël in her Germany calls him " UnAmericain fort spirituel, " (a very ingenious American, ) andquotes with applause his remark that " the French had gonebeyond liberty."It took us the better part of the day to reach Lausanne,starting from Geneva in the morning and passing by Coppet,Niort, Rolle, and Morges. The first thing to be done at Lausanne is, of course, to visit Gibbon's house, where he passedmuch of his life and wrote his great monumental history. Itwas with some difficulty that we got a direction to it fromour hotel, and from the servant who conducted us through thepremises we received the satisfactory intelligence that Mr.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 405Gibbon formerly lived there, but was now dead. The housestands high on a terrace, commanding a fine view of the Lake,which appears to greater advantage here than at Geneva.The ornamental trees in front of the house have been cutdown, and the grounds planted with fruit trees, were in 1818entirely unpicturesque. The principal rooms on the lowerfloor of the house had been converted into the counting- roomsof its proprietor, who was a man of business. A long staircase of stone, inside the house, conducts you to the terrace orgarden, which is long and narrow. At its extremity, in agrove of dwarf beech trees, is a sort of summer-house occupied by Gibbon as a study. On various places on the wallsof this apartment, as on the surrounding trees, were nailedsmall pieces apparently of tin, painted white, (they may havebeen canvass, ) on which were printed striking passages andmottoes principally from the Latin Poets. Their appearancewas far from being tasteful.It was in this summer-house, as he informs us in his autobiography, that, on the 27th of June, 1787, between the hoursof eleven and twelve, he wrote the last lines of the last pageof his great work. " After laying down my pen, " he adds,"I took several turns in a berceau or covered walk of acacias,which commands a prospect of the country, the lake, and themountains. The air was temperate, the sky was serene, thesilver orb of the moon was reflected from the waves, and allnature was silent. "That was indeed one of the great moments in the intellectual history of man, when the foretaste of an immortal nameis enjoyed by a master spirit. It breathed a tenderness intothe somewhat gross and cynical temperament of Gibben.There is a curious association of Gibbon's literary career withthe diffusion of the English language in this country. Hehad early in life lived a good deal on the continent, and underthe impression that French was to be the universal tongue,wrote his first Essay in that language. He sent a copy of it406 THE MOUNT VERNON David IIume, who wrote him in 1767, in acknowledgmentof it, as follows: " Why do you compose in French, andcarry ' faggots into the wood,' as Horace says with regard toRomans, who wrote in Greek? I grant that you have a likemotive to those Romans, and adopt a language much moregenerally diffused than your native tongue. But have you notremarked the fate of those two ancient languages in followingages? The Latin, though then less celebrated, and confinedto more narrow limits, has in some measure outlived theGreek, and is now more generally understood by men of letters. Let the French, therefore, triumph in the present diffusion of their tongue. Our solid and increasing establishmentsin AMERICA where we need less dread the inundation of barbarians, promise a superior stability and duration to the English language! "What a contrast between these sensible remarks of Humeand the sneers of English tourists and critics on the state ofthe English language as written and spoken in America!NUMBER FORTY- FIVE.FROM LAUSANNE TO FREYBURG.General Laharpe, the instructor of the Emperor Alexander-Origin of the Holy Al- liance-Schools at Lausanne and the neighborhood -Scenery-Road to Vevay- Vineyards-Church of St. Martin at Vevay-General Ludlow's monument-Fateof the regicides -Scenery at Vevay-Clarens-Chillon-Its dungeons-Burke'sjudgment of Rousseau's writings-Moudon-Payerne-Bertha's saddle-Freyburg -Local description-The ancient Linden-Strange bas- relief at the cathedralPoint ofjunction of the French and German languages-Suspension bridge.THE Cathedral at Lausanne is one of the most importantbuildings of this class in Switzerland. Its interior presentspoints of architectural interest and singularity which have attracted much attention from the students of medieval art;but it has suffered by the changes required for the convenienceof the simpler forms of Protestant worship. The sepulchralmonuments contained in it extend from the reign of Henrythe Third of England to the last generation, and cover all thevarieties of human fortune from the crown and the tiara tothe fireside of private life.We had the opportunity and satisfaction of becoming acquainted at Lausanne with General Frederic Cæsar Laharpe,the instructor and friend of the Emperor Alexander of Russia.This distinguished gentleman, a native of the Canton de Vaud,found himself in St. Petersburg in early life; and having become known to the Empress Catharine, gained her confidenceso completely that she confided to him the education of hergrandsons, Alexander and Constantine. After they had out-408 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.grown his tutelage, he returned to his native country; buthis salary and liberal gratuities from the Emperor were continued to the end of his life . After his return to Switzerland,he took a very active part in public affairs on the liberal side.He retained the friendship of the Emperor Alexander to thelast, and is supposed to have exercised an influence with himgreatly to the advantage of his country, in the territorial arrangements at Paris and at the Congress of Vienna.He spoke to us with great warmth of the amiable personalqualities of Alexander, and thought his political principleswere liberal and generous. He said, by way of pleasantry,that he feared he had got into bad company at the Congressof Sovereigns at Aix-la-Chapelle; but he was sure that, as faras depended upon him, nothing would be attempted againstthe gradual extension of liberal ideas in Europe. GeneralLaharpe denied all foundation to the rumors current at thattime, that the political course of the Emperor Alexander hadbeen shaped under the influence of the celebrated Madamevon Krüdener. IIe said that the Emperor had ever evincedgreat susceptibility to religious impressions, and that thewonderful events of 1805-1815 , during which period he hadpassed, as the Emperor of Russia from the lowest point ofadversity, for himself and his Empire, to the foremost position in Christendom , had given great warmth and strength tohis convictions and feelings on the subject of an overrulingProvidence. It was these convictions and feelings, in theopinion of General Laharpe, which led the Emperor to undertake, in conjunction with the Emperor of Austria and theKing of Prussia, the formation of the Holy Alliance in 1815;but he would not allow that it was in any degree inspired bythe religious exhortations of Madame von Krüdener, to which,however, he did not deny that Alexander was fond of listening. The son of this eccentric lady was for several years therespectable minister of Russia at Washington. I enjoyed anintimate acquaintance with him, and I may, without impropriTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 409ety, add, that his statements on this subject coincided withthose of General Laharpe.Great improvements, I understand, have been made atLausanne since my visit there in 1818. It has at all timesbeen an attractive residence for foreigners, especially the Russians and English. Many American boys have of late yearsbeen sent to the schools of this and of other places in Switzerland, under the mistaken impression, that a better educationis to be had abroad than at home. This is not the case, except as far as the acquisition of a foreign language goes.French and German can of course be best learned in countrieswhere they are spoken; and music is more generally taughtin the schools of Continental Europe than in those of theUnited States; but up to the age at which boys are usuallysent to college in this country, as good an education can beobtained in America as in Germany, France, or England. Imake this remark with some confidence, from personal observation in each of those countries.The views from the heights above Lausanne are surpassingly beautiful. There is, I think, no part of the shores ofthe Lake where it is seen to greater advantage; no part ofSwitzerland, so far as I have seen it, where the prospect on allsides is finer. The distant Alps, glimpses of the valley of theRhone beyond the Lake, the beautiful expanse of the Lake itself, the nearer views of the Bernese Alps, and Jura, thesurrounding country filled with villages and covered withfarms and vineyards combine to form a landscape of infinitevariety and grace.From Lausanne to Vevay is about a couple of hoursdrive. The road is lined with vineyards, which cover theslopes of the hills to the very top; and give an appearanceto the country not unlike the banks of the Rhine, with no difference but that between river and lake. The culture of thevine has been established in the neighborhood of Vevay fromthe time of the Romans. The climate and soil do not admit18410 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the growth of the most generous wines; but those which areproduced at all are cultivated, I was told, with greater certainty of a crop, than the more delicate vintages of Burgundyand Bordeaux. It was principally from Vevay that the culture of the grape was introduced by Swiss emigrants into thiscountry, where it bids fair to become a very important branchof industry. The banks of the Ohio, in the neighborhood ofCincinnati, bear a striking general resemblance to those of theRhine, and are probably as favorable to the growth of thegrape.We visited the Church of St. Martin, which stands on theoutskirts of Vevay, and is pleasantly sheltered by vines andtrees. It is here that General Ludlow and some of his republican associates are buried; others rest in the soil of America; others perished on the scaffold at home. The greatregicide of all died in his bed; but his skull, or what isbelieved to be such, after having been exposed at Temple bar,is exhibited in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. He himself has been pronounced, by her most eloquent historian, tobe the greatest prince that ever ruled England, and Humeadmits in substance, that she is indebted for the preservationof her liberties to the party in Church and State whichbrought Charles the First to the block!The situation of Vevay, upon the whole, seemed to methe finest on the Lake. There is nowhere so much varietyand composition in the landscape. The country about Geneva subsides into the broad valley of the Rhone; it is pleasing but not picturesque. At Vevay it comes up to the wallsof the city, in the shape of luxuriant vineyards on the slopesof the hills, and of elegant villas, while the narrowness of theLake, without impairing the charm of the water view, enrichesthe scene with the wild romantic rocks of the opposite shore.Something is added to the liveliness of the landscape by thebustle of a miniature commerce, produced by a little fleet ofboats at the quay, rigged with lateen sails and loaded withTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 411lime to go down the lake. Vevay and Lausanne are in theCanton de Vaud, first separately organized as such in 1814.From Vevay is but about a league and a half to the Castleof Chillon, on which Byron has bestowed a portion of his immortality; on the way to it we passed through Clarens, asmall but not attractive village, to which Rousseau has imparted a portion of his. His admirers endeavor to identify itwith his descriptions, and the Handbook declares that "thespot where the beautiful bosquet de Julie (Julia's bower) issought for, is now a potato field . " -I must confess the question whether the topography of a licentious French novel,however celebrated, is accurately described from nature, didnot seem to me one that would reward a very laborious inquiry. The position is magnificent; -the view of the Lake,of the valley of the Rhone, and the mountains beyond is fine,but the village itself altogether uninviting. Lord Byron hasclothed it with the charm of some of his most exquisite stanzas; and his poetry and Rousseau's prose will no doubtcontinue to make the fortune of Clarens with all sentimentaltravellers.Chillon is an ancient castle, built upon an insulated rockin the Lake, but very near the shore, to which it is joined bya wooden bridge. The water is said to be of great depth beneath the walls of the castle; but M. Simond makes it prettyclear, that the dungeon floor is not, as is generally supposed,beneath the level of the lake. Chillon was used as a State'sprison by the Dukes of Savoy. The principal apartment islarge and lofty, and not destitute of air and light . There is aring bolted into one of the pillars, by which Bonnevard issupposed to have been confined from 1530 to 1536, and thefloor near it is worn, according to tradition, by his continuedpacing up and down. M. Simond thinks the traditions inconsistent with each other; but it does not appear that thechain may not have been long enough to allow the prisonerto walk a moderate distance, backward and forward. The412 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.dungeon is frightful to contemplate. Its only entrance wasby a trap-door. This being opened, a spiral staircase of threesteps presented itself; there was no fourth step, and the miserable victim, condemned to perish in this way, was precipitated to a depth of eighty feet and never heard of more. Igive this to the reader, as I have it myself, on the faith of theguide. Such dungeons, called oubliettes, are not without example in the mediaval prisons. In the ancient palace of thePopes at Avignon. I saw one which had been broken openand its horrid scerets brought to light, in the French Revolution.The valley of the Rhone begins to open upon you atChillon, but at first with no attractiveness. The river entersthe Lake through a broad alluvial plain, formed by its owndeposits. Its waters are turbid, its current sluggish; it is inall respects the reverse of itself as it issues from the Lake.Historically, the spot is remarkable as the scene of the memorable battle, alluded to in the forty-first Number of thesepapers, in which Divico, the first Helvetian chieftain whosename appears in history, defeated a Roman Consular army,and compelled it to pass under the yoke.The road from Lausanne westward, is somewhat less picturesque than that which lies along the Lake. Vineyards nowdisappear, but their place is taken by cornfields, pastures,orchards, and woodlands. There is a continual succession ofhill and valley; the farms are divided by hedge-rows anddotted with cottages. There is a more domestic and homelike look about such a country, than in one lined with vineyards; a species of culture which implies a less equal divisionof property. We breakfasted at Moudon, which stands onthe site of a very ancient Roman Colony (Minidunum) ofwhose name it preserves an abbreviated form. In a niche onthe outside of the Hotel de Ville, we saw an ancient altar,which was discovered in 1732. Its inscription, with a dedication to Marius Aurelius, sets forth that it was erected inTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 413honor of Jupiter and Juno, in commemoration of a large sumof money bequeathed to the city to build a gymnasium.We made no other stop, till , having passed through acountry resembling some of the best parts of New England,we reached Payerne. This is a place of considerable antiquity, having been founded in the sixth century. It wasdistinguished by the benefactions of Bertha the sovereign ofBurgundy; and her saddle, which was shown us, is the greatwonder and boast of the place. It certainly puts to shame.the saddles of these degenerate days, being equally remarkable for what it is not, and what it is. It is evidently not aside-saddle, and it is furnished, in addition to the usual appliances for equitation, with a distaff fixed to the pommel, inorder, it would seem, that her Highness might spin as shejourneyed. This curious relic of antiquity, if genuine, mustdate from the tenth century.Wenoticed, throughout this day's journey, more than usualcivility on the part of persons whom we happened to meet onthe road. Not content with a friendly nod or a touch of thehat, it was generally raised from the head with a courteousword of salutation . The costume of the female peasantry ofSwitzerland, as we saw it, changed on passing the frontier of almost every Canton. Such was the case on entering the Cantonof Freyburg, where the broad- brimmed straw hats, with almostno crowns, began for the first time to appear. These Cantonal differences of costume are, I am told, yielding to themore powerful influences of fashion. With their disappearance, Switzerland will lose not a little of its picturesqueness.We reached the city of Freyburg before night, a place of7,000 or 8,000 inhabitants; the capital of the Canton of thesame name, of which the population is almost exclusivelyRoman Catholic. There are not less than nine Monasteriesand Convents in the little city. It is not to be supposed,however, that their inmates are all furnished by the Cantonof Freyburg, of which the population does not exceed 90,000.414 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.They are places of retreat for heart- stricken men and solitarywomen, from all parts of Switzerland, and the neighboringregions of France and Germany.The local position of Freyburg is remarkable. It is builton the slope of a steep promontory formed by the windingsof the river Saarine. Many houses are built up to the edgeof the precipitous bank of the river. In some places, owingto the steepness of the declivity, the street passes over theroofs of houses, excavated in the solid rock below. The ancient walls are for the most part entire, and, following theirregularities of the surface of the hill, present, with theirwatchtowers and embattled gateways, a remarkable appearance. They are built of the greenish sandstone of the region,not unlike that which is so much in use in Cincinnati . Thestreets are narrow, the houses upon them ill-built, and inmany cases decaying; and the look of the town in this respect singularly uninviting. Such was the state of things in 1818.Its greatest curiosity was the venerable Linden treeplanted on the 22d June, 1476, in commemoration of thefamous battle of Morat, in which the Burgundian army, underCharles the Bold, was defeated with tremendous slaughter bythe Swiss. The tradition is that a young man, escapingwounded from the battle, ran the whole way to Freyburg tobring the joyous news, and fell down dead, after uttering theword " Victory. " His fellow-citizens planted the Linden twigwhich he carried in his hand. It took root, and has becomea tree of twenty feet in circumference. It is unquestionablyof very great antiquity, and was in 1818 sustained with props,and otherwise tended with care. A Court for the adjudication of small controversies and called Linden- Gericht (LindenCourt) was formerly held under its branches. The Cathedralis one ofthe finest of the ancient Swiss Churches, and fromthe summit of its tower you enjoy a prospect which well repays the fatigue of the ascent. There is a most extraordinaryTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 415bas-relief over the portal of the tower, dating from the fifteenth century, and representing the last judgment by imagesof the most grotesque description. We visited the CollegeofJesuits, who, after being reduced to one aged Canon , hadjust been restored by the majority of the Cantonal Council,against the vehement reclamations of the minority.Freyburg is remarkable as forming the point of junctionbetween the German and the French languages, the formerbeing spoken in the lower town and the latter in the upper;neither, it may well be supposed, with purity. In the patoisof the peasantry there is a considerable mixture of the Romansch dialect, which in the middle ages was spoken in theregion of the western Alps. Sept heures et demi, ( half pastseven, ) as spoken by the postilion who drove us into Freyburg, sounded Shat or et dmi.There are two suspension bridges at Freyburg erectedsince my time, one of which is pronounced by the Hand- bookto be the largest bridge of a single curve in the world. It issupported by four cables of 1056 wires each. Its length is905 feet, and its height above the river 180. The bridge atMenai is 580 feet in length to a height of 130; the breadthbeing respectively 22 feet at Freyburg and 25 at Menai. Thedimensions of the suspension bridge below Niagara Falls are800 feet length, 230 feet height above the water, and 40 feetwidth, with a two- fold roadway, one for the railroad above andone for ordinary vehicles below. It is supported by sixteenwire cables of 1100 feet in length and a foot in circumference.The Freyburg bridge was erected in eight years, at the moderate expense of about 120,000 dollars-the suspension bridgebelow Niagara Falls at a cost of 190,000 dollars.*

  • Appleton's Travellers' Guide, p. 214. Edit. of 1853.

NUMBER FORTY- SIX .BERNE.From Freyburg to Berne-Change of costume-Appearance of the city-Lofty parapet wall and extraordinary leap from it-Alpine scenery-The Bear theheraldic emblem of Berne, and living bears kept at the public expense -TheUniversity-Manufactures of Berne, the Messrs. Schenck-Visit to the establish- ments of M. Von Fellenberg at Hofwyl-Anecdote of the director Reubel-HighSchool - Industry School-The celebrated assistant teacher Wehrli-Agricultural School-M. Von Fellenberg's establishments, formerly an object ofgreat attention in Europe.OUR next stage was to Berne, a distance of about sixleagues. The road was fine, running mostly along the river,and often presenting beautiful views of the distant mountains.For the first part of the way, however, we had a landscape ofa different character, but one familiar in some portions of ourown country; a dense forest of pine. There is a stronglymarked point of difference in the forest scenery of those partsof Europe in which I have travelled and of this country.With us, wherever civilization has penetrated, the primitiveforest has been assailed with axe and fire, as the first andgreatest obstacle to agricultural improvement. In Europethe conservation of the forests is an object of government regulation, and great care is taken that the trees should not beimprovidently cut down. The management of forests formsthe subject of regular courses of lectures at the German Universities.Neueneck is the name of the village, in which you passfrom the Canton de Vaud into that of Berne; and here oneTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 417of those abrupt changes of costume takes place, to which I alluded in the last Number. Instead of the broad straw hatsworn in the Canton de Vaud, the female peasantry in theCanton of Berne adorn their heads with a singular structureof black gauze made of horse- hair, standing out all round, insuch a manner as to resemble wings, and forming a droll contrast with the red bodice laced in front.Berne, as you approach it, has the appearance of a large,fortified city. Like Freyburg, it is mainly built of the handsome greenish sandstone already described. The streets arelined with rows of houses constructed with arcades on thelower story, which give them a stately though rather heavyappearance, and furnish an admirable protection against theweather;--a matter of no small interest in a climate like thatof Switzerland. In fact, it is somewhat surprising that anarrangement, possessing such great and obvious advantages,both for summer and winter, has not been generally adoptedin the domestic architecture of compactly built places. Theposition of the city of Berne, on a promontory enclosed on allsides but one by the Aar, is very commanding. The bank is insome places sloping and covered with turf, in others steep, cutinto terraces, or supported by almost perpendicular walls. Thewall in one place is a hundred and eight feet high, but an inscription upon it sets forth that, in the middle of the seventeenthcentury, a young student mounted a horse which was grazingon the terrace, and that the animal, having been frightened,leaped to the bottom of the bank. The horse was killed, butthe rider escaped with the fracture of some of his ribs, andlived to an advanced age as a village pastor. Two years before our visit to Berne, a woman, employed according to thecustom of that time, in laboring in the streets as a punishment, leaped from the terrace and was killed on the spot.Nothing can exceed the richness and varied magnificenceofthe views ofthe neighboring country and the Alpine peaks,as seen from Berne in clear weather. From some points of18*418 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the terraced banks of the Aar, ten or twelve lofty summits—so well known some of them by their awe-inspiring names,Wetterhorn, Schreckhorn, Finster Aarhorn * -may be distinctly seen; the Jungfrau in the centre. Vast glaciers fillthe spaces between these peaks; that which surrounds theFinstor Aarhorn is supposed to be the largest in Europe.Its superficial extent has been estimated at a hundred andtwenty-five square miles. The general effect of the prospectvaries so much under different lights, that we made it a busi,ness to contemplate it early in the morning, at noon, and atevening. The last is by far the most favorable part of theday for this purpose. If the state of the atmosphere is propitious, which it happened to be once during our short stayin Berne, the rays of the setting sun are reflected, with strangebeauty, from the snow-crowned peaks and sparkling glaciers.In picturesque variety and a certain mysterious wildness,these views appeared to me to excel those of the Montanvert.The heraldic emblem of Berne, as its name would import,is taken from the Bear, probably from some primitive legendary association . Two animals of this kind, in coarse sculpture, and of heroic size, guard the gateway as you enter fromFreyburg, and two living bears are kept in the fosse at oneof the other gates. This is in pursuance of a practice whichhas been kept up for centuries. The animals are supportedat the public expense, and are said to be superstitiously regarded by the masses, as in some degree connected with theprosperity of the city. In the year 1798 the bears of thatday were transported by the French to Paris, and placed inthe Jardin des Plantes, where they attracted as much noticefrom the gamins of the city as the bronze horses from St.Mark's, placed on the arch of triumph in the Carousel, didfrom the virtuosi. Berne is copiously supplied with runningwater and with fountains, some of which are ornamented withStorm Peak, Terror Peak, the Dark Peak of Aar.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 419grotesque sculptures . The bear is the prevailing subject.The Kinderfresser Brunnen ( Fountain of the child-devourer)derives its name from a figure, which the antiquaries supposeto be that of Saturn, represented as crowding a child into hismouth, while others are peeping from the pockets in quiet expectation of their turn.By the kindness of Professor Schnell, ( to whom we hadbeen furnished with letters from Mr. Stapfer, a gentleman ofgreat worth, formerly representing the Helvetic Republic atParis, and still residing there in 1817, ) we had ample opportunity of visiting the University of Berne. Mr. Schnell himself was one of three law professors; and there were fourteenother professors in the different faculties, including three ofveterinary practice! a department in which I presume thereis not a single professor in all the Colleges and Universities.of the United States. The number of students was about ahundred and fifty; the fixed salaries of the professors five orsix hundred dollars each, with a small fee paid by those whoattend the lectures. The institution served as a place of academical education for Bernese students, but was little frequented from abroad. It was organized on the plan of theGerman Universities, the instruction being almost whollygiven in lectures. The celebrated Wyttenbach of Leyden,well known as the editor of the moral works of Plutarch, wasa native of Berne, and probably received his early educationthere. He was one of the most learned men of the last generation. There is a large public library at Berne, of whichHaller, one of the most distinguished names of the last century, was the librarian. The saying of Voltaire, who used toextol his genius and learning, is well known, but will bearrepetition. When told that Haller did not return the compliment, but spoke in disparaging terms of him, Voltaire replied, " Very likely we are both wrong."Berne has been distinguished at times for the prosperityofher manufactures. They were languishing in 1818 in con-418 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the terraced banks of the Aar, ten or twelve lofty summitsso well known some of them by their awe-inspiring names,Wetterhorn, Schreckhorn, Finster Aarhorn * -may be distinctly seen; the Jungfrau in the centre. Vast glaciers fillthe spaces between these peaks; that which surrounds theFinstor Aarhorn is supposed to be the largest in Europe.Its superficial extent has been estimated at a hundred andtwenty-five square miles. The general effect of the prospectvaries so much under different lights, that we made it a business to contemplate it early in the morning, at noon, and atevening. The last is by far the most favorable part of theday for this purpose. If the state of the atmosphere is propitious, which it happened to be once during our short stayin Berne, the rays of the setting sun are reflected, with strangebeauty, from the snow-crowned peaks and sparkling glaciers.In picturesque variety and a certain mysterious wildness,these views appeared to me to excel those of the Montanvert.The heraldic emblem of Berne, as its name would import,is taken from the Bear, probably from some primitive legendary association. Two animals of this kind, in coarse sculpture, and of heroic size, guard the gateway as you enter fromFreyburg, and two living bears are kept in the fosse at oneof the other gates. This is in pursuance of a practice whichhas been kept up for centuries. The animals are supportedat the public expense, and are said to be superstitiously regarded by the masses, as in some degree connected with theprosperity of the city. In the year 1798 the bears of thatday were transported by the French to Paris, and placed inthe Jardin des Plantes, where they attracted as much noticefrom the gamins of the city as the bronze horses from St.Mark's, placed on the arch of triumph in the Carousel, didfrom the virtuosi. Berne is copiously supplied with runningwater and with fountains, some of which are ornamented with

(Video) The Newly Restored Blue Room At Mount Vernon

  • Storm Peak, Terror Peak, the Dark Peak of Aar.
S . 421

E1at, despairing ofanded his passto set about thef his fellow-citizenssystem of educa11tter men.or the aristocracyol for the sons ofThe first only, if-the Industry School, when I saw it, wasparts of the contiportion of Germany.of Europe was small.of such a school for hiswhich prevail at thent favorable to theeven patriotic prination- not includt in this school,d themselves beenPost exemplary perdepartments. Thewithin the establishaiable family, theI sat down to theirof the establishment,far as the general plan1. but its managementcient and successful;Core than ofgovernmentse almost a novelty.ruction of the childrencommon branches of a420 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sequence ofthe prohibitory duties imposed on their introduction into France, and still more on account of the influx ofBritish fabrics. Two persons belonging to the peasantry andwhose education was very defective, of the name of Schenck,were much spoken of as practical and scientific machinists,instrument-makers, and engineers. Mr. Schnell informed us.that his countryman and friend Hassler, who commenced thecoast survey of the United States, and provided himself forthat purpose with the best instruments that could be procuredin London, after examining those of Messrs. Schenck at Berne,gave the preference to the latter. It is possible that nationalpartiality may have had something to do with this preference.During our stay at Berne, we devoted a day to visitingHofwyl and the educational establishments of M. Von Fellenberg. These establishments and M. Von Fellenberg's plansfor improving the education both of the wealthier classes andof the peasantry in Switzerland, attracted great notice at thattime, and are still spoken of with respect and interest in workson education. They formed the subject of an elaborate andinstructive article, contributed by Mr. Simond to the sixtyfourth number of the Edinburgh Review, which was muchread at the time of its appearance.M. Von Fellenberg belonged by birth to the noblesse, butpartook the liberal ideas which prevailed so extensivelythroughout Switzerland, during the French Revolution, andwhich led to a corresponding movement there. He was oneof the Commissioners, who represented the Helvetic Republicat Paris. Being in conference with the Director Reubel onthe condition of his country, and the suffering state to whichthe people were reduced, threatening an entire disorganizationof society, the Director, in a pause of the conversation, threwup his window, and ordered a servant " to bring Finette. "This was a favorite spaniel, which was accordingly brought inwith a litter of puppies, in a basket. This levity and indiffer-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 421ence so disgusted M. Von Fellenberg, that, despairing ofserving his country as a politician, he demanded his passports, and left Paris the next day-resolved to set about theslower work of improving the condition of his fellow-citizensby moral influences, and by introducing a system of education calculated to make better patriots and better men.His plan comprehended a high school for the aristocracyof Continental Europe; an industrial school for the sons ofthe peasantry, and a school of agriculture. The first only, ifI do not mistake, was self-supporting; -the Industry Schoolwas entirely gratuitous. The high school, when I saw it, wasattended by about eighty pupils from all parts of the continent-from Russia, Poland, and every portion of Germany.The number of pupils from the South of Europe was small.M. Von Fellenberg had felt the want of such a school for hisown children; not thinking the influences which prevail at thegymnasia and universities of the Continent favorable to theformation of character on high moral or even patriotic principles. All the branches of a liberal education-not including strictly professional studies- were taught in this school,as far as possible by instructors who had themselves beenformed at Hofwyl, and who united the most exemplary personal qualities to skill in their several departments. Theyoung men were all boarded and lodged within the establishment, and M. Von Fellenberg and his amiable family, theprofessors, and the pupils of the school sat down to theirdaily meals at one table. In this branch of the establishment,there seemed to be nothing peculiar, as far as the general planand system of the school were concerned, but its managementas far as I could judge, was singularly efficient and successful;and of schools it may be said much more than of governments-that which is " best administered is best. "The Industry School was at that time almost a novelty.This was a school for the practical instruction of the childrenof the peasantry, not merely in the common branches of a422 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.plain education, but in agriculture and the various trades towhich they are usually apprenticed . M. Von Fellenberg tookpains, as far as possible, in the first years of the institution, toobtain pupils from the democratic Cantons, as furnishing morehopeful materials for his undertaking. Serious prejudicesarose against his establishment; the Swiss peasantry was notat that time ( is not probably now) predisposed to innovateupon old ways; and as M. Von Fellenberg required thatthe pupils of his school should come at seven years of ageand stay ten years, a considerable sacrifice in the time of thechildren was required of the parents. M. Von Fellenbergwas obliged at times to keep up his numbers by adding vagrants from the streets; some of whom, however, did the bestjustice to their opportunities. Eight or ten hours in the daywere devoted to labor on the farm or in the shops, accordingto the season, and the rest of the time was given to indoorlessons, meals, and recreation, the children being entirely supported and taught at M. Von F.'s expense; and at an averagecost, over and above the product of their labor, of sixteen orseventeen dollars per head annually.Much of the success of this branch of M. Von Fellenberg'sestablishment was ascribed to the personal qualities of Wehrlihis assistant. This remarkable young man was the son of aschoolmaster in the Canton of Thurgau, who visited Hofwylin 1809, to learn the modes of teaching pursued there. Hewas so much pleased with what he saw, that he offered his sonas an assistant teacher. He was accepted in that capacity,and proved himself in the sequel admirably adapted to theplace. His reputation spread with that of the IndustrySchool at Hofwyl, throughout Europe. He soon, of his ownaccord, left M. Von Fellenberg's table, to share the meals aswell as the labors of the boys of the Industry School. Thishe did with unflinching assiduity, placing himself in all respects on a level with his pupils. He appears to have beena person of singular versatility and the utmost conscientious-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 423ness.Hofwyl.He was but eighteen years of age when he came toThe school of Industry was ruled entirely by persuasion,example, and love; without resort either to punishment orreward. It had been in operation, I think, twenty yearswhen I saw it, and in that time punishment had been inflictedbut twice. M. Von Fellenberg's entire system of educationassumed the superior efficacy of gentle influences over thecoercion and rigor of the old regime, and certainly his successwas such as to confirm his theory.An agricultural school with shops for the manufacture ofimproved implements of husbandry formed a part of M. VonFellenberg's establishments. He commenced life with experiments for an improved system of cultivation. He whollychanged the character of an extensive patrimonial estate by asystem of drainage, by which from being an unprofitable bog,it was converted into arable fields. His attention was nextturned to the subject of the implements of husbandry used inSwitzerland at that time, which he was convinced could bemade not only lighter and more efficient but cheaper, andwith these objects in view, he connected an agricultural schoolwith the educational establishments just described.At the time of our visit Madame Von Fellenberg, sharingthe noble zeal of her husband, was, with her daughters, aboutto found a school for girls, corresponding with the school ofIndustry for boys. I have never heard whether this projectwas carried into effect; nor am I acquainted with the presentcondition of M. Von Fellenberg's establishments, except thatthe hand-book states them to be under the care of Dr. Edward Müller. Education on philosophical principles has, oflate years, made such progress in Europe and in this country,that the preceding recollections of Hofwyl may hardly seemto the reader entitled to the place I have given them. But,at the time of my visit, M. Von Fellenberg's establishmentswere deemed of the highest European interest. Perhaps at424 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.any time a well conceived plan for educational improvement,especially one having in view the benefit of those least favored of fortune-a plan formed and pursued by an intelligent, persevering, earnest, and conscientious man-is as important an object as can engage the attention of the patriot orthe moralist. When the Emperor Alexander was in Switzerland, he visited Hofwyl, and in token of his appreciationof M. Von Fellenberg's labors, decorated him with an orderof knighthood. In this he honored himself rather than M.Von Fellenberg, who daily enjoyed the more substantial reward of seeing those whom he had rescued from want, ignorance, and unenlightened toil, raised by his means to usefuland honorable positions in the community.NUMBER FORTY- SEVEN .THE NINETEENTH OF APRIL, 1775.Materials for the Romance of our history scattered through the country-Events ofthe 19th April, 1775- Alarm given from Boston to the neighboring towns- Escape of Adams and Hancock from Lexington to Woburn-A salmon left behind and sent for-Second retreat to the woods-Capture of a prisoner by SylvanusWood on the 19th of April- After thirty years Wood applies for and obtains apension-Visits Washington and is introduced to General Jackson-ProposedNational monument at Lexington commemorative of the 19th of April.In times to come, when the novelist and the poet shallseek out the romance of our history, it will be discovered, inrich abundance, in every part of the land. Tracing the annalsof the United States, from the first settlements at Jamestownand Plymouth, it will be found, that, in addition to the greatevents and the great characters, which form the substance ofthe public narrative, there are incidents of a local and personal kind, not immediately affecting the political fortunes of thecountry, but often of a most stirring or touching character.There is nothing in ancient or modern history more beautiful than the story of Pocahontas. The captivity of Mrs.Rowlandson is not to be read without tears, after a lapse ofnearly two centuries. How wonderful the spectral appearance of one of the Regicide Judges of Charles I. , to repel anassault of savages on a New England village in 1675! Thelife and adventures, the wars and the wanderings of DanielBoone, in more recent times, will furnish one day the stapleof an Iliad and Odyssey of border prowess and fortune; andthen the glimpses of pure Indian life, as we catch them on theprairie and in the wigwam, uncontaminated or unrelieved bythe contacts of civilization!426 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.The straits and sufferings of our forefathers, who firstlanded on the continent; the perilous exposures of a wild frontier (and such a frontier, though ever flitting westward as youapproach it, there has always been-is now); -the militaryoperations of the colonies in the wars between England andFrance, from Louisburg to Carolina, from Detroit to theSpanish Main; above all many incidents which occurred inthe great struggle for Independence, have filled the countrywith romantic traditions, many of which have already beenturned to good account by ingenious writers of the presentday, while others await the future poet and novelist. Eventhe ancient churchyards have a rich harvest in reserve for ourOld Mortalities. Hearts as brave as any that rest undermonuments of brass and marble in Westminster Abbeymoulder beneath old moss-grown slate stones, in every partof the United States. These reminiscences of bye- gone timesare not, however, all of a tragic or even a serious cast; someof them, on the contrary, contain the lighter element, whichis required to make up the tragi-comedy of human fortune,though sparingly admitted into the sober pages of history.Some traditions of this latter kind, closely interwoven withevents ofthe greatest gravity, are preserved in the neighborhood, (Burlington, Mass. , ) where this paper is written.Several circumstances led the patriots in Boston in thecarly spring of 1775, to anticipate that some important movement into the country would be made by the Royal forces,partly for the seizure of military stores, which had been collected in many of the towns in the interior, partly to arrestobnoxious individuals, to overawe the people, and generallyto subdue the spirit of disaffection . As early as November,1774, a secret society had been formed in Boston, composedprincipally ofthe mechanics and artisans of that town, but inclose concert with the patriotic leaders, for the express purpose of obtaining information in advance of all projectedmovements of this kind. Among the circumstances which,THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 427in the spring of 1775, led to the expectation that some expedition into the country was meditated, was the detachment,by the royal governor of Massachusetts, Gage, of eleven hundred men, who traversed the neighboring villages, about theend of March, throwing down the stone walls by which thefields, in that part of the country, are divided and enclosed.One can scarcely imagine any thing better calculated to causealarm and indignation, that being the season of the year inwhich good farmers put their stone walls and fences in order .Officers in civil dress were also sent round the country, tosurvey the roads and obtain information where military storeswere deposited. A party came to Concord in Massachusetts,for this purpose, on the 20th of March, 1775, the very dayon which Burke, in the House of Commons, spoke the lastword ofpeace and hope in the inimitable oration "ciliation with America."on ConBut the fated hour drew nigh. It had been preparing forcenturies. It was too late for prudence to avert; for forceto resist; the mighty clock of ages and empires must strike,and the new era begin. On the 15th April the grenadiers andlight infantry, the flower of the army, were relieved fromdaily routine duty, under pretence of learning a new exercise.At twelve o'clock the next night, the boats of the transportships in the harbor, having been repaired, were launched andmoored under the sterns of the men-of-war. Not a step ofthese movements-the displacement of the troops-the midnight preparation of the boats for service-but was scannedwith eagle eyes by the members of the society above mentioned. It had been concerted that, if the royal forces wereembarked in boats to cross to Charlestown or Cambridgetwo lanterns should be lighted in the steeple of the old churchon Copp's hill, and one if they marched out by land throughRoxbury.The 19th of April was the day appointed by GovernorGage for an expedition to Concord. All possible means were428 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Ah,areadopted, by guarding the roads the evening before, to prevent the tidings from spreading through the country.Governor, the words " Grenadiers, forward, march! "hardly whispered at dead of night, at the head of the column,before two flaming messengers from the belfry of the oldchurch, are streaming over the graves of the sleepers onCopp's hill. Like the beacon fires which announced in thepalaces of Argos that Troy had fallen , these flashing heraldsran through the villages of Middlesex, to proclaim that thesceptre of a mightier than Priam had departed. Not contentwith lighting the signal in the old church steeple, Paul Revere immediately crossed in a boat to Charlestown, borroweddeacon Larkin's horse, dashed by the royal sentinels whowere guarding the road by the gibbet, at the end of Charlestown neck, passed at the top of his speed through Medfordand West Cambridge, giving the alarm and setting the bellsto ringing on the way; and in a few hours the tocsin wassounding from half the steeples in Middlesex county.At about midnight, Revere reached Lexington, and delivered to John Hancock and Samuel Adams a message fromDr. Joseph Warren, (the hero of Bunker Hill , ) acquaintingthem that the troops were in movement, as was supposed,for Concord, and that they must provide for their own safety,their seizure no doubt being one of the objects of the Royalgovernor. These proscribed patriots were passing the nightat the house of the Rev. Mr. Clark, the minister of Lexington,between whom and Hancock there was a connection by marriage. It would not be possible within the limits of one ofthese papers, if indeed this were the place for such a narrative, to relate the events of that eventful morning, as they occurred on Lexington green, nor is it necessary. They havebeen told in some of the brightest pages of the history of thecountry. Our business is with what passed under the humbleroof of Mr. Clark's dwelling, an old, black, weather-beatenTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 429house, the front buried in shade, still standing, and well worthgoing to Lexington to see.Besides Hancock and Adams there were at Mr. Clark'shouse, Mrs. Hancock, the widow of the governor's rich uncle,and Miss Dorothy Quincy, to whom the governor was payinghis court, and who afterwards became his wife. Not sorry,it may be presumed, to display his chivalry before her, hepassed the night (as she was accustomed to relate ) " in cleaning his gun and sword, and putting his accoutrements in order," determined to go out and join the militia on the green.It was with great difficulty he was dissuaded by Mr. Clarkand Samuel Adams, the latter of whom, clapping him on theshoulder, said, “ That is not our business; we belong to the Cabinet." It was not till daybreak that he yielded, andconsented with Samuel Adams to retreat to a place of greatersafety. They left the village of Lexington as the bayonets ofthe grenadiers were seen gleaming in the distance, SamuelAdams exclaiming at the sight, " Oh, what a glorious day is this! "Hancock and Adams were hastily conducted to the houseof the Reverend Mr. Jones, the minister of the north-westprecinct of Woburn, now forming the town of Burlington.This house, a respectable rural parsonage, shaded by nobletrees, is now occupied by the Rev. Samuel Sewell, one of thesuccessors of Mr. Jones, and is next door to that from whichthis paper is written. The ladies, whose safety was not supposed to be threatened, had been left behind; but the bullets.whizzed about their heads, as they stood at the windowswatching the strange scene. At length they were sent for, tocome to Mr. Jones' in Mr. Hancock's carriage, and (it mustbe mentioned as one of the recorded res gesta of the day) theywere especially enjoined to bring with them a fine salmon,which had been provided for their dinner; rather earlier, itwould seem, in the season than salmon are now brought tomarket. Had the British officers known that it was left be-430 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.hind, on the flight of the Patriots, they would probably havethought that it was a fair prize, even without a process in aCourt of Admiralty. Happily the Royal army passed on,without a suspicion of the dainty treasure within their reach.The ladies arrived with it in due time, at the Burlingtonparsonage, but scarcely had the party, who, in the confusion.of that wild hour of peril and flight, had not broken their fast,set down to an early country dinner, of which the rescuedsalmon formed the most important part, when one of theyeomanry from the neighborhood burst into the house, inwild affright, with the information, that the regulars were onthe way, adding that " his wife was already in etarnity." Itwas no time to think of dining, even on an early salmon. Thecarriage was taken into the woods for concealment, and Hancock and Adams were hurried off to a lonely dwelling, lyingat the corner of Woburn and the two adjacent towns, notconnected by the high road with either of them, or with anyother settlement in the civilized world, -a dreary, solitaryplace, which you approach, you hardly know how, by a privateroad through the forest. Here the patriots were secreted,and all hope of salmon having vanished, they made a frugal buthearty meal, so says tradition , on cold salt pork and potatoes.In this house they passed the night, not learning till the nextmorning, that the second alarm was unfounded. That theyhad yielded to it, however, was no matter of reproach. Thedanger from which they had just escaped at Lexington wasimminent, and no one could tell where the next blow wouldfall.One of the incidents of the day was the capture of a British grenadier single-handed by a volunteer from Woburn.This individual, Sylvanus Wood by name, and a shoemakerby trade, of diminutive stature, but with a spirit beyond hisinches, when the alarm was given in Woburn early in themorning on the 19th, hastened to Lexington. He paradedwith Captain Parker's company on Lexington Green, andTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 431after they were dispersed by the overwhelming force of theenemy, he followed toward Concord in the rear of the royalarmy. At a turn of the road, he came, by surprise, upon asoldier who had loitered behind and was seated by the wayside. Wood sprang toward him, threatening to fire if he resisted. Having taken from him his gun, cutlass, and equipments, Sylvanus marched him back to Lexington, and theresurrendered him " to Mr. Welch and another person."In the year 1826, being then a member of Congress, andrepresenting Wood's district, I received a memorial from him,setting forth the facts above stated, and his service afterwardsin the army ofthe revolution . The application was referredto the Committee on Pensions, and in the course of a fewyears, what with the prisoner and what with his service afterwards, he obtained a pension of ninety- six dollars a year, withseveral years back pay, from the time his petition was first presented. It was probably more money than he had ever seen atonce before, and he seemed to have but an indifferent opinionof the ordinary places of deposit and modes of investment.He told me that he kept it in his hat by day, and under hispillow by night. My own services in procuring the pensionwhich were diligently rendered for several years, were liberally acknowledged by Sylvanus, by the present of a basket ofapples, (Baldwins, ) the only reward which ever fell to mylot, for carrying a claim through Congress. Such was therude simplicity of those days!The great improvement in his worldly circumstances, effected by his pension, awoke a desire in Sylvanus to see something of the great world. He found his way to Washington,and it naturally devolved on me to do the honors of the metropolis for him. I introduced him to the celebrities; showedhim the library of Congress, the Indian Bureau, the PatentOffice, the " East-Room," and in fact made the most of mysturdy little constituent, " who had taken the first prisonerin the Revolutionary war." Having thus made the rounds,432 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.Wood, whose appetite for grandeurs grew with what it fedon, expressed a wish to be introduced to the President of theUnited States, General Jackson. I hesitated a little, feelingsome compunction, though one of " the opposition," to contribute even in this small degree to increase the annoyance ofreceiving visitors; one of the heaviest burdens of high officein Washington. But the thought of the " first prisoner,"perhaps a grenadier eight feet high in his cap, marching downthe road in fallen majesty before the sturdy little militia-man,overcame my scruples. I addressed a note to General Jackson, acquainting him with the wish of my constituent to beintroduced, and promising if he would receive us to stay buta moment. The President readily appointed a time to seehim; Sylvanus promised me faithfully that he would not tellhim the story of the " first prisoner," (for on that theme hestudied fulness of detail more than conciseness of narrative;and we entered the cabinet at the appointed time. It washalf full of persons to whom the General was giving audience;but, nothing daunted with the novelty of the scene, Woodwalked boldly up toward the President, who took him kindlyby the hand. This was rather more than he expected, anddisconcerted him for a moment. He immediately recoveredhimself, however, and evidently tacking together in his ownmind, as with a fine waxed thread, the capture of the first prisoner in 1775 and the fighting of the last battle in 1815 , witha native oratory not studied in the schools, said, “ Mr. President, I'm glad to see you:-since [ the battle of ] Orleans I'veloved your person." As I had promised, I made a movementto withdraw immediately, but the President kindly prolongedthe interview for a few moments.Wood, I think, had not a little reason to be proud of hisexploit. As a matter of legal principle, the first thought, Iimagine, with many a person at that day-at any day-finding himself in such a position, a private man, not acting underorders from anybody, in the very near neighborhood of aTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 433soldier in the service of a government whose authority wasstill admitted, would be to pass quietly by on the other side.As a matter of prudence, it would have occurred to most men,standing five feet high, that it was somewhat hazardous toundertake the capture of a grenadier. His gun might be outof his reach, but he had " his cutlass and equipments. " Woodtook no counsel of loyalty or prudence; his blood was up,and he captured his Anakim; little thinking that that day'swork and his participation in it would, after thirty years,procure a provision for his old age from a powerful, independent government, and a personal introduction to its chief.The capture ofthe first prisoner was the point of centralinterest in Wood's career; he valued himself upon it. Afterhe obtained his pension, not being needy before, he was inwhat might be called comfortable circumstances, but not disposed to impair them by waste. Still, whenever a little contribution to a charity or a donation to a public object wasdesired, a trifle could generally be obtained from Sylvanus,by beginning with an inquiry about " taking the first prisoner." He died a few years ago, in his ninety-third year.There is no harm in thus prolonging for a few years his humble memory.Before closing this paper, I may observe that a movementhas been commenced at Lexington, to erect in that beautifulvillage near the scene of the battle, an appropriate monument,in commemoration of the first blood shed in the revolutionary war. A simple obelisk was set up in the year 1799 onLexington green, in memory of the event, and on the 19thof April, 1835, the ashes of those who fell on the momentousday, sixty years before, were removed from the village graveyard, and, with appropriate and affecting ceremonies, placedunder the obelisk. It is now proposed to erect in the neighborhood a monument more in keeping with the importanceand grandeur of the event, to be surmounted with the statue-not of any one individual, for there is no one entitled to19434 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.that distinction-but of a " Minute Man," the representativeof the class which flew to arms on that eventful morning, andtook the first step in the march of the revolution. This isthe class to which the honors of the day are due, and the spotis one which will be named in all after time, with Marathonand Thermopyla; -not for the dimensions of the conflict ina military point of view, but for the importance of the era inthe world's history which it inaugurated. The favoring sympathy of the country at large may be anticipated for themovement.NUMBER FORTY- EIGHT.FROM BERNE TO SACHSELN.The Aar and its valley--Thun, its environs and lake-Unterseen-The Lauterbrunnen and Staubbach-A glimpse of the Swiss peasantry-Curious misprint in Goldsmith's Traveller-The Lake of Brienz-The Giesbach-The musical schoolmaster and his family—The pass of the Brünig-Entrance into UnterwaldenLungern and its lake-Partially drained-Sachseln-St. Nicholas von der FlüeLegends concerning him.A DRIVE of four or five hours took us from Berne to Thun;since the construction of the railroad, it is the affair of a shorthour. Persons travelling in the opposite direction, fromThun to Berne, frequently take the market boats which descend the Aar. This river is, next to the Rhone and theRhine, of which it is the most considerable tributary, one ofthe most important channels, by which the waters of theSwiss ice-mountains find their way to the sea. Its principalsources are in the glaciers of the Schreckhorn and the Grimsel, at no great distance from those of the Rhine. It foamsthrough frightful ravines, and plunges over lofty waterfalls, inthe first part of its course, but it is navigable for the greaterpart of the way from the lake of Thun, and winding by Berne,Soleure, and Aarau, unites its waters with the Rhine, abouthalf-way between Basle and Schaffhausen. Between Berneand Thun, the valley of the Aar is charming. You see butlittle of the river, but substantial farm-houses line the road,and rich pastures spread rural plenty far away before andaround you. The sky was cloudless, and the sparkling sum-436 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.mits of the Alps, beyond the sources of the Aar, bounded theprospect. There is, perhaps, no country where the state ofthe weather is so important to the tourist. It makes all thedifference between the dreary uniformity of cold, leadenclouds, which are the same in all countries, and the unmatched glories of the Jungfrau and Mont Blanc.Thun is a picturesque old town, of three or four thousandinhabitants, and though not among the more celebrated resorts, struck me as one of the most attractive spots for a quietresidence in Switzerland. It is about a mile from the lake,and the Aar, as it dashes out of it, is not inferior in sparklingbeauty to the Rhone, as it rushes from the lake of Geneva.An ancient church, a ruined castle, smiling meadows in theenvirons, modern villas, the river, the lake, and beyond, theglaciers, the wooded heights, and in the background theSovereign MAIDEN; -no element of loveliness or grandeuris wanting at Thun. But these mountain regions have theirperils and disasters, unknown to the lower world. We contributed our mite to the relief of the inhabitants of a valley,which had lately been buried by an avalanche; and our hastyexcursion will soon bring us to the melancholy ruins ofGoldau.A little steamer now plies from Thun to Interlachen; wecrossed the lake by a more picturesque conveyance, a broad,flat-bottomed boat, rowed by women, with a very inconsiderable draft of water, which enabled us to creep nearer to somebeautiful spots along the shores of the lake, which with agreater draft of water would have been inaccessible. Wewere about three hours on this delightful, secluded little sheetof water. There were but few villas at that time on theshores ofthe lake-just enough to give assurance that youwere not out of humanity's reach," without changing therustic simplicity of the scene by the alloy of suburban magnificence. The shores of the lake for some distance fromTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 437Thun have changed their character, I believe, in this respectof late years, by the erection of numerous villas.Unterseen, as its name imports, (between the lakes ) , liesabout half way between the lake of Thun and the lake ofBrienz. It is rather a forlorn place; the black, weatherstained houses, which are reported in the hand- book as " beingtwo hundred years old," have grown young since we werethere; our guide assured us they were two thousand yearsold! We took a char-a-banc directly at the landing-place forLauterbrunnen and the Staubbach. Lauterbrunnen (clearspring) is a most romantic spot; a narrow vale, almost aravine, between lofty calcareous walls leading up toward theJungfrau. The village, of the same name as the valley, containing between a thousand and fifteen hundred houses, is asombre spot; its houses are far apart; the prodigious rockywalls that overhang it must nearly shut out the sun in theshort winter days; vegetation wears a coarse, wiry, Alpinelook. The most remarkable feature of the scene consists inthe numerous waterfalls, some of them insignificant, andothers of some magnitude, which break over the edges of thesurrounding mountains. They vary in volume of coursewith the weather and the temperature; some of them flowingdown to the level of the valley; some breaking over the summit, in a considerable torrent; others merely fringing therocks over which they fall. The Staubbach alone (or dustytorrent) has obtained celebrity. The volume of water in thisfamous cascade was not very considerable as we saw it, but itis at all times a most striking object. American tourists whogo to see the Staubbach, with their heads full of the image ofNiagara, are disappointed. It is one of the characteristics ofNiagara that its oceanic volume defies the seasons. Meltingsnows and deluging rains do not swell it; the droughts ofmidsummer do not sensibly affect the mighty flow of itswaters. But the Staubbach sometimes steals down the faceof the rock in a thin silvery thread; and at other times,438 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.when swollen by heavy rains, shoots fiercely out from therock, boldly arching over the valley, and swept to and fro bythe wind. Byron in his journal * compares it to " the tail ofa white horse streaming in the wind, such as it might be conceived would be that of the pale horse, on which Death ismounted in the Apocalypse. It is neither mist nor water,but a something between both; its immense height (ninehundred feet) gives it a wave or curve, a spreading here orcondensation there, wonderful and indescribable. " He hastransferred this grand figure of the tail of Death's pale horseto his Manfred, in which other images also are painted fromAlpine scenery.On our way back from this pilgrimage to one of inanimateNature's most awe-inspiring shrines, we stepped into severalcottages, to get a nearer view of human nature, in the life ofthe Alpine peasantry. I cannot say that it gained on closerinspection. We were generally received with a sort of stolidapathy; the dialect is the harshest I ever heard spoken; therewas an entire absence of that delightful feature of humble life,which is so well expressed by tidiness; an appearance ofwant, and of no ambition to smooth it over by ingenious littlemake-shifts; and at times, I must say, a sinister cast of countenance. M. Von Fellenberg had prepared me for this stateof things, the sorrowful contemplation of which gave the firstimpulse to his educational efforts. Far from regarding Education as a mere intellectual process, designed to impart acertain amount of useful knowledge; he looked upon it as theonly agency by which the condition of the masses, physical,social, political, and moral, could be improved. Aware howmuch America has suffered in the hasty generalizations oftourists, I should be very sorry to do injustice to any part ofSwitzerland;—but as I had no reason to suppose that what Isaw between Unterseen and Lauterbrunnen formed an excepMoore's life of Byron, Vol. II. , p. 14. Am. Ed.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 439tional specimen of life in the higher Alps, I have ventured torecord it. There is, to all appearance, a marked discrimination, as might be beforehand expected, between the characterof the peasantry in the ungenial regions of the Oberland, andthe substantial yeomanry of the middle agricultural region,and the highly cultivated population of the large towns andtheir neighborhoods. It resembles the contrast betweenLapland and Saxony, except that in one case it is producedby difference of latitude , in the other by difference of elevation.With respect to the Swiss, Goldsmith has pretty fairlypresented, in the Traveller, the two phases of their character, without clearly referring them to the different regions towhich they pertain. In the beautiful edition of the Traveller,published, with superior illustrations, by the London ArtUnion in 1851 , a curious misprint occurs, in the commencement of the description of the Swiss, not only in the text ofthe Poem, but in the quotations from it explaining the illustrations. In the following couplet,Where the bleak Swiss their stormy mansion tread,And force a churlish soil for scanty bread,instead of " bleak " this edition in both places reads " black."We passed the night at Unterseen. A company of singers, five in number, undertook to regale us with nationalairs. Their appearance certainly was not prepossessing; theirvoices were harsh, and their manners destitute of refinement.We encouraged their performance at first, in the hopes ofhearing some national ballads; the legend of Tell, or the wild.traditions of Lauterbrunnen itself. Their répertoire, however,contained nothing but commonplace sentimentalities, which,being destitute of skill or grace in the performance, soonwearied.Unterseen was alive in the morning with a cattle fair .The scene resembled similar gatherings in our own country ,440 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.except in the costume of the drovers. We pushed our waythrough the crowd, on the road to Interlachen, and there embarked for Brienz, which lies at the further extremity of alake of the same name, greatly resembling that of Thun, butsomewhat smaller, and surrounded with ruder scenery. TheAar flows through both. Of the five boatmen who formedour equipage, four were women. The men seek foreign military service, (which is now forbidden by law, ) or drive theflocks and herds to the mountains, leaving the women to dothe work at home. The flat-bottomed boats, which we foundon these little mountain lakes, have everywhere been banishedby steamers. The Alpine echoes are now awakened bythe panting engine and screaming whistle. Opposite to Brienz we landed to view the Giesbach, (gushing torrent, ) an extremely picturesque and beautiful object. There is no onefall as lofty as the Staubbach, but the succession of cascadesis higher; the stream pours down a greater volume of water,and is surrounded with a far more pleasing landscape. Itbounds from rock to rock, its pure silver water glitteringthrough groves of fir, and lower down oak and beech woods,and after a long winding path down the mountain side, dashesfoaming into the lake.Opposite the falls a schoolmaster of Brienz had establishedhimself in a small cottage, with five motherless children, theoldest of whom was but ten or eleven years of age.He accompanied them and himself on the harpsichord, and as thelittle ones had wonderful voices for their years, the effect wasvery pleasing. They executed for us some very pretty Ranzdes Vaches, with tasteful variations on the native airs of theOberland. After forty years he is still perched and chirpingin his Alpine nest, for it must be the same individual who isdescribed in the hand-book, " whose family and himself arecelebrated as the best choristers of native airs in Switzerland.He is now a patriarch of eighty, and most of his children aremarried, but he is training his grandchildren to the same pro-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 441fession of songsters." Let us hope that they too will notleave the poor old Alpine minstrel.Brienz is a beautifully situated village at the upper endof the lake; its inhabitants had all gone to the fair at Unterseen. Here the traveller usually takes horses to cross theBrünig mountain to Lungern, but the horses were gone to the fair with the men. We could get but one for ourselves,baggage, and guides. My companion had lamed himself, andwas entitled to ride, and I was well pleased to climb themountain on foot. The road was in some places very steep,and hardly afforded a foothold on the mountain side . TheBrünig forms the barrier between Berne and Unterwalden,and after you enter the latter Canton, every thing that deservesthe name of a road disappears in this quarter. Nothing remains but to scramble among the rocks, following the footsteps of your guide. But the youthful traveller does notreject this rough contact of mountain life, and the scene asyou descend the last hill, repays the fatigue a hundred fold .It was difficult to refrain from cries of delight as we lookeddown upon the lake and village of Lungern, quietly enfoldedby the surrounding hills clothed with woods to their summits, the dark green tint of the meadows at their feet, thepeaceful seclusion of the region, traversed by nothing that canbe called a highway, and on one side of which there was noapproach by wheel carriages; the sound of vespers chimedfrom the steeple as we drew near the village, the tinklingbells of the returning herds, and the plaintive chant of thecow-boys, and as the evening closed in, the long shadows ofthe mountains stealing over the lake. Such were the sights,the sounds, as we descended the Brünig to Lungern.It was probably on his tour to Switzerland, that SirWalter Scott conceived the idea of making Baillie Jarvie inRob Roy propose to drain Loch Lomond. The inhabitantsof Lungern had labored for years by a tunnel through theKaiserstuhl, (Emperor's chair, ) which forms a natural dam19*442 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.between the lakes of Lungern and Sarnen, to lower the former. The cost of the work, the want of engineering skill, andthe political convulsions of the times, had defeated the execution of this deplorable improvement, and I saw the sweet lakeof Lungern in all its natural beauty, as lovely an object asthere is in Europe. But keener land speculators, richer companies, more skilful engineers, have accomplished the work.In 1836 the final perforation of the Kaiserstuhl took place,and in sixteen days the water in the lake of Lungern fell tothe level of the tunnel. By this operation a broad strip ofpoor land has been gained round the margin of the lake. Insome places its steep banks, having lost the support derivedfrom the pressure of the water, have crumbled and slid intothe lake. The newly acquired soil is divided into small holdings, each with its châlet, and is said, on the hand-book, to looklike the common " property of a free-hold land society."On entering Unterwalden, one of the four primitive Cantons, you find yourself literally in the Switzerland of theSwiss. Almost all the great traditions and patriotic legendscluster about this region. We started in the morning fromLungern with a second horse, for which one of our guides hadgone round by Meyringen yesterday, while we footed theBrünig. With this reinforcement of the cavalry we enteredSachseln, an ancient Swiss village, held in reverence as thescene of the labors of Saint Nicholas von der Flüe. Theparish church dedicated to him is a somewhat stately building; its black marble pillars obtained from quarries in theneighborhood. Saint Nicholas was born in the early part ofthe fifteenth century, and, after leading an active political andmilitary life, left a large family, and retired heart-stricken withthe sins and sorrows of life, to a hermit's cell in the mountains. The fame of his austere penances, of his piety, of hissuperhuman abstinence, went abroad throughout Unterwalden.He did not live on earthly food. It was rumored that he partook no nourishment but that of the sacred elements receivedTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 443but once a month. The Bishop sent to investigate the fact,and, according to the tradition , it was substantiated. He onceaverted a civil war, by appearing with a message fromHeaven, in a Council of eight Cantons assembled at Sarnen,and thus preventing the brethren from breaking up in wrath.This exploit forms the subject of a coarse fresco, in the portico of the church. The skeleton of the saint himself, a frightful object enough, is set up in a shrine before the altar, andreadily exhibited to travellers. It is partly clad in robesrichly ornamented with jewels, the gift of devotees, withgilded rays shooting from the head, which give it a dismalresemblance to Death on the pale horse, in Mr. West's picture. A cross set with jewels occupies the place of the heartwithin the ribs. On a lay figure in a side chapel the garments actually worn by the saint are displayed; and they areborne in procession, on the great festivals of the church,throughout the year. The peasantry of the Canton considerthemselves under his especial tutelage, and the feeling towardhim seems to be more kindly than one would have anticipatedfrom his ghastly osteological presentment. They call himBrother Claus. When the harvest is abundant, and the flocksand the herds increase and multiply, and the produce of thedairy finds a ready sale, Brother Claus has the credit, and ifthe reverse of these blessings overtakes them, they are sureBrother Claus has struggled hard with the Evil One, thoughthis time without success.NUMBER FORTY- NINE.STANZ, LUCERNE, TELLSarnen, proposed drainage of the lake-The Landenberg-Schiller's Wilhelm Tell and birthday- Commotion in Unterwalden in 1818-Type of Swiss houses-Arnold von Winkelreid -Resistance to the French in 1798-Atrocities described by Alison-The attack on Stanzstade commanded by General Foy-His character- Lake of the Four Cantons -Lucerne -General Pfyffer's model of Switzerland— Thorwaldsen's lion-Küssnacht one of Gessler's strongholds-Is the history ofTell authentic?-The story of the Apple said to be found in the Danish sagas- Does this prove Tell a myth?-The hollow way.SARNEN, on the pretty lake of that name, is the seat ofgovernment of Unterwalden. We passed but a few hourshere, but long enough to find out that here also the atrociousproject of draining the lake to a lower level was in agitation.Whether, as in the case of the lake of Lungern, this projecthas been carried into execution, I have never heard. It isnatural that Americans, with whom the best land in the worldsells at a dollar and a quarter the acre, should not be able tosympathize with the Swiss, whose arable territory is so limited, in this eagerness to acquire a few more acres. But toobtain this object by draining their beautiful lakes, seems amost extraordinary blindness to what makes so much of theattraction of the country, and annually fills it with a throngof tourists, whose progress through the cantons may be tracedby the golden wake they leave behind them.There are some objects of interest in and about Sarnen.The Council-house contains the portraits of the Landammen,or local rulers of the canton, for several centuries. That ofTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 445the Cantonal Saint Nicholas von der Flüe is the best; noneof them have any merits as works of art; and the earliest ofthem cannot be coeval with the persons commemorated. TheLandenberge rises behind the Council-house. This was theresidence of one of the Austrian Bailiffs, whose oppressiverule brought on the Swiss revolt in the fourteenth century.Every trace of the castle itself has disappeared, but the traditions connected with it form a prominent portion of the history of the all-important event, which has given these littleSwiss republics their name and their praise among the nationsof the earth. I have on my table, as I write these sentences,the copy of Schiller's Wilhelm Tell in a pocket edition , whichwas my travelling companion in Switzerland, and from which,as I sat within sight of the Landenberg, I read the patheticscenes describing the cruelty of the Bailiff to Hienrich vonder Halden. A few days ago the centennial anniversary ofthis illustrious poet was celebrated in every part of the civilized world, where the noble language in which he wrote isspoken or read. Nowhere could it have been celebrated withmore grateful enthusiasm than in these secluded vales andmountain fastnesses of Switzerland, to whose natural beautyand historical interest he has added the attractive charm ofsome of the finest modern poetry.This quiet little nook, in the spring of the year in whichwe visited it, was almost the scene of a less glorious insurrection. In the anticipation of a scarcity, a peasant had, at theinstance of the Diet of Unterwalden, imported a considerablequantity of grain from Italy. Before its arrival, the marketprice of wheat had fallen below that which was agreed uponwith the peasant, and the Diet were disposed to recede fromtheir bargain. The old Unterwalden spirit of the Melchthalsand Winkelreids was at once kindled, and the yeomanrymade common cause with the importer of the grain. The indignation against the Diet became so strong, that troops werecalled in from the powerful neighboring canton of Berne, to446 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.prevent an outbreak. Peace and harmony were at length restored, mainly, as we were assured on the spot, by the intercession of Brother Claus, whose reputation as a peacemakerbegan in his lifetime, and has been sustained ever since.From the time you enter Unterwalden, you observe atype, seldom departed from, in the domestic architecture ofSwitzerland. The little Swiss cottages in our toy shopsafford a very good idea of it . The houses are of wood, of oneupright story above the basement, galleries running whollyround the house, projecting roofs, low studded, the outsides ofthe houses frequently covered with small shingles, and thewindows composed of small octangular panes of glass, set inleaden frames, a picturesque style of window, of which specimens were frequently seen in this country at the beginningof this century, and which, as far as my observation goes, hasnow wholly disappeared in America. The Swiss cottagesseem rarely to be painted; they have consequently a dark,weather-beaten, gloomy aspect, which materially detracts.from the sprightliness of the landscape. This may havechanged with the increase of wealth and the progress ofluxury of late years.From Sarnen we proceeded to Stanz, by a wretched road,passing a part of the way along the bed of a torrent. This isthe capital of the lower division of the Canton of Unterwalden,as Sarnen is of the upper. It is a village of perhaps fifteenhundred inhabitants, but had in 1818 a convent of sixty-fivenuns, a monastery of twenty-five monks, and a parish churchserved by seven priests. In front of the hotel was an uncouthstatue of Arnold von Winkelreid, one of the heroes of thegreat Swiss revolt, who, at the memorable battle of Sempach,in order to break the line of the Austrians, gathered as manyof their spears as he could clutch in his arms, and receivedtheir points in his body, thus making an opening in the hostile ranks, which enabled the patriots to break through, andgain a glorious victory . In the statue just alluded to , he isTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 447represented grasping the Austrian spears. A house is shownas that of Winkelreid, and the surrounding fields bear hisname. The traces of the military operations of 1798 were stillvisible. A monumental tablet erected at the church commemorates the massacre of three hundred and eighty-six ofthe inhabitants, who were destroyed by the French in thecampaign of that year. When all the rest of Switzerland hadsubmitted to the French, the inhabitants of these ancient centralCantons, faithful to the principles of their fathers, strove toprevent the imposition of the foreign yoke. The shepherds and farmers of Unterwalden refused to take the oath of fidelity to the new Constitution, and their brethren from Schwytzand Uri, as in days of yore, flew to their assistance. On the2d of September, eight thousand French crossed the lake ofLucerne, and landing at Stanzstade, attacked the patriots,who, fighting under every disadvantage, and in greatly inferior numbers, sustained the contest for several days. Alisonhas given a beautiful description of this disastrous struggle."Every hedge, every thicket, every cottage was obstinately contested. The dying crawled into the hottest of the fire, the women andchildren threw themselves upon the enemy's bayonets; the gray-hairedraised their feeble hands against the invaders, but what could heroismand devotion achieve against such desperate odds? Slowly butsteadily the French columns forced their way through the valley; theflames of the houses, the massacre of the inhabitants, marking theirsteps. The beautiful village of Stanz, built entirely of wood, was soonconsumed; seventy peasants, with their curate at their head, perishedin the flames of the church. Two hundred auxiliaries from Schwytz,arriving too late to prevent the massacre, rushed into the thickest ofthefight, and after slaying double their own number of the enemy, perishedto the last man. Night at length drew her veil over these scenes ofhorror, but the fires from the burning villages still threw a lurid lightover the cliffs of the Engelberg; and long after the rosy tint of eveninghad ceased to tinge the glaciers of the Titlis, the glare of the conflagra- tion illumined the summit of the mountain." *

  • Alison, Vol. IV. , p. 470.

448 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.In the foregoing account, Alison, following the AnnualRegister, represents the village of Stanz as having beenburned. This is a mistake. There was no appearance in1818 of its having been so recently destroyed and rebuilt;and Mr. Simond, a very accurate writer, expressly says thatit was saved by the humanity of some of the French officers.He states that sixty-three persons who had taken refuge inthe church were massacred with their priest, but not thatthey perished in the flames of the building. The error probably arose by confounding Stanz with its little port on thelake, called Stanzstade, which was wholly destroyed.One cannot but read with painful emotion that the Frenchtroops in the attack on Stanzstade were commanded by GeneralFoy, who not only became, under the restoration in France, oneof the most honored of her liberal statesmen, and especiallyone of the very few of her public men who possessed eminentparliamentary talent, but a citizen whose personal characterwas marked by every thing generous, benevolent, and amiable.Of all those with whom I became acquainted in Paris in thewinter 1817-'18, no one in the same political circle appearedto me to be the object of as much personal good- will as General Foy. He had not yet entered the chamber of deputies,but his rare conversational powers, united with the sterlingprobity of his character, gave him an almost unlimited socialinfluence. He died in 1825, at the age of fifty; a hundredthousand persons walked in his funeral procession, and a million of francs were raised by subscription throughout France,as a provision for his widow and children. But this was thesame person who visited upon the citizens of Unterwalden thedirest extremities of war, for striving to throw off the detestable yoke of the French Directory!The road from Stanz to Stanzstade, the little landing-placefrom the lake, is beautifully shaded with trees, nearly thewhole way. Here we took a boat to cross the lake to Lucerne, the lake of the four Cantons, or to call it by its moreTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 449expressive German name, the lake of the four sylvan Cantons(Vierwaldstädtersee. ) Mr. Fox used to say that it was themost beautiful lake in the world, and Sir James Mackintoshdescribes it with unwonted enthusiasm. Its shape is very irregular, and it consists rather of a group of four lakes joinedtogether by narrow straits, than of one regular expansivesheet. Its shores present every variety of landscape, frombroad fertile meadows, dotted with scattered farms and compact villages, to dark, precipitous rocks, which seem to towerperpendicularly from the waters. We were rowed in a smallboat from Stanzstade to Lucerne, by two girls and a man.The weather was as fine as a cloudless sky and a mild September breeze, just curling the surface of the beautiful lake,could make it.I do not know that I can add any thing to the account inthe Hand-book of the objects of interest at Lucerne. I mustconfess that in Switzerland our attention was principallyturned to the beauties and sublimities of nature. One tiresat length, in Europe, of ancient churches, (except the greatmediæval piles, which you survey with ever renewed awe andwonder, ) bridges, collections of armor, and galleries of doubtful original paintings, which would hardly be thought valuable, if they were certainly the works of the great masters whosenames they bear; but of lakes, and mountains, and glaciers,and cataracts, and precipices like those of Switzerland, no onewho has any sense for the beauties and grandeurs of nature,can ever grow weary.One of the objects which travellers go to see at Lucerne,is General Pfyffer's model in relief of the central portion ofSwitzerland. General Pfyffer belonged to the ancient aristocracy of Lucerne, but when he was ten years of age went toFrance to receive a military education there. In due time heentered one of the regiments of Swiss guards, in which hisfather was a captain, and succeeded to the command of thecompany on his father's death. Having served with distinc-450 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.tion in the several wars waged by France while he was in thearmy, he returned home to Lucerne after sixty years, to closehis life in his native city . As an employment of his leisure.he undertook to construct, from actual measurement and withgeometrical accuracy, a model of the central part of Switzerland, on a scale of thirteen and a half inches to the squareleague. Not only every mountain, lake, river, and glacier.but every cottage is indicated. The model represents a pertion of six or seven Cantons, and occupies a space of abouttwenty-two and a half feet by twelve, corresponding to somehundred and eighty square leagues of territory. The goodold general died in 1802, at the age of 86, enjoying to the lasthis pasteboard mountains. This model is still shown in thehouse where he lived and died. Thorwaldsen's magnificentmonument to the Swiss guard, who sacrificed their lives indefence of the falling monarchy, on the dreadful tenth of September, 1792, is erected in the gardens of General Pfyffer.He was himself, I believe, one of the few who escaped alivefrom the butchery of that terrible day.From Lucerne we took a small boat to Küssnacht. Thesetraverses across the lakes of Switzerland are now all made bysteamers, but far less agreeably, I should think, than formerlyin the row boats. Küssnacht is the site of one of the legendarystrongholds of Gessler. I call it " legendary," in consequenceof the doubts which, in the last century, were cast upon theauthenticity of the history of Tell. The fact that a storysomewhat similar to that of the Apple is found in two versions in the legendary history of Denmark, has been generally thought a sufficient proof that the tale as told of Tellmust be a myth. Numerous works on the subject appearedin the last century. The Curate Freudenberg of Berne published an essay in 1760, entitled William Tell a Danish Fable.The government of the Canton of Uri caused it to be burnedby the public executioner. Several answers were written tothis work, and in defence of the traditional accounts of Tell.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 451The eminent historian Johan von Müller regards the exploitsof Tell as authentic history, and, with the exception of theApple, Mr. Simond is of the same opinion. Gibbon, asmight be expected, regards them " as a fable, which has noteven the merit of originality, William Tell being but aclumsy imitation (imitation assez grossière) of a Danish hero,perhaps as fabulous as himself. ” * I have not seen the ancientDanish Sagas and legendary histories, where the duplicatestory of Tell's apple purports to be found; but it does notappear to me, that such a repetition amounts to a proof offabrication. In an age before the invention of gunpowder,and when archery flourished, it may not have been an unheardof display of skill to shoot an apple from the head of a livingperson. There is an account of a border marksman in ourWestern country who was allowed by his comrades, —suchwas their reliance on his skill, -to shoot with his rifle at smallobjects placed on their heads. Gessler may have commandedof Tell this proof of his skill, of which he had seen examples.Is it certain that the Danish legends are older than the Swiss?Tell's adventure, as the more renowned, may have been thefoundation from which the Danish traditions were derived,the old Scandinavian manuscripts being notoriously interpolated . Finally, if we give up the Apple as legendary, it willnot follow that the substantial portions of the history are unauthentic. They are supported by widely prevailing andunbroken traditions, records nearly contemporary, publicmonuments, and national institutions. In fact, they composea part of the historical treasure of the modern world, of whichit will not easily allow itself to be despoiled. There are certain grand events and results, in history, in letters, in politics,and morals, which defy the sceptic, and laugh to scorn a pretentious and half-learned criticism . They find an echo sometimes in the sound common sense, sometimes in the patrioticGibbon's Miscellaneous works. Vol. III., p. 266.452 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.sentiments, sometimes in the natural sympathies; sometimesin the religious instincts of the masses—and the plausible refinements by which they are called in question, after a briefpopularity, pass into oblivion.A small portion of Gessler's stronghold at Küssnachtremains, and a little distance from it you pass through the"hollow way," where the tyrant met his fate. As we enteredit, a youth, with a cross-bow, sprang into the road before us,and earned a few pence by showing us just how Tell shotGessler. A chapel of considerable antiquity marks the spotto which tradition points as the scene of this remarkableoccurrence.NUMBER FIFTY.GOLDAU, ALOYS REDING, GRUTLI, THE TELLENSPRUNG.The lake of Zug-The destruction of Goldau-Mr. Buckminster's description of it— Account of it by Dr. Zay of Arth, an eye-witness-Schwytz -Its early history- Events of 1798-Character and conduct of Aloys Reding-Brunnen-Passage toAltorf-Grutli-The three founders of Swiss Independence-The Tellensprung- Enthusiasm of Sir James Mackintosh-The Legends of the Apple-shooting.FROM Tell's chapel at the " hollow way," we walked onto Immensee, an inviting little spot on the Lake of Zug.Here we intended to take a boat down the lake to Arth, athriving village at its lower extremity, but clouds began togather on the opposite sides of the Righi and the Rossberg;the surface of the lake became rough and black; and wefound the boatmen and boatwomen no more disposed thanourselves to take the risk of the threatening squall, which,however, did not burst upon us. Pursuing our way by afootpath along the shores of the lake to Arth, we soon hadthe counterpart of the scene which had driven us from thewater. The wind came round to the pleasant quarter; thestormful clouds retreated sullenly from the Rossberg; abright sunshine lighted up Righi, and the little lake was soonas smooth and as bright as a mirror.Tourists who ascend Righi stop at Arth for guides; butthe uncertainty of clear weather led us to forego that laboriousexcursion. Taking a char-à-banc at Arth for Schwytz, wepursued our way over the site of Goldau. It was now justtwelve years since the shocking event that buried that and454 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.the neighboring villages in ruins. Goldau (the golden meadow)was the name of the fertile and picturesque vale between theRossberg and the Righi, through which lay the road fromArth to Schwytz, passing through a succession of four orfive prosperous villages. The account of Dr. Zay, a residentat Arth, and an eye-witness of the scene, is the source fromwhich subsequent tourists have derived their descriptions. Imust, however, except from this remark the Rev. Mr. Buckminster, who being in Switzerland about the time the disasterhappened, passed over the ruins a week afterwards, whilethose who escaped were still seeking to recover their friendsthat had been buried, some of whom were believed to be stillalive. His account must have been written before Dr. Zay'swas published."Birds of prey," says he, " attracted by the smell of dead bodies,were hovering all about the valley. The general impression made uponus by the sight of such an extent of desolation, connected too with theidea, that hundreds of wretched creatures were at that moment alive,buried under a mass of earth, and inaccessible to the cries and laborsof their friends, was too horrible to be described or understood. " *Mr. Buckminster's graphic account of this most disastrousevent concludes with the following striking remark:"I cannot but reflect upon my weakness in complaining of our longdelay at Strasburg. If we had not been detained there ten days, waiting for our passports, we should have been in Switzerland the 3d ofSeptember, probably in the vicinity of the lake of Lowertz-perhaps under the ruins of Goldau."The destruction of Goldau and the neighboring villageswas caused by a slide from the side of the overhanging mountain, the Rossberg. The summer of 1806 had been unusu-

  • Mr. Buckminster's interesting account of the destruction of Goldau is contained in a letter to his friend, Arthur M. Walter, Esq., written on the 26th Sept., 1806

from Geneva, and printed in the notes to Mr. Thachers memoir of him in the first volume of his sermons.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 455ally wet, and on the 1st and 2d of September it rainedincessantly. The deposits of clay, deep below the surface ofthe mountain, became softened and swelled, and the superincumbent mass, lying at a considerable angle to the horizon,began to move. Crevices were seen to open on the surface;a cracking noise was heard from within; stones started fromthe ground; rocks rolled down the mountain. At twoo'clock in the afternoon of the 2d September, a large rockbecame loose, and in falling raised a cloud of black dust.Toward the lower part of the mountain the ground seemed aspressed downward by the weight above. When a stick orspade was driven in, it moved of itself with the ground inwhich it was placed. A man who had been digging in hisgarden ran away with fright at these extraordinary appearances. Soon a fissure larger than all the others was observed; insensibly it increased; springs of water ceased allat once to flow; the pine trees of the forest absolutely recled;the birds flew away screaming. A few minutes before fiveo'clock, the symptoms of some mighty catastrophe becamestill stronger; the whole surface of the mountain seemed toslide down, but so slowly, as to afford time to some of theinhabitants to escape. This, however, was but very partiallythe case. Over a hundred houses were buried in the ruins orcrushed to atoms by the furious avalanche of earth and rocks,and between four and five hundred human beings perished.In one case an old man, who had often predicted some suchdisaster, was quietly smoking his pipe when told by a youngperson running by, that the mountain was in the act of falling,He rose and looked out, but came into his house again, sayinghe had time to fill another pipe. The young man, continuingto fly, was thrown down several times by the rush of thedriving fragments, but finally escaped . Looking back, hesaw the house in which the old man had loitered to fill hispipe, dashed off to destruction.A party of eleven travellers from Berne, belonging to the456 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.most distinguished families there, arrived at Arth on the fatal2d of September, and started on foot for the Righi, a fewminutes before the catastrophe. Seven of the party precededthe others and had just entered the village of Goldau. Theother four were a little behind, and were looking through atelescope at the summit of the Rossberg-four miles off in astraight line; where some strange commotion seemed to betaking place. All at once a flight of stones like cannon ballsshot through the air above their heads; a cloud of dust obscured the valley; a frightful noise was heard; they fled!As soon as the dust and darkness had cleared up so that theycould see, they sought their friends who had preceded them;but the village of Goldau had disappeared under a heap ofstones and rubbish, one hundred feet in height, and the wholevalley was a chaos! Of the four survivors one lost a brideto whom he was just married, one a son, a third two pupilsunder his care. All efforts and researches to recover theirremains proved unavailing. Nothing was left of Goldau butthe bell which hung in its steeple, and which was found at thedistance of about a mile.These, and other striking and pathetic anecdotes of thedestruction of Goldau are given by Dr. Zay, from whom theyare copied by Mr. Simond and the " Hand-book." As wetraversed the spot twelve years afterward, it was still a dismal ruin. No attempt had been made to rebuild the villages; instead of the " golden valley," the road from Arth toSchwytz now passed over a continuous ridge of barren rocksand gravel, bare or covered with a rank growth of weeds andcoarse grasses. A chapel and an inn were the only buildingswhich, in 1818, marked the spot where Goldau had been.Lalande, in the first volume of his travels in Italy, p. 47,mentions some examples of catastrophes of this kind stillmore shocking. The most remarkable of these is that whichbefell the village of Pleurs, in the Grisons, in 1618, when twothousand persons perished in the ruins. There are traces inTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 457the vale of Goldau of former slides of the Rossberg, as thestreets of Herculaneum are paved with lavas from older andotherwise forgotten eruptions.After emerging from the desolation of the ruined villages,we pursued our way through a delightful vale, that of Schwytz,the counterpart, no doubt, of what Goldau was. Schwytz, or,as it might more properly be written, Schweiz, is the verycentral point of Switzerland, which is, in their own language,called Die Schweiz. Why one of the smallest of the Cantons,with a moderate-sized village for its capital, should give itsname to the entire Helvetic Confederacy, it may not be easyto say. Popular tradition assigns as a reason for this preference, that the patriots from this Canton took the lead, anddistinguished themselves for their bravery at the great battleof Morgarten, in 1315.The picturesque mountain, called the Myten, rises directly behind Schwytz, and seems to threaten it one day with thefate of Goldau. In front you catch a fine view of the Lake ofthe four Cantons, at a distance of about three miles, betweenthe lofty summits which recede from each other, as if to openthe prospect.The citizens of Schwytz are justly proud of the placewhich it holds in the history of their country. They exhibit in the public armory the standards taken from the Austrians at Morgarten, in 1315 , with the banners borne by theirfathers at the other great battle- fields of the fourteenth andfifteenth centuries. I own I looked with respectful emotionat these tattered and dusty memorials of conflicts, which willbe remembered in history with those of Marathon and Platea,of Bunker Hill and King's Mountain.But Schwytz is not obliged to go back to the middle agesfor her patriotic recollections. The great leader of the heroicresistance made to the French in 1798, Aloys Reding, themaster spirit of the patriotic movement of that day, was acitizen of Schwytz, and died but a few months before our visit20458 THE MOUNT VERNON the Canton. This distinguished patriot, in his youthserved in the armies of Spain, and if I mistake not was at onetime with his regiment in the Island of Cuba. Retiring withhonor from the Spanish service in 1788, he was elected chiefmagistrate of his native Canton. When the French Directory sent their armies into Switzerland ten years afterwards, toforce the new constitution upon that devoted country, AloysReding organized the resistance of the democratic Cantons,and led their armies.I gained great favor with our guide, on the way toSchwytz, by questioning him about Aloys Reding. When Iasked him if it was true, that some of the women fought withtheir infants on their left arms, he exchanged a smile with hisyoung wife, who was walking by his side with a marketbasket, and said, " If she had been old enough at the time toknow what was passing, she could vouch for the fact."From Schwytz we proceeded to " the charming village "of Brunnen, a distance of about three miles. This place is theport of Schwytz, and lies upon the lake of the Four Cantons,at the mouth of the little river Muotta. You would notthink it possible that a village in this secluded spot, nestledat the foot of Alpine crags, and on the shore of the centrallake of Switzerland, walled in on almost every side by someof the highest mountains of Europe, could be a place of activebusiness. Such, however, is the fact; the cattle from theNorthern Swiss Cantons are driven down to Brunnen, thereembarked in flat-bottomed boats to cross the lake to Altorf,and being landed there, are driven up the valley of the Reuss,and by the pass of St. Gothard into Italy. In the course ofthe year immense droves take this route, and at certain seasons fill Brunnen with the noise and movement of trade.Quite a flotilla of boats was collected to convey some drovesacross the lake, which were expected the next day, en routefor a fair at Lugano. The Angelus was sounding from thesteeple of the parish church at Schwytz as we left it at sixTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 459o'clock in the morning, and the neighboring peasantry wereflocking to early mass. Brunnen, like Schwytz, is honorablyassociated with the annals of Switzerland. It was here thatthe confederation between the three pioneer Cantons (Unterwalden, Uri, and Schwytz) was formed after the battle ofMorgarten in 1315; and here that Aloys Reding establishedthe short-lived league between the same Cantons in 1798,when they rose against the armies of the Directory.We were compelled, when on the point of embarking forAltorf, to enter into much such a discussion about the weather,as that which is contained in the first act of Schiller's WilhelmTell, where Baumgarten is urging the boatmen to carry himacross the lake from the opposite shore. It is well knownthat while engaged upon this beautiful drama, Schiller explored the localities with great care; and for a short time thesplendid passage, to which I have alluded, might have beentaken for a description of that which was passing before oureyes. But, after waiting about an hour, the wind shifted, andour boatmen ventured out with their not very stanch- lookingcraft.The shores of this part of the lake are in strong contrastwith those along which we coasted from Stanzstade to Lucerne; there every thing was soft and placid; here drearyperpendicular walls, towering up from the lake, frowned overthe dark surface of the waters.We stood over the lake to the shores of Uri, and landedat Grütli or Rütli. This is the spot, where the ever memorable founders of Helvetic liberty met by night-WernerStauffacher of Schwytz, Arnold Melchthal of Unterwalden, andWalther of Attinghausen of Uri-and took the solemn oath"to be faithful to each other, but to do no wrong to the Countof Hapsburg." Sir James Mackintosh thinks "these poormountaineers in the fourteenth century furnish perhaps theonly example of insurgents, who, at the moment of revolt,bind themselves as sacredly to be just and merciful to their460 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.oppressors as faithful to each other. ” * But the obligationstrongly resembles in spirit the sentiments of the Petition ofthe Congress of 1774 to the King, in which the statement ofthe grievances, which had brought the colonies to the vergeof revolution, is accompanied by the warmest professions ofloyalty to the person and government of their Count of Habsburg, George III. Our guide, who said that he and his associates had bought the spot of the Canton, vouched for theauthenticity of the tradition of the three springs, which ismore than I can venture to do. The separation from onefountain wears every appearance of being artificial. Theguide asked if we would like to hear some poetry. I was inhopes he was going to treat us to an ancient national ballad,but it turned out to be some well-meant, but indifferent linesdenouncing the French invasion of 1798.From Grütli we crossed to the other side of the lake,which is here quite narrow, and came to Tell's Chapel, on therock upon which, according to the tradition, he leaped fromthe boat in which Gessler was conveying him to Küssnacht.There is nothing in the localities which makes the fact improbable, or very difficult. Although it is frequently remarked that the contemporary records are silent, not onlywith respect to the Apple, but the other traditions of Tell,Mr. Simond states, as a matter of history , that eighty-oneyears after the event took place (which is two years less thanthe interval which has elapsed since the Declaration of Independence), a chapel was constructed on this rock, and thatone hundred and fourteen individuals who had known Tellwere then living.The present chapel is of later date, and covered on theinterior with coarse frescoes, representing the principal eventsin Tell's life. That of his leaping on the rock has been latelyrenewed, and in a style much superior to the rest. A sermon

  • Life of Sir James Mackintosh by his Son. Vol. II. p. 307.

THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 461is annually preached from the Tellensprung ( Tell's Leap, )commemorative of the event, and the hearers assembling fromthe neighboring Cantons, gather round the rock in their boats.Sir James Mackintosh says:"The combination of what is grandest in Nature with whatever ispure and sublime in human conduct, affected me in this passage, morepowerfully than any scene I had ever seen. Perhaps neither Greece norRome would have had such power over me. *** Grütli and Tell'sChapel are as much reverenced by the Alpine peasants as Mecca by adevout Musulman."I reserve a few remarks, in addition to those made in mylast Number, on the alleged plurality of Apple- shooting legends, till we make our visit to Altorf next week, and standon the spot consecrated by Switzerland as the scene of theevent.NUMBER FIFTY-ONE.ALTORF, THE VALLEY OF THE REUSS, THE VALAIS.The Canton of Uri-The traditions of Tell-Valley of the Reuss-Wildness of the scene-The Devil's bridge -The army of Suwarrow in 1799-Andermatt-Head waters of the Ticino-Short Alpine summer-Passage of the Furca-Glacier ofthe Rhone-The Valais-the Brieg-The Simplon road-Farewell to Switzer- land.A SHORT Sail from Tell's Leap brings you to Fluelen, thelittle port of Altorf. The lake is here narrow, a sort ofarm of the lake of the Four Sylvan Cantons, pushing its wayup into the heart of Uri, the smallest and the feeblest member of the Swiss Confederacy, not supposed in 1818 to contain more than eleven or twelve thousand inhabitants.Among them, however, are said to be the finest specimensof Swiss muscle and blood, after the type of the men of thefourteenth century. The weather became fine as we pushedoff from the Tellensprung, and we made the rest of the wayunder the dark shadow of the perpendicular rocks, which insome places rise to the height of eight hundred feet on theeastern shore of the lake, while the opposite coast was kindling in sunshine. Nowhere are the contrasts of Nature sosharply defined as in the Swiss mountains.Fluelen is the counterpart of Brunnen, a little landingplace from the lake, and it is here that the Reuss finds itsoutlet. The whole character of the scene, which wore theaspect of almost oppressive seclusion, when I passed throughit, is doubtless changed by the arrival and departure two orTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 463three times a day of the steamer from Lucerne. We committed our baggage to the stout shoulders of Helvetian porters, and walked up to Altorf, a distance of two miles. Thisis a place of no great account, its population, thirteen orfourteen hundred, with visible traces of a fire which had,about twenty years before, laid it in ruins. But this isALTORF; the point of central interest in the early history ofSwitzerland; for here, according to the tradition , is the sceneof that immortal mountain epic, which is interwoven withthe fibres of her nationality. Criticism, as we have alreadyseen, is at fault, as to the true historical foundation of the legend, but it bears and will bear to the end of time the samerelation to Switzerland, that the " tale of Troy divine " boreto Hellas; and there is, to say the least, as much reason toquestion the authenticity of the one as of the other. It hasrecently been stated that this feat of shooting the apple fromthe head of a living person is not only found in the legendaryDanish history of Saxo Grammaticus, but in five or six otherNorthern legends; nay, that it is common among " the Turksand Mongolian Tartars," and that it is found, chapter andverse, among "the wild Samoyeds." But this seems to meto be proving too much. That the " wild Samoyeds, " " theHottentots of the North," as they are called by Malte Brun,can produce chapter and verse for this or any other legend ofthe middle ages, is a thing much more easily said than proved;and that the mountaineers of Uri had, either in the fourteenthor fifteenth century (when this legend certainly existed inSwitzerland) pushed their antiquarian researches into theScandinavian Sagas and the chronicles of Saxo Grammaticus,which were not published till the sixteenth century, or thelegends of the Mongolian Tartars, is equally questionable.We must, however, pay that respect to honest Saxo, whichTell would not pay Gessler's cap, and respectfully bow to themonkish chronicler, from whom Shakespeare borrowed theoutlines of HAMLET! Mythical or historical, Altorf is not the464 THE MOUNT VERNON to question the traditions of Tell. One might as welldeny the story of King John at Runnymede, or maintain thatMiles Standish is a myth at Plymouth.A fountain in the market-place of Altorf marks the spotwhere Tell stood when he shot the apple from his son's head,and it is stated that the linden against which the lad was placed,existed, in a decayed state, till the middle of the seventeenthcentury. Another fountain has been placed upon the spotwhere it grew. And now if all this humble prose shall induce the readers of the LEDGER to turn to the third scene ofthe third act of Schiller's William Tell, in the original if possible, if not in Mr. Brooks' translation, they will not regretthe time we have devoted to the topic.At Altorf we took horses to pass up the valley of theReuss. The rate of speed promised us may be judged fromthe fact that our guide accompanied us on foot. Schiller'sexquisite drama-a better guide-minutely describes the road.We turned a little out of our way to pass through Bürglen,the village where Tell lived. A chapel occupies the spoton which his house is believed to have stood. A lineal descendant, John Martin Tell, died as late as 1684, and the family became extinct, by the death of a female descendant in1720. These facts give an air of authenticity to his personalhistory, which, after all, does not go back beyond the reachof the parish Registers of every part of Europe. Oppositeto Burglen is Attinghausen, the domain of Tell's father- in-law,one of the immortal conspirators of Grutli.The valley of the Reuss is far more romantic and picturesque than that of the Arve, which is described in the fortysecond number of these papers. The chasms through whichit passes are narrower, and the precipices along which youwind, at considerable elevation, are of an alarming declivity.At times you enter a chill ravine, with a roaring torrent atthe bottom, that fills the air with a powdery spray; whilea cold wind drawing down the narrow road-way seems to re-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 465pel the intruder. In some places the path on the mountainside is shaded by noble fir trees. Where this is the case yousee at intervals the furrow of the avalanche, which hasploughed up the growth of centuries. In several places youcross bridges of a single arch, suspended aloft above the torrent. Such is the scene as far as Goschenen. Here it assumes a wilder character. You are approaching the dividingpoint of the Alpine waters; those behind you pass off to theRhine, and you are not far from the Glacier of the Rhone;one system of waters bound to the Mediterranean, the otherto the German Ocean! You soon reach the limit of fertility,and rapidly ascending, as you proceed, find yourself in achasm between two mountain walls of bare, iron-bound rock.The path lies upon the declivity on one side of the chasm .The sun had already sunk behind the summits that surroundedus; —it was bleak and gusty; our guide had stopped to gossip with some Freyschützen, at the last village, and left usto find our way alone, through these silent and desolate defiles. Our faithful animals, to whom we gave the reins, foundit for us. The only sound heard was the raving torrent andthe tramp of the horses on the rock, like that of the Commander's marble foot in Don Giovanni. At lengh we reacheda gallery of considerable length, in the perpendicular rock,and terminating at the famous Devil's Bridge. This was abridge of a single arch, thrown across the Reuss from wallto wall, at the height of sixty feet from the water. At thisill-named spot, and in the middle of the bridge, we encountered a flock of mountain sheep on their way down the valley.They were alarmed at our horses, which, in their turn, weresomewhat startled at the violent rush of the sheep, urged byreckless shepherds and fierce mountain dogs. A good dealof earnestness was manifested, I must confess, on both sides,not to be detruded over the low parapet into the torrent.We passed the bridge in safety, and immediately enteredanother gallery cut in the solid rock.20*466 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.

The traveller of the present day knows nothing but by tradition of the passage of the ancient Devil's Bridge over the Reuss. The modern structure is solid, fenced in by lofty parapets, and approached by a convenient terraced pathway on each side. It is nearer the plunging cataract of the Reuss than the old bridge, but this last is (or was, for I know not if it is still standing) so narrow, its pathway so exposed, and its whole appearance so insecure, that it really seemed unsafe to cross; particularly if you had to force your way on horseback, through a flock of wild sheep, driven forward by clamorous shepherds and their dogs. Our guide informed us that when the army of Suwarrow was pursuing the French in this gorge in 1799, finding the bridge blown up, the Russians made a temporary bridge, over which they crossed, by tying small timbers together with the silken sashes of the officers. The Hand-book says it was not the Devil's Bridge that was thus blown up, but a smaller arch over one of the lateral torrents, which is more probable. Alison, however, who rather affects the graphic, represents the Devil's Bridge as being blown up, and says that the Russians in their march, "found an impassable gulf two hundred feet deep, surmounted by precipices above a thousand feet high," and swept by a murderous fire from the enemy's artillery. * There is no more frightful chapter in the history of modern warfare than the Campaigns of 1798 and 1799 in Switzerland.

Passing through the gallery I have just mentionel, calledthe Hole of Uri (Urner Loch, ) you leave the terrors of theReuss vale behind. You now enter a smooth, green plateau;encircled, it is true, by rocky walls of great elevation , butplaced at a considerable distance, and enclosing, as it were, asecluded garden in these Alpine solitudes . The elevation isabout four thousand five hundred feet above the level of thesea; the air was shrewd and piercing; -the aspect wintry.Alison, Vol. V. p. 130.THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 467It is traversed by the Reuss and its little tributary the Matt,and lies at the foot of St. Gothard. Thousands of travellersannually pass by this defile into and from Italy, although (in1818) the road was not carriageable, and mules or litters forthe timid furnished the only conveyance. Pursuing this road,(which we did not, ) you soon meet a dividing ridge, whichsends its waters to the Ticino, and by that channel to theAdriatic. The Head Springs, accordingly, are not very remote, not merely from those of the Rhine and the Rhone, butof the Inn and other tributaries of the Danube; fountains ofthe waters which that noble river, traversing Würtemberg,Bavaria, Austria, Hungary, Temesvar, and Wallachia, poursinto the Black Sea!At " The Three Kings " of Andermatt, we found as goodfare as is to be met in hotels of much higher pretensions, andmuch nearer the level of the ocean. The mountain trout,fresh from the crystal waters of the Matt, formed the stapleof the evening repast; and a genial fire, civil attendance, andclean beds, seemed, in the opinion of the weary travellers, toentitle the quiet Alpine nook to the name which Schiller givesit, "the Vale of Joy."We started early in the morning for the Valais. It wasthe day before Michaelmas, which closes the short AlpineJune, July, August, and September, the flocks andherds pass on the mountains; at Michaelmas they come downto the meadows and vales. The paths were filled with theanimals descending to their long winter quarters; but wherethey could find pasturage in the wild region above us is amystery. The vale of Andermatt, otherwise called Urseren,is celebrated for the manufacture of the cheese which bearsthat name, and is of the quality otherwise called Zapzeiger,that is, cheese made from the milk of sheep and goats. AtAndermatt travellers who come from Altorf on horses exchange them for mules, as being surer of foot for the somewhat difficult pass of the Furca.468 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.The Furca is a ridge which forms the boundary betweenthe southern extremity of Uri and the Valais. The path issteep and difficult in portions of the way along the very precipitous side of the mountain, in which in some places holesare cut for the feet of the mules. This seems to methe mostdangerous pass I had ever crossed in the saddle, and indeedmany travellers dismount. I must confess there were manyplaces where I preferred trusting the mule's feet to my own.Our guide cautioned us not to strike our mules, when theyhalted, before setting their feet in critical places. " Theyknow what they are about," said he, " and do not like to behurried."Shortly after turning the summit we came in full view ofthe glacier of the Rhone, and at length began to pass alongits front. It is one of the grandest masses of ice in the Alps.Having seen this noble stream at Lyons and at Geneva, itwas with no little interest that we beheld its headwatersbursting from the glacier. We had already stood by thesources of the Arve and Arveiron, and could now claim someacquaintance with the magnificent river which springs fromthem. Scarcely has it become a currrent from the glacier,when a hundred torrents begin to bound from the mountains,on either side, and it soon swells to a considerable stream,foaming over rocks which obstruct its course, eddying roundprojecting cliffs, roaring and flashing onward, as if rejoicing to run its race to the ocean.A distance of six leagues separates the last builidng inUri from the first in the Valais; the last we left was a chapel,the first we met was even the same; the altar has movedfurther upward than the chalet, into the recesses of these Alpine regions.We passed through the villages of Oberwald, Obergesteln,Münster, and Viesch, all lying on the Rhone. Before entering the former, the river plunges into a deep, gloomy gorge,not inferior to those on the banks of the Reuss. At Ober-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 469gesteln, towards the beginning of the last century, eightypersons were overwhelmed at once by an avalanche, and lieburied side by side. The German language, as the names ofthe villages indicate, still prevails in the upper Valais. It isto this region, that some writers have referred the ridiculousnotion that the Goitre is deemed an ornament. We sawsome shocking specimens of it in the course of the day. M.Lalande, who had travelled in the Valais, and knew that nosuch feeling existed there, transplants it to the Tyrol. Wepassed the night comfortably at Laax.Resuming our journey in the morning, the Valais opening,and the Rhone increasing in volume as we proceeded, wepassed through several villages of which I have retained nothing but the names, and in two or three hours arrived at Brieg.This is the starting point for travellers bound for Italy, whodescend as we did from the North, and those from the South,who have occasion to pass the night at the foot of the Simplon, stop at Brieg. The great Simplon road, however, commences not at Brieg, but at a little place called Glys, a fewmiles below. At Brieg we found our carriage and courier,who had come directly from Geneva, and awaited our arrivalfrom our circuit round the central Alps.Brieg is a quiet place of less than a thousand inhabitants,lying on a little tributary of the Rhone, which here makes asudden bend. It is built of a sparkling gneiss, which gives ita bright metallic appearance. It is only, I believe, since theopening of the Simplon road, that it has acquired any notoriety. This magnificent avenue into Italy was constructedby Napoleon the First, in the early years of his accession topower. The expense was divided between France and theKingdom of Italy. The distance, by the road, from Glys toDomo d'Ossola on the Italian side, is given at fourteenFrench leagues, and the road was constructed at an expenseof twenty-five thousand dollars per mile. This seems to mea very low estimate for a road through such localities. The470 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.average inclination of the road is an inch in three feet; itswidth twenty-six feet, and the height above the sea, at thegreatest elevation about six thousand feet. It maintains itsmoderate and equable grade, by pursuing a very circuitouspath, winding round heights, which it could not possibly scalein any other way, and sometimes taking a seemingly retrograde course. It is farnished with culverts, tunnels, bridges,and houses of refuge in great numbers; the engineering is atonce audacious and solid; and when I travelled it in 1818,though the mighty genius which had called it into being hadpassed away, and the two governments immediately connectedby it (Switzerland and Sardinia) were not among the wealthypowers, it was in good repair. There are perhaps no monuments of the elder Napoleon which will carry down his nameto the grateful recollections of posterity, so effectually as themagnificent roads of Mt. Cenis and the Simplon.The reader who has done me the favor to accompany mein these rapid and simple sketches, will think I linger in Switzerland. I confess that I quit it with reluctance; it has everhad a peculiar influence for me. The unequalled magnificenceand beauty of the scenery in its range from the quietest tothe most terrific aspects of nature; the network of lakes;the inaccessible peaks; the travelling mountains of ice; thehistoric traditions and patriotic memories; the simple manners, free institutions, and peculiar political position of theselittle republics, furnish much food for contemplation andthought. The glaciers are the central fountains which,through four of her great rivers, refresh half Europe; themountain fastnesses of Switzerland have, in all ages, been thestrong hoids of Freedom, and the barrier against Universalmonarchy;-and if the Fear of God should ever flee beforethe corruption of city and plain, it will surely find a templeand an altar in the glorious Alps.NUMBER FIFTY-TWO.DANIEL BOON.The "West " suggestive of important subjects of thought-Progress of settlement in South and North America- Conditions of life on the gradually receding frontier-Sergeant Plympton's fate in 1677-Daniel Boon the great Pioneer-His life by Mr. W. H. Bogart-Account of his family, parentage, and birth-Removal to North Carolina and settlement on the Yadkin- Marries Rebecca Bryan- Missionof the Anglo- Saxon race in America- Boon with five companions starts in questof Kentucky in 1769-First sight of Captured by the Indians-Escape- Meets his brother Squire-Squire Boon's return to the settlement for supplies- Theyboth go back to North Carolina, and Daniel determines on a permanent removalto Kentucky.IT has ever seemed to me that " the West " furnishes tothe American citizen some of the highest subjects for thoughtwhich can engage his attention. They multiply and increasein importance as we reflect upon it. The earth which we inhabit was destined by the Creator to be the abode of rationalbeings; and the manner in which the family of Man has become possessed of its heritage is one of the most curious andinstructive topics of historical inquiry. As it respects whatwe call the Old World-the united continents of Europe,Asia, and Africa-the gradual steps of this process are lostin the remoteness of Antiquity. The concurrent testimonyof Scripture, Tradition, and Language point to Asia as thecradle of the race, but they throw scarce a ray of light on thedispersion of mankind to the four quarters of the globe.On this continent the case is different. It is true that ofthe original peopling of America History teaches nothing;but the disclosure of the Western Continent to the Eastern472 THE MOUNT VERNON, and the steps by which the civilized races of Europehave established themselves in the new-found hemisphere, areof comparatively recent occurrence, and within the domain ofauthentic history. Some ofthe most important steps in thegreat movement have been taken within the lifetime of mennow in existence.After the discovery of America by Columbus, the occupation of the portion claimed by Spain and Portugal commencedalmost immediately, and was permanently completed by theend of the sixteenth century. Besides the political influenceupon the European system of these vast transatlantic colonies,and the new direction given by them to the commerce of theworld, the influx of gold and silver revolutionized the monetary relations of Europe. - Meantime, the American Continent North of Mexico lay neglected . With the early yearsof the seventeenth century, the foundation of the Anglo- American colonies was laid; but barren as they were of thetropical fruits and the precious metals, their progress wasnot hastened by those keener stimulants. It advanced in theslower march of Agriculture, and under the influence of themoral sentiments, which sent the Cavaliers to Virginia, thePuritans to New England, and the Quakers to Pennsylvania.In addition to this, their progress was obstructed by theconflicting claims of France and England, combined with thegeographical features of the country-a ridge of mountainsrising in the rear of the Anglo-American settlements, and beyond them a chain of noble rivers and lakes-the mightyentrenchments-Nature's gigantic fosse and mound-whichseemed to confine the English settlements to a strip alongthe coast. By these causes, and mainly by the political relations of France and England, the advance of civilization beyond the Appalachian mountains was retarded for a century.With every rupture between the leading powers of Europethe flames of savage warfare were kindled by the FrenchTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 473along the frontier—from Canada to the farthest English settlements in the South.This frontier receded slowly to the westward, as the settlements were pushed onward; but the Connecticut Riverwas infested by parties of French and Indians as late as 1755;powerful tribes of savages existed in the State of New Yorkin the American Revolution; the first white settler enteredKentucky ninety years ago; the power of the Aborigines inOhio was not finally broken till the year 1794; nor in theStates farther West till the war of 1812. The western partof Georgia and the States of Alabama and Mississippi wereopened to civilization by the campaign of General Jackson in1818; and the warlike races on the upper Mississippi occupied that region till Black Hawk's war in 1833.In this way that conflict has taken place, in part withinour own time and beneath our own eyes, between a civilizedand a barbarous race, which took place in the west of Europein the days of Julius Cæsar. Its recurrence whenever the twoare brought into contact, is one of the saddest mysteries ofour Nature.In the progress of this conflict, commencing with the firstsettlement of the country, many most interesting and romantic occurrences, as I have observed in a former Number ofthese papers, have taken place, and many original and stronglymarked characters have been formed. The conditions of lifeon the frontier, and in the territory beyond the frontier,whether in peace (if peace ever existed on the frontier) or inthe warfare with the native tribes, are so utterly remote fromthose of civilized life, that in the older settlements we probably form a very faint idea of the new influences, under whichmen live and act who lead the advancing column into thewilderness. We everywhere find, however, that there wasa spirit of adventure, an endurance, an alertness , a fertility ofresource, a courage, in a word a heroism, on the part of menand women, equal to the circumstances in which they were474 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.placed. The fields were tilled as industriously, when thefarmer had to carry his musket along with the implements ofhusbandry, as they are now in the safe neighborhood of ourgreat cities. Men went to the log-church on the frontier,whose crannies admitted the drifting snow, though they wereobliged to go armed, as regularly as they now roll in luxurious chariots to carpeted temples in fashionable squares. Thewave of settlement swelled steadily up to the frontier, thoughthe pioneer was subject to the risk of Indian captivity, anddeath in its direst forms. From a narrative, recently reprinted by the Bradford Society at New York, of the surprise of aparty working in the fields at Hatfield, in 1677, it appearsthat one of the poor creatures captured was, for no visiblecause but that of savage caprice, burned alive in the neighborhood of Chambly. Horrors like this were perpetrated inOhio, as late, if I mistake not, as 1789.Of all the pioneers of civilization in this country, no onename stands out so prominently and distinctly as that of DanielBoon. The contemporary records of his adventures are imperfeet, and his autobiographical recollections are strangely travestied in the inflated style of Filson, to whom he narrated them.Still the tale of his wanderings has upon the whole been wellpreserved; and satisfactory accounts of his remarkable careerhave been given to the public. The most recent of these isMr. W. H. Bogart's interesting work, entitled, " Daniel Boonand the Hunters of Kentucky." He modestly calls it a compilation, and makes ample acknowledgment of the aid derivedfrom his predecessors. But the materials drawn from themare skilfully combined by Mr. Bogart with his own reflections,and the whole wrought into a volume, which when once commenced, will not willingly be laid down by the reader, till itis finished .Daniel Boon's grandfather, George, emigrated from Devonshire in 1717, with nine sons and ten daughters, and settledin Berks County, Pennsylvania. He felt, no doubt, that theTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 475almost boundless colonial territory of England was the trueplace to bring forward a family of nineteen children. Hetook up wild lands not only in the neighborhood of his settlement in Pennsylvania, but in Maryland and Virginia. Oneof his sons bore the absurd but common name of Squire, andhis son, Daniel, the pioneer, the fourth of a large family, wasborn in Bristol, on the Delaware, about twenty miles fromPhiladelphia, on the 11th of February, 1735. Three yearsafterwards his father removed to Reading ( Pa. , ) then a frontier settlement, and there Daniel grew up amidst the scenesof border life and the traditions of Indian warfare. Whetherthe family were of the Episcopal church or the Society ofFriends, has been so skilfully contested, that Mr. Bogart pronounces it " most difficult to decide " the question. Daniel,at any rate, belonged to the austere communion of those wholove to worship in the solemn aisles of cathedral woods andat the trickling fountains of mighty streams. In boyhood heleft his father's home, and built him a hunting cabin in theforest.One would have thought that there was room enough inPennsylvania, at that time, even for families whose sons anddaughters were counted by the score. But it was the " Mission " ofthe age to push onward to the West. Sydney Smithsays that it is the calling of the Anglo-Saxon race to spin andweave cotton. It may be so in the crowded lanes of Manchester and Birmingham. On this side of the ocean, its vocation is to subdue the wilderness and found States; to drawout the living threads of civilization across the boundlessprairie, and in the mystic words of Goethe, to weave the fortunes of Empires yet to be, in the sounding loom of the Ages.Squire Boon, the father of Daniel, emigrated in 1753 tothe mountain region of North Carolina. This was the memorable year in which George Washington, by three years thesenior of Daniel Boon, made his commencement of active publiclife, in the arduous journey to the French fort of Venango.476 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.The Boons settled on the Yadkin, in the immediate neighborhood of one of the most powerful tribes of Indians, theCherokees, on the borders of the primeval forest. HereDaniel married Rebecca Bryan. The legend tells that, mistaking her bright eyes for those of a deer, he had nearly shot herin the thicket. Historical accuracy repudiates the romance;there were no shots exchanged between them but those whichdarted from Rebecca's eyes, and which healed their ownwounds. The first place of settlement on the Yadkin did notsatisfy the instinct which was driving Daniel westward, andhe moved with his bride further up the valley.Here, to all appearance, Boon passed about sixteen yearsin the rough, healthful, and somewhat perilous life of thefrontier. Nine of them were years of war, for two years ofconflict on the American frontier were added to the Sevenyears war of Europe. Of this part of his life little seems tobe known, but passed as it was in the immediate neighborhood of the Cherokees, it must have been, especially duringthe war, a period of exposure as well as hardship. But bothwere wanted as a preparation for the great career of his life .John Findlay or Finley-first of civilized men-had, asearly as 1764, with a small party, penetrated through theNortheastern portion of Tennessee to the banks of the Kentucky river, and brought back glowing accounts of the beautyof the country and the abundance of the game. This toucheda sympathetic chord in Boon's bosom, and with five companions, of whom Finley was one, on the 1st May, 1769, “ I resigned," says Boon, in the language of Filson, " my domestichappiness for a time, and left my family and peaceable habitation on the Yadkin river, in North Carolina, to wander throughthe wilderness of America, in quest of the country of Kentucky." Daniel Boon started in quest of the country ofKentucky, in the year in which Humboldt, Napoleon, and Wellington were born. Humboldt died last year, and Kentucky,with a population of 1,200,000, is now sending ten mem-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 477bers to the Congress of United States, and boasts her statesmen, orators, and jurists amongthe brightestnames ofAmerica!There are no more delightful pages of modern history,than those in which Mr. Bancroft has described this first expedition of Daniel Boon and his companions. On May- daymorning, 1769, they started, these six bold men, —and one ofthem a hero, to find Kentucky. They had not far to seek;it lay before them, but the Cumberland mountain rose between; and it was not till the 7th of June that they reachedthe summit of an eminence on the Red River, and lookeddown " with pleasure on the beautiful level of Kentucky."John Finley knew the spot; he had traded there with theIndians, years before. Here they encamped and " made ashelter to defend them from the elements. " From this theyreconnoitred the country and followed the chase. "Everywhere," (says Boon, though unfortunately it is John Filsonwho holds the pen, ) " we found abundance of wild beasts ofall sorts, through this vast forest. The buffaloes were morefrequent than I have seen cattle in the settlements, browsingon the leaves of the cane or cropping the herbage on thoseextensive plains, fearless, because ignorant, of the violence ofSometimes we saw hundreds in a drove, and the numbers about the Salt Springs was amazing."man.And so they roved and hunted through a long Kentucky summer and autumn, till the 22d of December, aneventful day, in all coming time, for the descendants ofthe Pilgrim Fathers, and in that particular year for DanielBoon and his companions. On the 22d of December, 1769,"John Stewart and I had a pleasing ramble, but fortunechanged the scene, in the close of it. " Here John Filsonsews on a patch of rather unseasonable rhetoric upon thehomely frieze of Boon's narrative. He will have it that theypassed through a great forest, in which stood myriads of 66

  • Bancroft's United States. Vol. VI. , p. 298.

478 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.trees, some gay with blossoms, [ 22d December, ] others richwith fruits. Nature was here a series of wonders and a fundof delights. Here she displayed her ingenuity and ' industryin a variety of flowers and fruits beautifully colored, elegantlyshaped, and charmingly flavored, [oh! John, you know theyfound nothing richer than a frost- bitten persimmon, ] and wewere diverted with innumerable animals presenting themselves perpetually to our view." And now for the catastrophe so artistically preluded: " In the decline of the day, nearKentucky River, as we ascended the brow of a small hill, anumber of Indians rushed out of a thick canebrake upon usand made us prisoners. The time of our sorrow was nowarrived, and the scene fully opened. The Indians plunderedus ofwhat we had, and kept us in confinement seven days, treating us with common savage usage."Boon and his companions with infinite tact and discretion,resigned themselves in appearance to their fate, and made noattempt to escape. Their captors were thrown off their guardby their seeming indifference. At length, in the night, andwhile the Indians slept, they slipped the cords which boundthem; regained their muskets, and crept undiscovered away.They returned to their old encampment; it was broken up,and their four companions gone; -never to be heard of more on earth. Thus left alone in the wilderness, hundreds ofmiles from kindred and friends, their hearts were soon gladdened by the arrival of Squire Boon, Daniel's brother, and anameless companion, who had come to join company withthe pioneers. They replaced for a while the missing four;but " John Stewart was soon killed by the savages," and theman who came with Squire Boon went home to the pleasantbanks of the Yadkin. Daniel and his brother were left alone,"not a white man in Kentucky but themselves. " Thus situated," says Boon, " many hundred miles from our families,in the howling wilderness, I believe few would have equallyenjoyed the happiness we experienced. I often observed toTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 479my brother, you see how little Nature requires to be satisfied! "The season wore on; " they hunted every day, and prepared a little cottage to defend them from the wintry storms. "They remained undisturbed till the Spring; and then, whenthe buds of the hickory swelled to the size of a mouse's ear;when the blue grass carpeted the native lawns; when thecane shot up like mammoth asparagus; and the brooks letloose from their icy chains, and swelled by April showers,began to prattle through the meadows; and the floweringdog- wood whitened the thickets; and the chattering magpie,the robin, and the red-bird, filled them with life and music,Daniel's brother returned to North Carolina for supplies, andthe Pioneer remained alone in Kentucky, " without bread,salt, or sugar, without company of my fellow-creatures, without even a horse or a dog: "—all alone, but in the best ofcompany-a good conscience, a bold heart, and the Blessingof Heaven.In three months brother Squire returned with supplies;they hunted together another Autumn and another Winter,and in the Spring of 1771 went back to their families on theYadkin, determined, as soon as possible, to leave the oldersettlements, and make a final remove to Kentucky “ which, ”says Boon, " I esteemed a second paradise. "And here, though at the threshold of his adventures, hisperils, his toils, and his achievements, we must part from thenoble Pioneer. The tale of his subsequent migrations;-ofhis establishment, rather say his encampment in Kentucky;-his block-house warfare; -his captivity among the savages;-his escape; the fierce Indian wars;-the growth of thesettlements, and the crowding of the population;-the trialsand troubles of advancing age;-his removal to Missouri;-and the closing scene; -these all related with accuracy andspirit from authentic resources, may be found in the volumeof Mr. Bogart.NUMBER FIFTY-THREE,AND THE LAST OF THE SERIES .THE NEW YORK LEDGER.Description of the Ledger establishment-Common printing-The power press-TheElectrotype process-Press work-Distribution of the paper-Eighty thousand by mail- Ross & Tousey's news agency-" Ledger day " described-Immense amount of Printing annually done in the " Ledger " office -Convention for international copyright-Mode in which the establishment has been built up and general character and objects- The " Unknown Public "-Conclusion of the Mount Vernon Papers.HAVING Occasion lately to pass a few days in New York, Iavailed myself of the polite invitation of the Proprietor andEditor of "the Ledger " to visit his establishment. As I hadkept close company with " the Ledger " for the last twelve.months, during which, with a party of about a million ofreaders, we have, besides shorter excursions in the neigborhood, performed together three hundred and sixty-five journeysof twenty-four thousand miles each, and, at the same time, oneof five hundred millions of miles in circuit, I felt a naturalcuriosity to examine a little more particularly the extent andorganization of the concern.Most of my readers, I suppose, have some knowledge ofthe art of printing as commonly practised. They understand.that the letters of the alphabet, at the end of small pieces ofmetal called types, are arranged for use in little square boxes,on a slanting desk, and that a workman called a " Composi-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 481tor," having before him the writing which is to be printed ,picks up these types, letter by letter, and places them in aframe, called a composing-stick, till he has got a line. Asecond line is formed the same way, and so on till he has setup enough for a page of a book, or a column of a newspaper.When pages enough to form a sheet, or columns enough toform two sides of a newspaper, have been thus set up, andsecured in their places by an iron frame, they are put on abroad stone, and are ready to pass through the press to beprinted on paper, moistened and applied to the face of thetypes for that purpose. Some attempts have been made toset up types by machinery, contrived like the keys of a pianoforte, but nothing of this kind, as far as I am aware, has beenintroduced into newspaper offices . As far as we have nowgone, and in this part of the work, there is nothing particularin the " Ledger " printing office. As one paper only a week isprinted, the force employed in this department is, of course,less than in offices where a paper is to be published everyday. It may be remarked, however, that in addition to thepersons employed in setting up the types, a considerable number find constant occupation in designing and engraving theillustrations; an entirely separate branch of the art, for whichin the daily journals there is no occasion.Thus far, then, every thing is done by hand. At this stageof the work a piece of machinery contrived about thirty yearsago, and a chemical process of still more recent invention areintroduced to accelerate the printing of papers of extensivecirculation. The machinery to which I allude, is the powerpress; the chemical operation is the process of electrotyping.Till about thirty years ago, printing presses were wroughtexclusively by hand, and the operation was one requiring greatendurance and strength, on the part of an able-bodied man.Presses of this kind have been superseded, except in small establishments, by presses moved by steam, heated air, or waterpower. These presses are of various construction and efficien21482 THE MOUNT VERNON; the most celebrated being those of our countryman Hoeat New York, of which also there are different kinds; somecalled the "lightning presses," used in the offices of the greatdaily journals, where the utmost speed is necessary, andothers of which the execution is less rapid, and which for thatreason admit of greater precision and finish in the work. The"Ledger " is printed on presses of this description, of whichten are kept constantly at work twenty-three hours out of thetwenty-four, in printing each number of the " Ledger." Inother words, so large is the number of the weekly issue, thatit becomes necessary to print at the same time five editionsof the paper.And how are these five editions got ready for the press?Are the types set up that number of times? Such wouldhave been the case some years ago, if papers of such vast circulation had existed, but by the process of electrotyping thislabor is saved. This is a process, by which an exact copy ofthe page of types can be taken in copper, that being the metalused by printers; though silver and gold are electrotyped inthe fine arts, for expensive works of taste and luxury. Inelectrotyping for the printing office, an impression in wax istaken of the page of types, which is to be multiplied . Thiswaxen plate is immersed for twelve hours in a solution of copper in a galvanic trough. At the end of this time, the face of thewaxen page is covered with a thin coating of copper. Thewax is then removed by hot water, and melted type metalpoured upon the copper net work. The back of the typemetal is then smoothed off, and the electrotype plate is readyfor use. This operation is repeated as many times as is required to furnish plates for all the presses; and as manypersons are employed in electrotyping as in setting the types.From this statement the reader perceives, that every page of"the Ledger," to which he looks for his weekly comfort anddelight, has, between the pen of the writer and the eye of thereader, passed through four states, and existed in four differentTHE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 483forms and substances, viz.: the first setting in type, the waxenimpression, the electrotyped copper and the printed paper.How much science, art, and mechanical dexterity are developed in these several operations!Now, gentle reader, if you will take your Ledger, beforeit is cut, and unfold it, you will find that it is printed on onelarge sheet, and that pages 1 , 4, 5 , and 8 are on one side ofthe sheet, and pages 2, 3, 6, and 7 on the other. This youwill think an odd arrangement; but when the sheet is foldedyou see it comes right, and the pages follow in proper order.These eight pages are made up for the Press in two " forms,"of four pages each, which are separately printed , so that eachsheet has to pass through the press twice. Great care is required in printing the second side of the paper, to lay thesheet in the right place, so that the two sides of the papershall exactly match. In the "lightning presses, " in conscquence of the rapidity with which they are worked, this point,which is of great importance, if the papers are to be boundin a volume, is apt to be neglected. But I never saw " badregister," as this defect is called, in a sheet of the " Ledger. "When the electrotype plates are ready, those of pages 1 , 4, 5,and 8 are placed together (" locked up ") in one forin, andpages 2, 3, 6, and 7 in another, and they are now ready to beput to press.It would be in vain to attempt to describe a power press.In order to understand its construction and operation, youmust go and see it. According to their construction , theythrow off from 500 to 20,000 sheets in one hour. Mr. Bonnerhas eight power presses constantly at work, and about fortyfive persons are employed in his press-room, whose aggregatewages are four hundred dollars per week. Besides this, hepays about two hundred dollars per week for printing, whichhe is unable to do on his own presses. A good deal of thisoutside work is in printing back numbers of the Ledger; '484 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.for it is perhaps peculiar to this journal that there is a largeand steady demand for back numbers.When both sides of the paper have passed through thepress, that Number of the " Ledger " is printed. To bringabout this result, it has required from eight to nine hundredreams of paper every week, at a cost probably of six and ahalf dollars per ream, for you observe "the Ledger " isprinted on very handsome paper. If six and a half dollars aream be assumed as the average cost of the paper, the amountfor eight hundred and fifty reams per week will not fall muchshort of three hundred thousand dollars per annum.The journal thus printed, to the number of about FourHundred Thousand copies, is to be distributed about theUnion. How is this effected? The main supply of thecountry is through the medium of news-agents, and largedealers, in all the principal cities, towns, and considerablevillages of the United States. These receive the paper fromNew York in large packages, as will presently be stated, andfurnish it in detail to their customers. But beyond the reachof the news-agents, there are a multitude of persons, readersof the " Ledger," scattered over the country; who, not havingany wholesale dealer in their neighbourhood, address themselves by letter to the proprietor in New York, and receivetheir papers by mail. About twenty-five clerks and foldersare employed in the office in Ann Street in folding and mailing papers for this class of subscribers, to the number ofEighty thousand!But the principal distribution of the paper takes place atthe news agency of Messrs. Ross & Tousey in Nassau Street,who purchase weekly of the Proprietor above Three HundredThousand of the paper, which they furnish to all parts of thecountry in large parcels, by Express and Mail, to the wholesaledealers in the city of New York, and in every part of theUnion, and to the news-venders for the retail circulation of thecity and neighborhood. Messrs. Ross & Tousey deal exten-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 485sively in Periodicals and weekly journals. They distributefrom their office eight hundred thousand papers weekly, the"Ledger " forming nearly one-half of their business, which within four or five years has risen from one hundred and twentyfive thousand dollars to one million dollars' worth annually,principally of periodicals and literary Papers.scene.Their office and the streets on which it stands, Nassaustreet in the front and Theatre alley in the rear, exhibit on"Ledger-day, " -Monday of each week, -a most extraordinaryEvery square foot of open space in the office has beenfilled up with piles of the " Ledger,"-fifty copies in a pile.Large bundles, some of them containing a couple of hundred,have been put up in wrapping paper, addressed to wholesaledealers, and to be despatched by Mail and Express all overthe country. These are placed for momentary deposit, in abasement room in the rear of Messrs. Ross & Tousey'spremises. The rest of the mighty edition, laid in piles, fillsthe counters and shelves in the central and front portions ofthe office, the counting-room, and the basement, wherever thereis room for a pile of the paper.Twelve o'clock on Monday is the appointed hour. As itapproaches, carts and drays assemble in Nassau street andTheatre alley to receive the larger parcels; the front of theoffice is filled with clamorous newsboys, crowding the spacearound the counter three deep, eager to get their supply forthe streets, the Railway Stations, and the Steamers, while thedraymen and porters, in quest of the larger parcels, gatherin the rear. The entire force of Messrs. Ross & Tousey isput in requisition to wait upon the newsboys. In the rearthe clerks, porters, and draymen are allowed to come in andhelp themselves. At the last stroke of twelve upon the clock,the rush begins and the scene is, for a short time, one of greatactivity and bustle. These hundreds of thousands of Ledgers are seen moving off on the shoulders of porters, and in thehands of newsboys, in drays and carts, in every direction;486 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.but twenty minutes is enough for the work, and by that timethe throng is dispersed, and the ubiquitous journal is on itsway to the remotest corners of the land.This strange scene is not confined to the premises ofMessrs. Ross & Tousey. The persons mentioned as assembling in the rear of their warehouse are the clerks and salesmenof other wholesale news-agents who come to get a supply fortheir customers; often a very large one. The House ofDexter & Company take thirty- three thousand, and that ofHendrickson & Co., nineteen thousand. The larger part ofthis supply is for country custom, the residue for the city .There are seven or eight of these large dealers in the city ofNew York, and in their offices on " Ledger-day," the samecrowd of newsboys takes place, a half an hour later, as thatwhich we have just witnessed in the front part of Messrs.Ross & Tousey's establishment.Perhaps, reader, you were not before aware of the extentof the system to which you are indebted for the punctual andnearly simultaneous supply of the " Ledger " throughout thecountry, and to which you owe so much of your weekly amusement and instruction. You have not probably reflected, thathundreds, perhaps it would not be an exaggeration to saythousands, of persons are directly or indirectly employedand supported, in order to bring you the welcome sheet, atthe appointed hour, to your door. There are, on the lowestcalculation, above three thousand shops, depôts, and newsstands, in the United States for the sale of newspapers andperiodicals. As each copy of " the Ledger " for one yearforms a folio volume of four hundred and sixteen pages, thequantity of printing annually executed on Mr. Bonner'spresses, (without taking the reprint of back numbers into theaccount, ) is of course four hundred thousand folio volumes ofthat thickness; being about four times, I suppose, the numberof the volumes in that noble library, which forms such an imperishable monument to the name of ASTOR. If, as is prob-THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 487ably the case, not more than a fourth part of the volumes inthat magnificent collection are folios, and the other threefourths volumes of a smaller size, -quartos, octavos, andduodecimos, then the quantity of printing done in the"Ledger," office in the course of a single year, being equivalent to sixteen hundred thousand octavo volumes, will exceedten or twelve times the amount of printing contained in thebooks of the Astor Library. As very many of the papersare taken by reading clubs, consisting of several persons, andthe " Ledger," is eminently a paper for Family use, it doesnot seem extravagant to assume, that each paper is on anaverage habitually read by four individuals; and consequently, that the whole issue is read by twelve or fifteenhundred thousand persons!When a convention for international copyright betweenthis country and Great Britain was negotiated a few yearsago, while I was in the Department of State, a great alarm.was raised against it , as if it was going almost to put an endto the printing business in the United States. Petitionsagainst its confirmation poured into the Senate, signed notmerely by publishers engaged in reprinting English works,but by type-founders, paper makers, and every other classof persons however remotely connected with the art of printing. Now not to mention that the Convention did not applyto the great mass of Standard English literature, but only toa few modern copyrighted works, I satisfied myself that anyone of the great New York Dailies, and as we have seenthe same is true of the New York " Ledger, " -gives a greateramount of employment to all the trades and handicrafts connected with printing, (withthe exception of book-binding, ) thanis given by the entire reprint of English copy-righted publications; for no one, I presume, would think of rating it as highas sixteen hundred thousand octavo volumes annually.But to return to the New York " Ledger, " this vast con-488 THE MOUNT VERNON has been built up, within a very few years, by the untiring industry, tact, energy, and good sense of one self- mademan, entering upon the business with no advantages of education but those of a common school, without capital, withoutpowerful friends, and without resorting to the ordinarymeans of gaining public favor and securing lucrative patronage.The " Ledger," has not been the mouth-piece of any party,religious, political, or sectional; it has not been a news-paper,nor a commercial paper; it has not inserted advertisements,nor reported Buncombe speeches; it has retained no “ correspondent," in other cities to transmit to New York libels,that would be rejected with scorn by all decent journals inthe places where they are written; and has admitted no policereports, personal scandal, or pungent criticisms, as they arecalled, on the literature of the day. It has simply aimed tobe an entertaining and instructive Family newspaper, designed,in the first instance, to meet the wants of what is called, in avery sensible and striking paper in Dickens' HouseholdWords, for the 21st of August, 1858, the " Unknown Public."The New York " Ledger," is the first attempt in this country,on a large scale, to address that public; and the brilliant success, which has attended it thus far, is a strong confirmationof the truth of the closing observation in the remarkablearticle alluded to, that the time is coming when " the readers,who rank by millions, will be the readers who give the widestreputations, who return the richest rewards, and who willtherefore command the services of the best writers of thetime." The author of the article in question, probably Mr.Dickens himself, adds, " to the penny journals of the presenttimes belongs the credit of having discovered a new Public. ' ”To that credit in this country, the Editor and Proprietor ofthe New York " Ledger " is richly entitled. Not only so ,but he has taken a step-and that a very important one-beyond the papers published for the " Unknown Public ” in1THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS. 489England. Without at all neglecting the claims of the massesof the community, he is steadily adapting the " Ledger " tothe tastes of a more critical and fastidious class of readers.It may be mentioned as the most extraordinary, the mostcreditable, and as an example to others, the most salutaryfeature of Mr. Bonner's course, that in the entire progress ofthis great enterprize and in its present management, he hasnever signed nor endorsed a note of hand, nor borrowed adollar; and that in every part of his immense establishmentSUNDAY IS A DAY OF REST. I think it due to him, in closingthis account of his operations, to say, that it has not beendrawn up by me at his request or suggestion; and that hisfirst knowledge that I had any thought of preparing it wasderived from my letter of inquiry, asking information as tosome facts known only to himself.In bringing the series of the " Mount Vernon Papers" toa close, as I do with the present Number, I beg leave to returnmy thanks to the readers of the " Ledger," for the favor withwhich they have been received. I cannot deny that I enteredinto the engagement to write them, with great misgivings. Irecoiled from the task of furnishing a weekly paper (to beread by a million of my countrymen) , amidst incessant interruptions of every kind, under the pressure of other onerousduties, of a heavy correspondence, of public engagementsrequiring frequent journeys, a part of the time with indifferenthealth, and in other circumstances, which wholly unfit themind for cheerful exertion. But I could not resist the temptation to add the great sum of Ten Thousand Dollars, so liberally offered by Mr. Bonner, to the Mount Vernon Fund;and the favor of the multitudinous readers of the " Ledger,"21*490 THE MOUNT VERNON PAPERS.of which I have received the most gratifying assurances fromall parts of the country, has long since relieved my anxiety,and turned the task into a relaxation and a pleasure. Thoughnot sorry to be released from the responsibility of a weeklycontribution, I cannot say that I terminate the series of the"Mount Vernon Papers " without regret, and I shall gladlyavail myself of the opportunity, which Mr. Bonner's invitation affords me, of occasionally renewing my communications.with the readers of the " Ledger. "EXITUS ACTA PROBAT.APPENDIX TO PAGE 10.IN pursuance of the suggestion at the close of the first Numberof the foregoing series, many contributions to the fund for thepurchase of Mount Vernon were remitted to the subscriber, to theamount in the whole of THREE THOUSAND NINE HUNDRED AND ONEDOLLARS. Of this amount, five hundred and twenty-five dollarswere in sums of one dollar, and less; the residue in larger amounts,among which was the generous donation of five hundred dollars,from Messrs. Pettengill & Co., of New York. The first subscriptionreceived was one of ten dollars, from Mr. N. D. Sawin, of Cambridge (Mass.) , which was sent in a few moments after the NEWYORK LEDGER, containing the first Number of the Mount VernonPapers, was published in Boston. Very liberal donations werereceived from several Military Companies, Masonic and Odd Fellows' Lodges, Engine and Hook and Ladder Companies, and Schools.To each person, whose name was transmitted as a contributor, areceipt, handsomely engraved, and signed by the President andTreasurer of the Auxiliary Mount Vernon Fund, was returned.Acomplete list of all the donations of one dollar and upward, withthe names of each contributor, is in preparation, to be furnishedfor publication in the Mount Vernon Record; every person contributing to the fund not less than a dollar, being constitutionallya member of the " Ladies' Mount Vernon Association for theUnion. "The subscriber will still be happy to receive contributions to theMount Vernon Fund. Although the amount necessary to effectthe purchase of the estate has been raised , a large sum is stillneeded for repairs, and for the restoration of the house and grounds,as far as practicable, to their condition in 1800, as well as to forma fund for their future preservation and care.EDWARD EVERETT.BOSTON, May, 1860.


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